House of Bourbon

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House of Bourbon
Grand Royal Coat of Arms of France.svg
Parent house Capetian dynasty
Country France, Italy, Luxembourg, Navarre, Spain
Founded1272
Founder Robert, Count of Clermont, the sixth son of King Louis IX of France, married Beatrix of Bourbon
Final rulerFrance and Navarre: Charles X (1824–1830)
Of the French: Louis Philippe I (1830–1848)
Parma: Roberto I (1854–1859)
Two Sicilies: Francis II (1859–1861)
Titles
Estate(s)France, Navarre, Spain, Two Sicilies, Luxembourg, Parma
DepositionFrance and Navarre, 1830: July Revolution
France, 1848: February Revolution
Parma, 1859: Annexation by Kingdom of Sardinia
Two Sicilies, 1861: Italian unification
Cadet branches Bourbons of Spain

House of Orléans

House of Condé (extinct)

The House of Bourbon (English: /ˈbʊərbən/ , also UK: /ˈbɔːrbɒn/ ; French:  [buʁbɔ̃] ; Spanish: Borbón) is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. Bourbon kings first ruled France and Navarre in the 16th century. By the 18th century, members of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty held thrones in Spain, Naples, Sicily, and Parma. Spain and Luxembourg currently have monarchs of the House of Bourbon.

British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom. Variations exist in formal, written English in the United Kingdom. For example, the adjective wee is almost exclusively used in parts of Scotland and Ireland, and occasionally Yorkshire, whereas little is predominant elsewhere. Nevertheless, there is a meaningful degree of uniformity in written English within the United Kingdom, and this could be described by the term British English. The forms of spoken English, however, vary considerably more than in most other areas of the world where English is spoken, so a uniform concept of British English is more difficult to apply to the spoken language. According to Tom McArthur in the Oxford Guide to World English, British English shares "all the ambiguities and tensions in the word 'British' and as a result can be used and interpreted in two ways, more broadly or more narrowly, within a range of blurring and ambiguity".

Dynasty sequence of rulers considered members of the same family

A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "house", "family" and "clan", among others. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC.

The Capetian dynasty, also known as the House of France, is a dynasty of Frankish origin, founded by Hugh Capet. It is among the largest and oldest royal houses in Europe and the world, and consists of Hugh Capet's male-line descendants. The senior line ruled in France as the House of Capet from the election of Hugh Capet in 987 until the death of Charles IV in 1328. That line was succeeded by cadet branches, the Houses of Valois and then Bourbon, which ruled until the French Revolution.

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The royal Bourbons originated in 1272, when the youngest son of King Louis IX married the heiress of the lordship of Bourbon. [1] The house continued for three centuries as a cadet branch, serving as nobles under the Direct Capetian and Valois kings.

Louis IX of France 13th-century King of France

Louis IX, commonly known as Saint Louis, was King of France, the ninth from the House of Capet, and is a canonized Catholic and Anglican saint. Louis was crowned in Reims at the age of 12, following the death of his father Louis VIII; his mother, Blanche of Castile, ruled the kingdom as regent until he reached maturity. During Louis' childhood, Blanche dealt with the opposition of rebellious vassals and put an end to the Albigensian Crusade which had started 20 years earlier.

The Sire de Bourbon or Seigneur de Bourbon, meaning Lord of Bourbon, was the title by which the rulers of the Bourbonnais were known, from 913 to 1327, and from which the cognomen of the illustrious royal House of the same name derives. Louis I, count of Clermont, the ultimate holder, was created the first "Duke of Bourbon" and made "count of La Marche" by his cousin, King Charles IV of France, in exchange for Clermont-en-Beauvaisis, thus absorbing the title.

In history and heraldry, a cadet branch consists of the male-line descendants of a monarch or patriarch's younger sons (cadets). In the ruling dynasties and noble families of much of Europe and Asia, the family's major assets—realm, titles, fiefs, property and income—have historically been passed from a father to his firstborn son in what is known as primogeniture; younger sons—cadets—inherited less wealth and authority to pass to future generations of descendants.

The senior line of the House of Bourbon became extinct in the male line in 1527 with the death of Charles III, Duke of Bourbon. This made the junior Bourbon-Vendome branch the genealogically senior branch of the House of Bourbon. In 1589, at the death of Henry III of France, the House of Valois became extinct in the male line. Under the Salic law, the Head of the House of Bourbon, as the senior representative of the senior-surviving branch of the Capetian dynasty, became King of France as Henry IV. [1] Bourbon monarchs then united to France the small kingdom of Navarre, which Henry's father had acquired by marriage in 1555, ruling both until the 1792 overthrow of the monarchy during the French Revolution. Restored briefly in 1814 and definitively in 1815 after the fall of the First French Empire, the senior line of the Bourbons was finally overthrown in the July Revolution of 1830. A cadet Bourbon branch, the House of Orléans, then ruled for 18 years (1830–1848), until it too was overthrown.

Charles III, Duke of Bourbon 16th-century French general and nobleman

Charles III, Duke of Bourbon was a French military leader, the Count of Montpensier, Clermont and Auvergne, and Dauphin of Auvergne from 1501 to 1523, then Duke of Bourbon and Auvergne, Count of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis, Forez and La Marche, and Lord of Beaujeu from 1505 to 1521. He was also the Constable of France from 1515 to 1521. Also known as the Constable of Bourbon, he was the last of the great feudal lords to oppose the King of France himself. He commanded the Imperial troops of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in what became known as the Sack of Rome in 1527, where he was killed.

Henry III of France King of Poland and France

Henry III was King of France from 1574 until his death and also King of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1573 to 1575. Henry was the thirteenth king from the House of Valois, the sixth from the Valois-Orléans branch, the fifth from the Valois-Orléans-Angoulême branch, and the last male of his dynasty.

House of Valois cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty

The House of Valois was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty. They succeeded the House of Capet to the French throne, and were the royal house of France from 1328 to 1589. Junior members of the family founded cadet branches in Orléans, Anjou, Burgundy, and Alençon.

The Princes de Condé were a cadet branch of the Bourbons descended from an uncle of Henry IV, and the Princes de Conti were a cadet line of the Condé branch. Both houses were prominent French noble families well known for their participation in French affairs, even during exile in the French Revolution, until their respective extinctions in 1830 and 1814.

The Most Serene House of Condé was a French princely house and a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon. The name of the house was derived from the title of Prince of Condé that was originally assumed around 1557 by the French Protestant leader, Louis de Bourbon (1530–1569), uncle of King Henry IV of France, and borne by his male-line descendants.

Princes of Conti Wikimedia list article

The title of Prince of Conti was a French noble title, assumed by a cadet branch of the princely house of Bourbon-Condé.

French Revolution Revolution in France, 1789 to 1798

The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history.

In 1700, at the death of Charles II of Spain, the Spanish Habsburgs became extinct in the male line. Under the will of the childless Charles II, the second grandson of Louis XIV of France was named as his successor, to preclude the union of the thrones of France and Spain. The prince, then Duke of Anjou, became Philip V of Spain. [1] Permanent separation of the French and Spanish thrones was secured when France and Spain ratified Philip's renunciation, for himself and his descendants, of the French throne in the Treaty of Utrecht in 1714, and similar arrangements later kept the Spanish throne separate from those of the Two Sicilies and Parma. The Spanish House of Bourbon (rendered in Spanish as Borbón [boɾˈβon] ) has been overthrown and restored several times, reigning 1700–1808, 1813–1868, 1875–1931, and since 1975. Bourbons ruled in Naples from 1734 to 1806 and in Sicily from 1734 to 1816, and in a unified Kingdom of the Two Sicilies from 1816 to 1860. They also ruled in Parma from 1731 to 1735, 1748–1802 and 1847–1859.

Charles II of Spain King of Spain

Charles II, also known as El Hechizado or the Bewitched, was the last Habsburg ruler of the Spanish Empire. He is now best remembered for his physical disabilities, believed to be the result of inbreeding, and the war for his throne that followed his death.

House of Habsburg Austrian dynastic family

The House of Habsburg and alternatively called the House of Austria, was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740. The house also produced emperors and kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried.

Louis XIV of France King of France and Navarra, from 1643 to 1715

Louis XIV, known as Louis the Great or the Sun King, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715. Starting on 14 May 1643 when Louis was 4 years old, his reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest recorded of any monarch of a sovereign country in European history. In the age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIV's France was a leader in the growing centralisation of power.

Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg married a cadet of the Parmese line and thus her successors, who have ruled Luxembourg since her abdication in 1964, have also been members of the House of Bourbon. Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil, regent for her father, Pedro II of the Empire of Brazil, married a cadet of the Orléans line and thus their descendants, known as the Orléans-Braganza, were in the line of succession to the Brazilian throne and expected to ascend its throne had the monarchy not been abolished by a coup in 1889.

Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg Grand Duchess of Luxembourg from 1919 to 1964

Charlotte reigned as Grand Duchess of Luxembourg from 1919 until her abdication in 1964.

Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil Princess Imperial of the Empire of Brazil

DonaIsabel, nicknamed "the Redemptress", was the Princess Imperial of the Empire of Brazil and the Empire's regent on three occasions. Born in Rio de Janeiro as the eldest daughter of Emperor Pedro II and Empress Teresa Cristina, she was a member of the Brazilian branch of the House of Braganza. After the deaths of her two brothers in infancy, she was recognized as her father's heir presumptive. She married a French prince, Gaston, Count of Eu, in an arranged marriage, and they had three sons.

Pedro II of Brazil Emperor of Brazil from 7 April 1831 until deposed on 15 November 1889, Pedro II was the last ruler of the Empire of Brazil

Dom Pedro II, nicknamed "the Magnanimous", was the second and last monarch of the Empire of Brazil, reigning for over 58 years. He was born in Rio de Janeiro, the seventh child of Emperor Dom Pedro I of Brazil and Empress Dona Maria Leopoldina and thus a member of the Brazilian branch of the House of Braganza. His father's abrupt abdication and departure to Europe in 1831 left the five year-old as Emperor and led to a grim and lonely childhood and adolescence, obliged to spend his time studying in preparation for rule. He knew only brief moments of happiness and encountered few friends of his age. His experiences with court intrigues and political disputes during this period greatly affected his later character; he grew into a man with a strong sense of duty and devotion toward his country and his people, yet increasingly resentful of his role as monarch.

All legitimate, living members of the House of Bourbon, including its cadet branches, are direct agnatic descendants of Henry IV through his son Louis XIII of France.

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Origins

The castle of Bourbon-l'Archambault Chateau de Bourbon l'Archambault 01.jpg
The castle of Bourbon-l'Archambault

The pre-Capetian House of Bourbon was a noble family, dating at least from the beginning of the 13th century, when the estate of Bourbon was ruled by the Sire de Bourbon who was a vassal of the King of France. The term House of Bourbon ("Maison de Bourbon") is sometimes used to refer to this first house and the House of Bourbon-Dampierre, the second family to rule the seigneury.

In 1272, Robert, Count of Clermont, sixth and youngest son of King Louis IX of France, married Beatrix of Bourbon, heiress to the lordship of Bourbon and member of the House of Bourbon-Dampierre. [1] Their son Louis was made Duke of Bourbon in 1327. His descendant, the Constable of France Charles de Bourbon, was the last of the senior Bourbon line when he died in 1527. Because he chose to fight under the banner of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and lived in exile from France, his title was discontinued after his death.

The remaining line of Bourbons henceforth descended from James I, Count of La Marche, the younger son of Louis I, Duke of Bourbon. [1] With the death of his grandson James II, Count of La Marche in 1438, the senior line of the Count of La Marche became extinct. All future Bourbons would descend from James II's younger brother, Louis, who became the Count of Vendôme through his mother's inheritance. [1] In 1525, at the death of Charles IV, Duke of Alençon, all of the princes of the blood royal were Bourbons; all remaining members of the House of Valois were members of the king's immediate family.

In 1514, Charles, Count of Vendôme had his title raised to Duke of Vendôme. His son Antoine became King of Navarre, on the northern side of the Pyrenees, by marriage in 1555. [1] Two of Antoine's younger brothers were Cardinal Archbishop Charles de Bourbon and the French and Huguenot general Louis de Bourbon, 1st Prince of Condé. Louis' male-line descendants, the Princes de Condé, survived until 1830. Finally, in 1589, the House of Valois died out and Antoine's son Henry III of Navarre became Henry IV of France. [1]

List of Bourbons

Blason duche fr Bourbon (ancien).svg
Dukes of Bourbon
Blason Boubon-La Marche.svg
Blason fr Bourbon-Vendome moderne.svg
Blason pays fr Dombes.svg
Blason duche fr Orleans (moderne).svg
Blason duche fr Anjou (moderne).svg

Bourbon branches

Family from India's claim to be a branch and their claim to The "Throne of France"

As per the latest research carried out by Prince Michael of Greece and incorporated in his historical novel, Le Rajah Bourbon, [8] Balthazar Napoleon lV de Bourbon from India is the eldest in line to the French Throne. [5] [6] [7] [9]

France

French kings from House of Bourbon. Family tree French kings - House of Bourbon (FR) by shakko.jpg
French kings from House of Bourbon. Family tree

Rise of Henry IV

The first Bourbon king of France was Henry IV. [1] He was born on 13 December 1553 in the Kingdom of Navarre. Antoine de Bourbon, his father, was a ninth-generation descendant of King Louis IX of France. [1] Jeanne d'Albret, his mother was the Queen of Navarre and niece of King Francis I of France. He was baptized Catholic, but raised Calvinist. After his father was killed in 1562, he became Duke of Vendôme at the age of 10, with Admiral Gaspard de Coligny (1519–1572) as his regent. Seven years later, the young duke became the nominal leader of the Huguenots after the death of his uncle the Prince de Condé in 1569.

Henry succeeded to Navarre as Henry III when his mother died in 1572. That same year Catherine de' Medici, mother of King Charles IX of France, arranged for the marriage of her daughter, Margaret of Valois, to Henry, ostensibly to advance peace between Catholics and Huguenots. Many Huguenots gathered in Paris for the wedding on 24 August, but were ambushed and slaughtered by Catholics in the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. Henry saved his own life by converting to Catholicism. He repudiated his conversion in 1576 and resumed his leadership of the Huguenots.

The period from 1576 to 1584 was relatively calm in France, with the Huguenots consolidating control of much of the south with only occasional interference from the royal government. Extended civil war erupted again in 1584, when François, Duke of Anjou, younger brother of King Henry III of France, died, leaving Navarre next in line for the throne. Thus began the War of the Three Henrys, as Henry of Navarre, Henry III, and the ultra-Catholic leader, Henry of Guise, fought a confusing three-cornered struggle for dominance. After Henry III was assassinated on 31 July 1589, Navarre claimed the throne as the first Bourbon king of France, Henry IV.

Much of Catholic France, organized into the Catholic League, refused to recognize a Protestant monarch and instead recognized Henry IV's uncle, Charles, Cardinal de Bourbon, as rightful king, and the civil war continued. Henry won a crucial victory at Ivry on 14 March 1590 and, following the death of the Cardinal the same year, the forces of the League lacked an obvious Catholic candidate for the throne and divided into various factions. Nevertheless, as a Protestant, Henry IV was unable to take Paris, a Catholic stronghold, or to decisively defeat his enemies, now supported by the Spanish. He reconverted to Catholicism in 1593—he is said to have remarked, "Paris is well worth a mass" [10] —and was crowned king retroactively to 1589 at the Cathedral of Chartres on 27 February 1594.

Early Bourbons in France

Henry granted the Edict of Nantes on 13 April 1598, establishing Catholicism as an official state religion but also granting the Huguenots a measure of religious tolerance and political freedom short of full equality with the practice of Catholicism. This compromise ended the religious wars in France. That same year the Treaty of Vervins ended the war with Spain, adjusted the Spanish-French border, and resulted in a belated recognition by Spain of Henry as king of France.

Ably assisted by Maximilien de Béthune, duc de Sully, Henry reduced the land tax known as the taille ; promoted agriculture, public works, construction of highways, and the first French canal; started such important industries as the tapestry works of the Gobelins; and intervened in favor of Protestants in the duchies and earldoms along the German frontier. This last was to be the cause of his assassination.

Henry IV of France, the first Bourbon King of France Augustins - Henri IV, roi de France et de Navarre - Jacques Boulbene.jpg
Henry IV of France, the first Bourbon King of France

Henry's marriage to Margaret, which had produced no heir, was annulled in 1599 and he married Marie de Medici, niece of the grand duke of Tuscany. A son, Louis, was born to them in 1601. Henry IV was assassinated on 14 May 1610 in Paris. Louis XIII was only nine years old when he succeeded his father. [1] He was to prove a weak ruler; his reign was effectively a series of distinct regimes, depending who held the effective reins of power. At first, Marie de Medici, his mother, served as regent and advanced a pro-Spanish policy. To deal with the financial troubles of France, Louis summoned the Estates General in 1614; this would be the last time that body met until the eve of the French Revolution. Marie arranged the 1615 marriage of Louis to Anne of Austria, the daughter of King Philip III of Spain.

In 1617, however, Louis conspired with Charles d'Albert, duc de Luynes to dispense with her influence, having her favorite Concino Concini assassinated on 26 April of that year. After some years of weak government by Louis's favorites, the King made Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal Richelieu, a former protégé of his mother, the chief minister of France in 1624.

Richelieu advanced an anti-Habsburg policy. He arranged for Louis' sister, Henrietta Maria, to marry King Charles I of England, on 11 May 1625. Her pro-Catholic propaganda in England was one of the contributing factors to the English Civil War. Richelieu, as ambitious for France and the French monarchy as for himself, laid the ground for the absolute monarchy that would last in France until the Revolution. He wanted to establish a dominating position for France in Europe, and he wanted to unify France under the monarchy. He established the role of intendants , non-noble men whose arbitrary powers of administration were granted (and revocable) by the monarch, superseding many of the traditional duties and privileges of the noble governors.

Although it required a succession of internal military campaigns, he disarmed the fortified Huguenot towns that Henry had allowed. He involved France in the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) against the Habsburgs by concluding an alliance with Sweden in 1631 and, actively, in 1635. He died in 1642 before the conclusion of that conflict, having groomed Cardinal Jules Mazarin as a successor. Louis XIII outlived him but by one year, dying in 1643 at the age of forty-two. After a childless marriage for twenty-three years his queen, Anne, delivered a son on 5 September 1638, whom he named Louis after himself. [1] In the mid eighteenth century, the Bourbon monarchy had a faulty system for finance and taxation. Their lacking a national bank lead to them taking short-term loans, and ordering financial agents to make payments in advance or in excess of tax revenues collected. [11]

Louis XIV and Louis XV

Royal Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of France and Navarre. Grand Royal Coat of Arms of France & Navarre.svg
Royal Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of France and Navarre.

Louis XIV succeeded his father at four years of age; [1] he would go on to become the most powerful king in French history. His mother Anne served as his regent with her favorite Jules, Cardinal Mazarin, as chief minister. Mazarin continued the policies of Richelieu, bringing the Thirty Years' War to a successful conclusion in 1648 and defeating the nobility's challenge to royal absolutism in a series of civil wars known as the Frondes. He continued to war with Spain until 1659.

In that year the Treaty of the Pyrenees was signed signifying a major shift in power, France had replaced Spain as the dominant state in Europe. The treaty called for an arranged marriage between Louis and his cousin Maria Theresa, a daughter of King Philip IV of Spain by his first wife Elisabeth, the sister of Louis XIII. They were married in 1660 and had a son, Louis, in 1661. [1] Mazarin died on 9 March 1661 and it was expected that Louis would appoint another chief minister, as had become the tradition, but instead he shocked the country by announcing he would rule alone.

For six years Louis reformed the finances of his state and built formidable armed forces. France fought a series of wars from 1667 onward and gained some territory on its northern and eastern borders. Maria Theresa died in 1683 and the next year he secretly married the devoutly Catholic Françoise d'Aubigné, marquise de Maintenon. Louis XIV began to persecute Protestants, undoing the religious tolerance established by his grandfather Henry IV, culminating in his revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685.

The last war waged by Louis XIV proved to be one of the most important to dynastic Europe. In 1700, King Charles II of Spain, a Habsburg, died without a son. Louis's son the Grand Dauphin, as the late king's nephew, was the closest heir, and Charles willed the kingdom to the Dauphin's second son, the Duke of Anjou. Other powers, particularly the Austrian Habsburgs, who had the next closest claims, objected to such a vast increase in French power.

Initially, most of the other powers were willing to accept Anjou's reign as Philip V, but Louis's mishandling of their concerns soon drove the English, Dutch and other powers to join the Austrians in a coalition against France. The War of the Spanish Succession began in 1701 and raged for 12 years. In the end Louis's grandson was recognized as king of Spain, but he was obliged to agree to the forfeiture of succession rights in France, the Spanish Habsburgs' other European territories were largely ceded to Austria, and France was nearly bankrupted by the cost of the struggle. Louis died on 1 September 1715 ending his seventy-two-year reign, the longest in European history.

Dynastic group portrait of Louis XIV (seated) with his son le Grand Dauphin (to the left), his grandson Louis, Duke of Burgundy (to the right), his great-grandson the duc d'Anjou, later Louis XV, and Madame de Ventadour, his governess, who commissioned this painting some years later; busts of Henry IV and Louis XIII in the background. Louis XIV of France and his family attributed to Nicolas de Largilliere.jpg
Dynastic group portrait of Louis XIV (seated) with his son le Grand Dauphin (to the left), his grandson Louis, Duke of Burgundy (to the right), his great-grandson the duc d'Anjou, later Louis XV, and Madame de Ventadour, his governess, who commissioned this painting some years later; busts of Henry IV and Louis XIII in the background.

The reign of Louis XIV was so long that he outlived both his son and eldest grandson. He was succeeded by his great-grandson Louis XV. [1] Louis XV was born on 15 February 1710 and was thus aged only five at his ascension, the third Louis in a row to become king of France before the age of thirteen (Louis XIII became king at 9, Louis XIV at almost 5 and himself at 5). Initially, the regency was held by Philip, Duke of Orléans, Louis XIV's nephew, as nearest adult male to the throne. [1] This Regence was seen as a period of greater individual expression, manifested in secular, artistic, literary and colonial activity, in contrast to the austere latter years of Louis XIV's reign.

Following Orléans' death in 1723, the Duke of Bourbon, representative of the Bourbon-Condé cadet line, became prime minister. It was expected that Louis would marry his cousin, the daughter of King Philip V of Spain, but this engagement was broken by the duke in 1725 so that Louis could marry Maria Leszczynska, the daughter of Stanislas, former king of Poland. Bourbon's motive appears to have been a desire to produce an heir as soon as possible so as to reduce the chances of a succession dispute between Philip V and the Duke of Orléans in the event of the sickly king's death. Maria was already an adult woman at the time of the marriage, while the infanta was still a young girl.

A posthumous painting commissioned around 1670 by Philippe de France. It shows the French Bourbon Family around that time. It includes: Henrietta Maria of France (died 1669), exiled Queen of England; Philippe I, Duke of Orleans, founder of the House of Orleans; his first wife Princess Henriette (died 1670); the couple's first daughter Marie Louise d'Orleans (later Queen of Spain); Anne of Austria (died 1666); the Orleans daughters of Gaston de France; Louis XIV; the Dauphin of France with his wife Maria Theresa of Spain with her third daughter Marie-Therese de France, called Madame Royale (died 1672) and her second son Philippe-Charles de France, duc d'Anjou (d1671). The first daughter of Gaston stands on the far right: Anne Marie Louise d'Orleans. The picture frame with the 2 children are the other 2 daughters of Louis and Maria Theresa who died in 1662 and 1664. Louis14-Family.jpg
A posthumous painting commissioned around 1670 by Philippe de France. It shows the French Bourbon Family around that time. It includes: Henrietta Maria of France (died 1669), exiled Queen of England; Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, founder of the House of Orléans; his first wife Princess Henriette (died 1670); the couple's first daughter Marie Louise d'Orléans (later Queen of Spain); Anne of Austria (died 1666); the Orléans daughters of Gaston de France; Louis XIV; the Dauphin of France with his wife Maria Theresa of Spain with her third daughter Marie-Thérèse de France, called Madame Royale (died 1672) and her second son Philippe-Charles de France, duc d'Anjou (d1671). The first daughter of Gaston stands on the far right: Anne Marie Louise d'Orléans. The picture frame with the 2 children are the other 2 daughters of Louis and Maria Theresa who died in 1662 and 1664.

Nevertheless, Bourbon's action brought a very negative response from Spain, and for his incompetence Bourbon was soon replaced by Cardinal Andre Hercule de Fleury, the young king's tutor, in 1726. Fleury was a peace-loving man who intended to keep France out of war, but circumstances presented themselves that made this impossible.

The first cause of these wars came in 1733 when Augustus II, the elector of Saxony and king of Poland died. With French support, Stanislas was again elected king. This brought France into conflict with Russia and Austria who supported Augustus III, Elector of Saxony and son of Augustus II.

Stanislas lost the Polish crown, but he was given the Duchy of Lorraine as compensation, which would pass to France after his death. Next came the War of the Austrian Succession in 1740 in which France supported King Frederick II of Prussia against Maria Theresa, Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary. Fleury died in 1743 before the conclusion of the war.

Shortly after Fleury's death in 1745 Louis was influenced by his mistress the Marquise de Pompadour to reverse the policy of France in 1756 by creating an alliance with Austria against Prussia in the Seven Years' War. The war was a disaster for France, which lost most of her overseas possessions to the British in the Treaty of Paris in 1763. Maria, his wife, died in 1768 and Louis himself died on 10 May 1774.

French Revolution

Louis XVI had become the Dauphin of France upon the death of his father Louis, the son of Louis XV, in 1765. He married Marie Antoinette of Austria, a daughter of Holy Roman Empress Maria Theresa, in 1770. Louis intervened in the American Revolution against Britain in 1778, but he is most remembered for his role in the French Revolution. France was in financial turmoil and Louis was forced to convene the Estates-General on 5 May 1789.

They formed the National Assembly and forced Louis to accept a constitution that limited his powers on 14 July 1789. He tried to flee France in June 1791, but was captured. The French monarchy was abolished on 21 September 1792 and a republic was proclaimed. The chain of Bourbon monarchs begun in 1589 was broken. Louis XVI was executed on 21 January 1793.

Marie Antoinette and her son, Louis, were held as prisoners. Many French royalists proclaimed him Louis XVII, but he never reigned. She was executed on 16 October 1793. He died of tuberculosis on 8 June 1795 at the age of ten while in captivity. [12]

The French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars spread nationalism and anti-absolutism throughout Europe, and the other Bourbon monarchs were threatened. Ferdinand was forced to flee from Naples in 1806 when Napoleon Bonaparte deposed him and installed his brother, Joseph, as king. Ferdinand continued to rule from Sicily until 1815.

Napoleon conquered Parma in 1800 and compensated the Bourbon duke with Etruria, a new kingdom he created from the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. It was short-lived, counting only two monarchs, Louis and Charles, as Napoleon annexed Etruria in 1807.

King Charles IV of Spain had been an ally of France. He succeeded his father, Charles III, in 1788. At first he declared war on France on 7 March 1793, but he made peace on 22 June 1795. This peace became an alliance on 19 August 1796. His chief minister, Manuel de Godoy convinced Charles that his son, Ferdinand, was plotting to overthrow him. Napoleon exploited the situation and invaded Spain in March 1808. This led to an uprising that forced Charles to abdicate on 19 March in favor of his son, Ferdinand VII. Napoleon forced Ferdinand to return the crown to Charles on 30 April and then convinced Charles to relinquish it to him on 10 May. In turn, he gave it to his brother, Joseph, king of Naples on 6 June. Joseph abandoned Naples to Joachim Murat, the husband of Napoleon's sister. This was very unpopular in Spain and resulted in the Peninsular War, a struggle that would contribute to the downfall of Napoleon.

Bourbon Restoration

The standard of the French royal family under the Ancien Regime and the restoration period. Pavillon royal de France.svg
The standard of the French royal family under the Ancien Régime and the restoration period.

With the abdication of Napoleon on 11 April 1814 the Bourbon dynasty was restored to the kingdom of France in the person of Louis XVIII, brother of Louis XVI. Napoleon escaped from exile and Louis fled in March 1815. Louis was again restored after the Battle of Waterloo on 7 July.

The conservative elements of Europe dominated the post-Napoleonic age, but the values of the French Revolution could not be easily swept aside. Louis granted a constitution on 14 June 1814 to appease the liberals, but the ultra-royalist party, led by his brother, Charles, continued to influence his reign. [13] When he died in 1824 his brother became king as Charles X much to the dismay of French liberals. In a saying ascribed to Talleyrand, "they had learned nothing and forgotten nothing". [14]

Aftermath

Charles passed several laws that appealed to the upper class, but angered the middle class. The situation came to a head when he appointed a new minister on 8 August 1829 who did not have the confidence of the chamber. The chamber censured the king on 18 March 1830 and in response Charles proclaimed five ordinances on 26 July intended to silence criticism against him.[ citation needed ] This almost resulted in another revolution as dramatic as the one in 1789, but moderates were able to control the situation.[ citation needed ]

Coat of Arms of Louis-Philippe of the Orleanist cadet branch, French king during the July monarchy 1830-48 (with the revolutionary Tricolour flag and the Napoleonic Order of the Legion of Honour) Coat of Arms of the July Monarchy (1830-31).svg
Coat of Arms of Louis-Philippe of the Orleanist cadet branch, French king during the July monarchy 1830–48 (with the revolutionary Tricolour flag and the Napoleonic Order of the Legion of Honour)

As a compromise the crown was offered to Louis-Philippe, duke of Orléans, a descendant of the brother of Louis XIV, and the head of the Orleanist cadet branch of the Bourbons. Agreeing to reign constitutionally and under the tricolour, he was proclaimed King of the French on 7 August. The resulting regime, known as the July monarchy, lasted until the Revolution of 1848. The Bourbon monarchy in France ended on 24 February 1848, when Louis-Philippe was forced to abdicate and the short-lived Second Republic was established.

Some legitimists refused to recognize the Orleanist monarchy. After the death of Charles in 1836 his son was proclaimed Louis XIX, though this title was never formally recognized. Charles' grandson Henri, comte de Chambord, the last Bourbon claimant of the French crown, was proclaimed by some Henry V, but the French monarchy was never restored.

Following the 1870 collapse of the empire of Emperor Napoleon III, Henri was offered a restored throne. However Chambord refused to accept the throne unless France abandoned the revolution-inspired tricolour and accepted what he regarded as the true Bourbon flag of France, featuring the fleur-de-lis. The tricolour, originally associated with the French Revolution and the First Republic, had been used by the July Monarchy, the Second Republic and both Empires; the French National Assembly could not possibly agree.

A temporary Third Republic was established, while monarchists waited for the comte de Chambord to die and for the succession to pass to the Comte de Paris, who was willing to accept the tricolour. Henri lived until 1883, by which time public opinion had come to accept the republic as the "form of government that divides us least." His death without issue marked the extinction of the French Bourbons. Thus the head of the House of Bourbon became Juan, Count of Montizón of the Spanish line of the house who was also Carlist claimant to the throne of Spain, and had become the senior male of the dynasty by primogeniture. His heir as eldest Bourbon and head of the house is today Louis Alphonse, Duke of Anjou.

By an ordinance of Louis Philippe I of France of 13 August 1830, it was decided that the king's children (and his sister) would continue to bear the arms of Orléans, that Louis-Philippe's eldest son, as Prince Royal, would bear the title of duc d'Orléans, that the younger sons would continue to have their existing titles, and that the sister and daughters of the king would be styled Royal Highness and "d'Orléans", but the Orléans dynasts did not take the name "of France".

Bourbons of Spain and Italy

Spanish kings from House of Bourbon. Family tree Dinasty Bourbon (Spain) - kings2 - family tree by shakko (EN).jpg
Spanish kings from House of Bourbon. Family tree

Philip V

Arms of the present King of Spain of the House of Bourbon Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch.svg
Arms of the present King of Spain of the House of Bourbon

The Spanish branch of the House of Bourbon was founded by Philip V. He was born in 1683 in Versailles, the second son of the Grand Dauphin, son of Louis XIV. He was Duke of Anjou and probably never expected to be raised to a rank higher than that. However King Charles II of Spain, dying without issue, willed the throne to his grand-nephew the Duke of Anjou, younger grandson of his eldest sister Marie-Thérèse, daughter of King Philip IV of Spain who had married Louis XIV of France.

The prospect of Bourbons on both the French and Spanish thrones was resisted as creating an imbalance of power in Europe by its dominant regimes and, upon Charles II's death on 1 November 1700, a Grand Alliance of European nations united against Philip. This was known as the War of Spanish Succession. In the Treaty of Utrecht, signed on 11 April 1713, Philip was recognized as king of Spain but his renunciation of succession rights to France was affirmed and, of the Spanish Empire's other European territories, Sicily was ceded to Savoy, and the Spanish Netherlands, Milan and Naples were allotted to the Austrian Habsburgs.

Philip had two sons by his first wife. After her death he married Elisabeth Farnese, niece of Francesco Farnese, Duke of Parma, in 1714. She presented Philip with three sons, for whom she had ambitions of securing Italian crowns. Thus she induced Philip to occupy Sardinia and Sicily in 1717.

A Quadruple Alliance of Britain, France, Austria and the Netherlands was organized on 2 August 1718 to stop him. In the Treaty of The Hague, signed on 17 February 1720, Philip renounced his conquests of Sardinia and Sicily, but assured the ascension of his eldest son by Elisabeth to the Duchy of Parma upon the reigning duke's death. Philip abdicated in January 1724 in favor of Louis I, his eldest son with his first wife, but Louis died in August and Philip resumed the crown.

When the War of the Polish Succession began in 1733, Philip and Elisabeth saw another opportunity to advance the claims of their sons and recover at least part of the former possessions of the Spanish crown on the Italian peninsula. Philip signed the Family Compact with Louis XV, his nephew and king of France. Charles, Duke of Parma since 1731, invaded Naples. At the conclusion of peace on 13 November 1738, control of Parma and Piacenza was ceded to Austria, which had occupied the duchies but was now forced to recognise Charles as King of Naples and Sicily. Philip also used the War of the Austrian Succession to win more territory in Italy. He did not live to see it to its conclusion, however, dying in 1746.

Ferdinand VI and Charles III

Ferdinand VI, second son of Philip V and his first wife, succeeded his father. He was a peace-loving monarch who kept Spain out of the Seven Years' War. He died in 1759 in the midst of that conflict and was succeeded by his half-brother Charles III. Charles was the eldest son of Philip and Elisabeth Farnese. He was born in 1716 and had become Duke of Parma when the last Farnese duke died in 1731.

Following Spain's victory over the Austrians at the battle of Bitonto, it proved inexpedient to reunite Naples and Sicily to Spain, so as a compromise Charles became King of Naples, as Charles IV and VII of Sicily. Following Charles' accession to the Spanish throne in 1759 he was required, by the Treaty of Naples of 3 October 1759, to abdicate Naples and Sicily to his third son, Ferdinand, thus initiating the branch known as the Neapolitan Bourbons.

Charles revived the Family Compact with France on 15 August 1761 and joined in the Seven Years' War against Britain in 1762; the reformist policies he had espoused in Naples were pursued with similar energy in Spain, where he completely overhauled the cumbersome bureaucracy of the state. As a French ally he opposed Britain during the American Revolution in June 1779, supplying large quantities of weapons and munitions to the rebels and keeping one third of all the British forces in the Americas occupied defending Florida and what is now Alabama, which were ultimately recaptured by Spain. Charles died in 1788.

Bourbons of Parma

Elisabeth Farnese's ambitions were realized at the conclusion of the War of the Austrian Succession in 1748 when the Duchy of Parma and Piacenza, already occupied by Spanish troops, were ceded by Austria to her second son, Philip, and combined with the former Gonzaga duchy of Guastalla. Elisabeth died in 1766.

Later Bourbon monarchs outside France

Coat of Arms of the Royal House of Bourbon Spain-Two Sicilies Great Royal Coat of Arms of theTwo Sicilies.svg
Coat of Arms of the Royal House of Bourbon Spain-Two Sicilies
Coat of Arms of the House of Bourbon Spain-Parma Ducal Coat of Arms of Parma (1748-1802).svg
Coat of Arms of the House of Bourbon Spain-Parma

Upon the fall of the French Empire, Ferdinand I was restored to the throne of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in 1815, founding the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies. His subjects revolted in 1820 and he was forced to grant a constitution; Austria invaded in March 1821 and revoked the constitution. He was succeeded by his son, Francis I, in 1825 and by his grandson, Ferdinand II, in 1830. Another revolution erupted in January 1848 and Ferdinand was also forced to grant a constitution. This constitution was revoked in 1849. Ferdinand was succeeded by his son, Francis II, in May 1859.

When Giuseppe Garibaldi captured Naples in 1860, Francis restored the constitution in an attempt to save his sovereignty. He fled to the fortress of Gaeta, which was captured by the Piedmontese troops in February 1861; his kingdom was incorporated into the Kingdom of Italy on 17 March 1861, after the fall the fortress of Messina (surrendered on 12 March), although the Neapolitan troops in Civitella del Tronto resisted three days longer.

After the fall of Napoleon, Napoleon's wife, Maria Louisa, was made Duchess of Parma. As compensation, Charles Louis, the former king of Etruria, was made the Duke of Lucca. When Maria Louisa died in 1847 he was restored to Parma as Charles II. Lucca was incorporated into Tuscany. He was succeeded by his son, Charles III, and grandson, Robert I, in 1854. The people of Parma voted for a union with the kingdom of Sardinia in 1860. After Italian unification the next year, the Bourbon dynasty in Italy was no more.

Ferdinand VII was restored to the throne of Spain in March 1814. Like his Italian Bourbon counterpart, his subjects revolted against him in January 1820 and he was forced to grant a constitution. A French army invaded in 1823 and the constitution was revoked. Ferdinand married his fourth wife, Maria Christina, the daughter of Francis I, the Bourbon king of Sicily, in 1829. Despite his many marriages he did not have a son, so in 1833 he was influenced by his wife to abolish the Salic Law so that their daughter, Isabella, could become queen depriving his brother, Don Carlos, of the throne.

Isabella II succeeded her father when he died in 1833. She was only three years old and Maria Cristina, her mother, served as regent. Maria knew that she needed the support of the liberals to oppose Don Carlos so she granted a constitution in 1834. Don Carlos found his greatest support in Catalonia and the Basques country because the constitution centralized the provinces thus denying them the autonomy they sought. He was defeated and fled the country in 1839. Isabella was declared of age in 1843 and she married her cousin Francisco de Asis, the son of her father's brother, on 10 October 1846. A military revolution broke out against Isabella in 1868 and she was deposed on 29 September. She abdicated in favor of her son, Alfonso, in 1870, but Spain was proclaimed a republic for a brief time.

When the First Spanish Republic failed the crown was offered to Isabella's son who accepted on 1 January 1875 as Alfonso XII. Don Carlos, who returned to Spain, was again defeated and resumed his exile in February 1876. Alfonso granted a new constitution in July 1876 that was more liberal than the one granted by his grandmother. His reign was cut short when he died in 1885 at the age of twenty-eight.

Alfonso XIII was born on 17 May 1886 after the death of his father. His mother, Maria Christina, the second wife of Alfonso XII served as regent. Alfonso XIII was declared of age in 1902 and he married Victoria Eugénie Julia Ena of Battenberg, the granddaughter of the British queen Victoria, on 31 May 1906. He remained neutral during World War I, but supported the military coup of Miguel Primo de Rivera on 13 September 1923. A movement towards the establishment of a republic began in 1930 and Alfonso fled the country on 14 April 1931. He never formally abdicated, but lived the rest of his life in exile. He died in 1941.

The Bourbon dynasty seemed finished in Spain as in the rest of the world, but it would be resurrected. The Second Spanish Republic was overthrown in the Spanish Civil War, leading to the dictatorship of Francisco Franco. He named Juan Carlos de Borbón, a grandson of Alfonso XIII, his successor in 1969. When Franco died six years later, Juan Carlos I took the throne to restore the Bourbon dynasty. The new king oversaw the Spanish transition to democracy; the Spanish Constitution of 1978 recognized the monarchy.

Since 1964 the Bourbon-Parma line has reigned agnatically in Luxembourg through Grand Dukes Jean and his son Henri. In June 2011, Luxembourg adopted absolute primogeniture, replacing the old Semi-Salic law that might have guaranteed the survival of Bourbon rule for generations.

Though it is not as powerful as it once was and no longer reigns in its native country of France, the House of Bourbon is by no means extinct and has survived to the present-day world, predominantly composed of republics.

The House of Bourbon, in its surviving branches, is believed to be the oldest royal dynasty of Europe (and the oldest documented European family altogether) that is still existing in the direct male line today: The House of Capet's male ancestors, the Robertians, go back to Robert of Hesbaye (d. 807) as their first secured ancestor and he is believed to be a direct male descendant of Charibert de Haspengau (c. 555–636). Should this be true, only the Imperial House of Japan would outmatch the Bourbon's age, being reliably documented – as a ruling house already – from about 540. The House of Hesse traces its line back to 841, the House of Welf-Este and the House of Wettin are both emerging in the 10th century (and so do some Italian non-ruling houses like the Caetani or the Massimo family), whereas most of the other ruling families of Europe only turn up to the light of history after the year 1000.

List of Bourbon rulers

France

Monarchs of France

Dates indicate reigns, not lifetimes.

Claimants to the throne of France

Dates indicate claims, not lifetimes.

Monarchs of France

Dates indicate reigns, not lifetimes.

Legitimist claimants in France

Dates indicate claims, not lifetimes.

Legitimist claimants in France (Spanish branch)

Dates indicate claims, not lifetimes.

Orléanist and Unionist claimants in France

Dates indicate claims, not lifetimes.

Kingdom of Spain

Monarchs of Spain

Dates indicate seniority, not lifetimes. Where reign as king or queen of Spain is different, this is noted.

"Carlist" claimants in Spain

Dates indicate claims, not lifetimes.

Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

Coat of Arms of the Grand Dukes of Luxemburg of the House of Bourbon-Parma Great coat of arms of Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg.svg
Coat of Arms of the Grand Dukes of Luxemburg of the House of Bourbon-Parma

Grand Dukes of Luxembourg

Dates indicate reigns, not lifetimes.

Other significant Bourbon titles

Surnames used

Officially, the King of France had no family name. A prince with the rank of fils de France (Son of France) is surnamed "de France"; all the male-line descendants of each fils de France, however, took his main title (whether an appanage or a courtesy title) as their family or last name. However, when Louis XVI was put on trial and later "guillotined" (executed) by the revolutionaries National Convention in France in 1793, they somewhat contemptuously referred to him in written documents and spoken address as "Citizen Louis Capet" as if a "commoner" (referring back to the Medieval origins of the Bourbon Dynasty's name and referring to Hugh Capet, founder of the Capetian Dynasty).

Members of the House of Bourbon-Condé and its cadet branches, which never ascended to the throne, used the surname "de Bourbon" until their extinction in 1830.

The daughters of Gaston, Duke of Orleans, were the first members of the House of Bourbon since the accession of Henry IV to take their surname from the appanage of their father (d'Orleans). Gaston died without a male heir; his titles reverted to the crown. It was given to his nephew, Philippe I, Duke of Orleans, brother of Louis XIV, whose descendants still bear the surname.

When Philippe, grandson of Louis XIV, became King of Spain as Philip V, he gave up his French titles. As a Son of France, his actual surname was "de France". However, since that surname was not heritable for descendants of rank lower than Son of France, and since Philippe had already given up his French titles, his descendants simply took the name of their royal house as their surname ("de Bourbon", rendered in Spanish as "de Borbón").

The children of Philippe's brother, Charles, Duke of Berry (all of whom died in infancy), were given the surname "d'Alencon". He was Duke of Berry only in name, so the surname of his children was taken from his first substantial duchy.

The children of Charles Philippe, Count of Artois, brother of Louis XVI, were surnamed "d'Artois". When Charles succeeded to the throne as Charles X, his son Louis Antoine became a Son of France, with the corresponding change in surname. His grandson, Henri d'Artois, being merely a Grandson of France, would use the surname until his death.

Family trees

Simplified family trees showing the relationships between the Bourbons and the other branches of the Royal House of France.

From Louis IX to Henry IV

Direct Capetians
Louis IX
King of France
1214–1270
r.1226–1270
Margaret
of Provence
1221–1295
House of Bourbon
Philip III
King of France
1245–1285
r.1270–1285
Robert
Ct. of Clermont
1256–1317
r.1268–1317
Beatrice
of Burgundy
1257–1310
House of Valois
Charles
Count of Valois
1270–1325
r.1284–1325
Louis I
Duke of Bourbon
1279–1341
r.1327–1341
Mary
of Avesnes
1280–1354
Philip VI
King of France
1293–1350
r.1328–1350
Isabella
of Valois
1313–1383
Peter I
Duke of Bourbon
1311–1356
r.1342–1356
James I
Ct. of La Marche
1319–1362
r.1356–1362
Jeanne
of Châtillon
1315–?
John II
King of France
1319–1364
r.1350–1364
Peter II
Ct. of La Marche
1342–1362
r.1362
John I
Ct. of La Marche
1344–1393
r.1362–1393
Catherine
of Vendôme
1354–1412
Charles V
King of France
1338–1380
r.1364–1380
Joanna
of Bourbon
1338–1378
Louis II
Duke of Bourbon
1337–1410
r.1356–1410
James II
Ct. of La Marche
1370–1438
r.1393–1438
Louis
Ct. of Vendôme
1376–1446
r.1393–1446
Charles VI
King of France
1368–1422
r.1380–1422
John I
Duke of Bourbon
1381–1434
r.1410–1434
Louis I
Duke of Orléans
1372–1407
r.1392–1407
Eleanor
of B.-La Marche
1407–aft.1464
John VIII
Ct. of Vendôme
1425–1477
r.1446–1477
Isabelle
de Beauvau
1436–1475
Charles VII
King of France
1403–1461
r.1422–1461
Charles I
Duke of Bourbon
1401–1456
r.1434–1456
Louis I
Ct. of Montpensier
1405–1486
r.1428–1486
John
Ct. of
Angoulême
1399–1467
Dukes of
Nemours
Francis
Count of Vendôme
1470–1495
r.1477–1495
Marie
of Luxembourg
≈1472–1547
Louis
Pr. of La
Roche-sur-Yon
1473–1520
Joan
of France
1435–1482
John II
Duke of Bourbon
1426–1488
r.1456–1488
Louis XI
King of France
1423–1483
r.1461−1483
Louis
Bishop of Liège
1438–1482
r.1456–1482
Charles II
Duke of Bourbon
1434–1488
r.1488
Charles
Ct. of Angoulême
1459–1496
r.1467–1496
Charles
Duke of Vendôme
1489–1537
r.1514–1537
Françoise
d'Alençon
1490–1550
Anne
of France
1461–1522
Peter II
Duke of Bourbon
1438–1503
r.1488–1503
Gilbert
Count of
Montpensier
1443–1496
r.1486–1496
Peter
of Bourbon
-Busset

1464–1529
Louis
Prince of Condé
1530–1569
r.1546–1569
Henry II
King of France
1519–1559
r.1547–1559
Antoine
King of Navarre
1518–1562
r.1555–1562
Jeanne III
d'Albret

Q. of Navarre
1528–1572
r.1555–1572
Suzanne
Dss of Bourbon
1491–1521
r.1503–1521
Charles III
Duke of Bourbon
1490–1527
r.1521–1527
Philip
of Bourbon
-Busset
1494–1557
Henri I
Prince of Condé
1552–1588
r.1569–1588
Margaret
of France
1553–1615
Henry IV
of Bourbon

King of France
1553–1610
r.1589–1610
Marie
de' Medici

1575–1642
Bourbon-Busset
illegitimate
male-line
Henri II
Prince of Condé
1588–1646
r.1588–1646
Louis XIII
King of France
1601–1643
r.1610–1643
Louis II
Grand Condé

Prince of Condé
1621–1686
r.1646–1686
Armand
Prince of Conti
1629–1666
r.1629–1666
Louis XIV
King of France
1638–1715
r.1643–1715
Henri Jules
Prince of Condé
1643–1709
r.1686–1709
Louis III
Prince of Condé
1668–1710
r.1709–1710
Louise
Françoise

of Bourbon
1673–1743
Marie Thérèse
de Bourbon
1666–1732
François Louis
Grand Conti

Prince of Conti
1664–1709
r.1685–1709
Louis
Armand I

Prince of Conti
1661–1685
r.1666–1685
Marie Anne
de Bourbon
1666–1739
Louis IV Henri
Prince de Condé
1692–1740
r.1710–1740
Marie Anne
de Bourbon
1689–1720
Louise
Élisabeth

de Bourbon
1693–1775
Louis
Armand II

Prince of Conti
1695–1727
r.1709–1727
Louis V
Joseph

Prince of Condé
1736–1818
r.1740–1818
Louis
François

Prince of Conti
1717–1776
r.1727–1776
Louis VI Henri
Prince of Condé
1756–1830
r.1818–1830
Louis
François
Joseph

Prince of Conti
1734–1814
r.1776–1814
Louis
Antoine

Duke of
Enghien
1772–1804

Descent from Henry IV

France moderne.svg
Henry IV
Royal Standard of the King of France.svg King of France
(1589–1610)
France moderne.svg
Louis XIII
Royal Standard of the King of France.svg King of France
(1610–43)
France moderne.svg
Louis XIV
Royal Standard of the King of France.svg King of France
(1643–1715)
Blason duche fr Orleans (moderne).svg
Philippe I
Duke of Orléans
Arms of the Dauphin of France.svg
Louis
"Le Grand Dauphin"
of France
Blason duche fr Orleans (moderne).svg
Philippe II
Duke of Orléans
Regent of France

Blason Louis de-France duc Bourgogne.png Arms of the Dauphin of France.svg
Louis
"Le Petit Dauphin"
of France
Arms of Spain (1700-1761).svg
Philip V
Bandera de Espana 1701-1748.svg King of Spain
(1700–46)
Blason duche fr Orleans (moderne).svg
Louis
Duke of Orléans
France moderne.svg
Louis XV
Royal Standard of the King of France.svg King of France
(1715–74)
Arms of Spain (1700-1761).svg
Louis I
Bandera de Espana 1701-1748.svg King of Spain
(1724)
Arms of Spain (1700-1761).svg
Ferdinand VI
Bandera de Espana 1748-1785.svg King of Spain
(1746–59)
Greater Royal Arms of Spain (1761-1868 and 1874-1931).svg
Charles III
Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg King of Spain
(1759–88)
Philip
Flag of the Duchy of Parma (1851-1859).svg Duke of Parma
(1748–65)
Blason duche fr Orleans (moderne).svg
Louis Philippe I
Duke of Orléans
Arms of the Dauphin of France.svg
Louis
Dauphin of France
Greater Royal Arms of Spain (1761-1868 and 1874-1931).svg
Charles IV
Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg King of Spain
(1788–1808)
Ferdinand
Flag of the Duchy of Parma (1851-1859).svg Duke of Parma
(1765–1802)
Blason duche fr Orleans (moderne).svg
Louis Philippe II
(Philippe Égalité)

Duke of Orléans
France moderne.svg
Louis XVI
Royal Standard of the King of France.svg King of France
(1774–91)
Pavillon royal de France.svg King of
the French
(1791–92)

Titular
King of France
(1792–93)
France moderne.svg
Louis XVIII
Royal Standard of the King of France.svg Titular
King of France
(1795–1804)

Legitimist
pretender
(1804–14)
Pavillon royal de France.svg King of France
(1814–24)
France moderne.svg
Charles X
Pavillon royal de France.svg King of France
(1824–30)

Legitimist
pretender
(1830–36)
Greater Royal Arms of Spain (1761-1868 and 1874-1931).svg
Ferdinand VII
Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg King of Spain
(1808; 1813–33)
Francisco
de Paula
Carlos
Count of Molina
as Carlos V
Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Carlist
pretender
(1833–45)
Louis I
Flag of the Kingdom of Etruria.svg King of Etruria
(1801–03)
Blason duche fr Orleans (moderne).svg
Louis-Philippe I
Flag of France.svg King of
the French
(1830–48)

Orléanist
Pretender
(1848-50)
Arms of the Dauphin of France.svg France moderne.svg
Louis
Dauphin of France
Meuble heraldique Fleur de lys.svg
as Louis XVII
Pavillon royal de France.svg Titular
King of France
(1793–95)
Louis-Antoine
Duke of Angoulême
Dauphin of France

Meuble heraldique Fleur de lys.svg
as Louis XIX
Pavillon royal de France.svg Legitimist
pretender
(1836–44)
Blason duche fr Berry (Artois).svg Arms of the Dauphin of France.svg
Charles
Ferdinand

Duke of Berry
Greater Royal Arms of Spain (1761-1868 and 1874-1931).svg
Isabella II
Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg Queen
of Spain
(1833–68)
Francis
Duke of Cádiz
King consort
of Spain
Carlos
Count
of Montemolin

as Carlos VI
Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Carlist
pretender
(1845–61)
Juan
Count of Montizón
as Juan III
Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Carlist
pretender
(1861–68)

Meuble heraldique Fleur de lys.svg
as Jean III
Pavillon royal de France.svg Legitimist
pretender
(1883–87)
Louis II
Flag of the Kingdom of Etruria.svg King of Etruria
(1803–07)

as Charles I
Flag of the Duchy of Lucca.svg Duke of Lucca
(1824–47)

as Charles II
Flag of the Duchy of Parma (1851-1859).svg Duke of Parma
(1847–49)
Blason duche fr Orleans (moderne).svg
Ferdinand
Philippe

Duke of Orléans
France moderne.svg
Henri
Count of
Chambord

Meuble heraldique Fleur de lys.svg
as Henri V
Pavillon royal de France.svg Legitimist
pretender
(1844–83)
Greater Royal Arms of Spain (1761-1868 and 1874-1931).svg
Alfonso XII
Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg King of Spain
(1874–85)
Carlos
Duke of Madrid
as Carlos VII
Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Carlist
pretender
(1868–1909)

Meuble heraldique Fleur de lys.svg
as Charles XI
Pavillon royal de France.svg Legitimist
pretender
(1887–1909)
Alfonso Carlos
Duke of San Jaime
as Alfonso
Carlos I

Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Carlist
pretender
(1931–36)

Meuble heraldique Fleur de lys.svg
as Charles XII
Pavillon royal de France.svg Legitimist
pretender
(1931–36)
Charles III
Flag of the Duchy of Parma (1851-1859).svg Duke of Parma
(1849–54)
Philippe
Count of Paris
Meuble heraldique Fleur de lys.svg
as Philippe VII
Flag of France.svg Orléanist
pretender
(1850–94)
Robert
Duke of
Chartres
Coat of Arms of Francisco Franco as Head of the Spanish State.svg
Francisco Franco
Flag of Spain (1945-1977).svg Caudillo
of Spain
(1936–75)
Regent of
the Kingdom
(1947–75)
Greater Royal Arms of Spain (1761-1868 and 1874-1931).svg
Alfonso XIII
Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg King of Spain
(1886–1931)

Meuble heraldique Fleur de lys.svg
as Alphonse I
Pavillon royal de France.svg Legitimist
pretender
(1936–41)
Jaime
Duke of Madrid
as Jaime III
Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Carlist
pretender
(1909–31)

Meuble heraldique Fleur de lys.svg
as Jacques I
Pavillon royal de France.svg Legitimist
pretender
(1909–31)
Robert I
Flag of the Duchy of Parma (1851-1859).svg Duke of Parma
(1854–59)
Philippe
Duke of Orléans
Meuble heraldique Fleur de lys.svg
as Philippe VIII
Flag of France.svg Orléanist
pretender
(1894–1926)
Jean
Duke of Guise
Meuble heraldique Fleur de lys.svg
as Jean III
Flag of France.svg Orléanist
pretender
(1926–40)
Carmen Franco
y Polo

1st Duchess
of Franco
Jaime
Duke of Segovia
as Jaime IV
Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg Legitimist
pretender
(1941-75)

Meuble heraldique Fleur de lys.svg
as Jacques II or
Henri VI
Pavillon royal de France.svg Legitimist
pretender
(1941–75)
Juan
Count
of Barcelona
Xavier
Duke of Parma
Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Carlist regent
(1936–52)

as Javier I
Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Carlist
pretender
(1952–77)
Felix
Prince
of
Luxembourg
Henri
Count of Paris
Meuble heraldique Fleur de lys.svg
as Henri VI
Flag of France.svg Orléanist
pretender
(1940–99)
María del Carmen
Martínez-Bordiú
y Franco
Alfonso
Duke of Anjou
and Cádiz

as Alfonso XIV
Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg Legitimist
pretender
(1975-89)

Meuble heraldique Fleur de lys.svg
as Alphonse II
Pavillon royal de France.svg Legitimist
pretender
(1975–89)
Coat of Arms of Juan Carlos I of Spain.svg
Juan Carlos I
Flag of Spain.svg King of Spain
(1975–2014)
Carlos Hugo
Duke of Parma
as Carlos
Hugo I

Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Carlist
pretender
(1977–79)
Sixtus Henry
Prince of Parma
as Enrique V
Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Carlist
pretender
(1979–present)
CoA Jean de Luxembourg (1953-1964).svg
Jean
Flag of Luxembourg.svg Grand Duke of
Luxembourg
(1964–2000)
Henri
Count of Paris
Duke of France

Meuble heraldique Fleur de lys.svg
as Henri VII
Flag of France.svg Orléanist
pretender
(1999–2019)
Louis
Duke of Anjou
Meuble heraldique Fleur de lys.svg
as Louis XX
Pavillon royal de France.svg Legitimist
pretender
(1989–present)

as Luis II
Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg Legitimist
pretender
(1989–present)
Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch.svg
Felipe VI
Flag of Spain.svg King of Spain
(2014present)
Carlos
Duke of Parma
as Carlos
Xavier II

Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Carlist
pretender
(2011–present)
Arms of Grand Duke of Luxembourg (House of Bourbon-Parma).svg
Henri
Flag of Luxembourg.svg Grand Duke
of Luxembourg
(2000–present)
Jean
Count of
Paris

Meuble heraldique Fleur de lys.svg
as Jean IV
Flag of France.svg Orléanist
pretender
(2019–present)
Louis
Duke of Burgundy,
Dauphin of France
Coat of Arms of Leonor, Princess of Asturias.svg
Leonor
Princess of
Asturias
Carlos
Prince of Piacenza
Guillaume
Hereditary
Grand Duke of
Luxembourg
Gaston
Prince of Orléans

See also

Related Research Articles

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Anselme, Père. ‘’Histoire de la Maison Royale de France’’, tome 4. Editions du Palais-Royal, 1967, Paris. pp. 144–146, 151–153, 175, 178, 180, 185, 187–189, 191, 295–298, 318–319, 322–329. (French).
  2. Bourbon-Bhopal, The Royal "House of Bourbon" in India Official Website
  3. GENEALOGY: The Family Tree of the Bourbons of India and the Bourbons of France
  4. Marek, Miroslav. "Jean Philippe, a courtier of the khan, 1525". Genealogy.EU.
  5. 1 2 Found in India the last king of France, 2 March 2007, The Guardian
  6. 1 2 The next King of France? An Indian!, 21 August 2007, Manchester Evening News
  7. 1 2 Bourbon of Indian vintage, 10 Jan. 2008, Los Angeles Times
  8. Michel de Grèce (March 2007). Le Rajah Bourbon. Jean-Claude Lattès. ISBN   978-2-7096-2922-5.
  9. The lost Bourbon, in India, 4 March 2007, The Hindu
  10. Frieda, Leonie, Catherine de Medici
  11. Haine, Scott. The History of France (1st ed.). Greenwood Press. p. 65. ISBN   0-313-30328-2.
  12. "The heart of Louis XVII, the son of Marie-Antoinette and Louis XVI who died in prison in 1795, has been laid to test in the crypt of Saint-Denis Basilica.(News)(Brief Article)." History Today. History Today Ltd. 2004. HighBeam Research. 18 September 2012;"Louis XVII officially died of TB at the age of ten in the Temple prison."
  13. Durant, Will and Durant, Ariel. "The Story of Civilization, Part XI, The Age of Napoleon". Simon & Schuster, New York, 1975. pp. 730–731, 774.
  14. In French: Ils n'ont rien appris, ni rien oublié. There is no historic evidence linking the saying to Talleyrand. It may derive from a similar lamentation about the royalists, found in a letter by Charles Louis Etienne, chevalier de Panat, a French naval officer, dated January 1796 and sent from London to Mallet du Pan: personne n'a su ni rien oublier, ni rien apprendre ("nobody has been able to forget anything, nor to learn anything"), included in: A. Sayou, ed. (1852). Mémoires et correspondance de Mallet du Pan. II. p. 197.
  15. "Documents relating to the Spanish succession".

Further reading

Other languages

Royal house
House of Bourbon
Cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty
Founding year: 1272
Preceded by
House of Valois
Ruling House of France
1589–1792
Monarchy Abolished
See French Revolution;

eventually House of Bonaparte
Preceded by
House of Bonaparte
Ruled as French Emperor
Ruling House of France
1814–1830
Succeeded by
House of Orléans
Preceded by
House of Habsburg
Ruling House of the Duchy of Burgundy and the Burgundian Netherlands
1700–1713
Succeeded by
House of Habsburg
Ruling House of Spain
1700–1808
Succeeded by
House of Bonaparte
Vacant
Title last held by
House of Trastámara
Ruling House of Naples and Sicily
1753–1806
Preceded by
House of Bonaparte
Ruling House of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
1815–1860
Kingdom Abolished
Italian Unification under the House of Savoy
Ruling House of Spain
1813–1868
Interregnum
Bourbon Monarchy overthrown in Glorious Revolution;

eventually House of Savoy
Vacant
Title last held by
House of Savoy
Ruling House of Spain
1885–1931
Second Republic Declared
Vacant
Title last held by
House of Bourbon
Ruling House of Spain
1975–present
Incumbent
Preceded by
House of Nassau-Weilburg
Ruling House of Luxembourg
1964–present