House of Habsburg

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House of Habsburg
Haus Habsburg
Imperial and Royal dynasty
Familienwappen Habsburg-Stroehl.jpg
Coat of arms of the Counts of Habsburg
Country
Etymology Habsburg Castle
Founded11th century
Founder Radbot, Count of Habsburg
Current headNone; main line extinct
Final ruler Empress Maria Theresa
Titles
Estate(s)
DissolutionNovember 29, 1780 (1780-11-29)
Cadet branchesAgnatic:

Cognatic:

The House of Habsburg ( /ˈhæpsbɜːrɡ/ ; German: [ˈhaːpsbʊɐ̯k] ; also spelled Hapsburg in English) and alternatively called the House of Austria (Haus Österreich in German, Casa de Austria in Spanish), [1] was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740. The house also produced emperors and kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried.

Dynasty sequence of rulers considered members of the same family

A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "house", "family" and "clan", among others. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC.

Holy Roman Empire Varying complex of lands that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe

The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also came to include the neighboring Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, and numerous other territories.

Kingdom of Bohemia Monarchy in Central Europe, predecessor of modern Czech Republic

The Kingdom of Bohemia, sometimes later in English literature referred to as the Czech Kingdom, was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Central Europe, the predecessor of the modern Czech Republic. It was an Imperial State in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Bohemian king was a prince-elector of the empire. The kings of Bohemia, besides Bohemia, also ruled the Lands of the Bohemian Crown, which at various times included Moravia, Silesia, Lusatia, and parts of Saxony, Brandenburg, and Bavaria.

Contents

The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918.

Habsburg Castle castle in Habsburg (Switzerland)

Habsburg Castle is a medieval fortress located in Habsburg, Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, near the Aar River. At the time of its construction, the location was part of the Duchy of Swabia. Habsburg Castle is the originating seat of the House of Habsburg, which became one of the leading imperial and royal dynasties in Europe. It is listed as a Swiss heritage site of national significance.

Canton of Aargau Canton of Switzerland

The canton of Aargau is one of the more northerly cantons of Switzerland. It is situated by the lower course of the Aare, which is why the canton is called Aar-gau. It is one of the most densely populated regions of Switzerland.

Radbot, Count of Habsburg 11th-century German nobleman

Radbot, Count of Habsburg, also known as Radbot of Klettgau, was Graf (Count) of the county of Klettgau on the High Rhine in Swabia. Radbot was one of the progenitors of the Habsburg dynasty, and he chose to name his fortress Habsburg.

A series of dynastic marriages [2] enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty.

Duchy of Burgundy historic principality

The Duchy of Burgundy emerged in the 9th century as one of the successors of the ancient Kingdom of the Burgundians, which after its conquest in 532 had formed a constituent part of the Frankish Empire. Upon the 9th-century partitions, the French remnants of the Burgundian kingdom were reduced to a ducal rank by King Robert II of France in 1004, and in 1032 were awarded to his younger son Robert per Salic law – other portions had passed to the Imperial Kingdom of Arles and the County of Burgundy (Franche-Comté).

Spanish Empire world empire from the 16th to the 19th century

The Spanish Empire, historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy and as the Catholic Monarchy, was one of the largest empires in history. From the late 15th century to the early 19th, Spain controlled a huge overseas territory in the New World and the Asian archipelago of the Philippines, what they called "The Indies". It also included territories in Europe, Africa and Oceania. The Spanish Empire has been described as the first global empire in history, a description also given to the Portuguese Empire. It was the world's most powerful empire during the 16th and first half of the 17th centuries, reaching its maximum extension in the 18th century. The Spanish Empire was the first empire to be called "the empire on which the sun never sets".

Oñate treaty

The Oñate treaty of 29 July 1617 was a secret treaty between the Austrian and Spanish branches of the House of Habsburg.

The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen); because it was often still referred to as the House of Habsburg, historians use the appellation of the Habsburg Monarchy for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918. The House of Habsburg-Lorraine continues to exist to this day and its members use the Habsburg name, for example Otto von Habsburg.

Charles II of Spain King of Spain

Charles II, also known as El Hechizado or the Bewitched, was the last Habsburg ruler of the Spanish Empire. He is now best remembered for his physical disabilities, believed to be the result of inbreeding, and the war for his throne that followed his death.

House of Bourbon European royal house of French origin

The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. Bourbon kings first ruled France and Navarre in the 16th century. By the 18th century, members of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty held thrones in Spain, Naples, Sicily, and Parma. Spain and Luxembourg currently have monarchs of the House of Bourbon.

Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and Bohemia

Charles VI succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia, King of Hungary and Croatia, Serbia and Archduke of Austria in 1711. He unsuccessfully claimed the throne of Spain following the death of his relative, Charles II, In 1708 He married Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, by whom he had his two children: Maria Theresa, the last Habsburg sovereign, and Maria Anna, Governess of the Austrian Netherlands.

The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, and its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Prince Metternich; they had a grand strategy for survival that kept the empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. [3] Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries.

Klemens von Metternich Austrian diplomat

Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar, Prince of Metternich-Winneburg zu Beilstein, was an Austrian diplomat who was at the center of European affairs for four decades as the Austrian Empire's foreign minister from 1809 and Chancellor from 1821 until the liberal Revolutions of 1848 forced his resignation.

The Capetian dynasty, also known as the House of France, is a dynasty of Frankish origin, founded by Hugh Capet. It is among the largest and oldest royal houses in Europe and the world, and consists of Hugh Capet's male-line descendants. The senior line ruled in France as the House of Capet from the election of Hugh Capet in 987 until the death of Charles IV in 1328. That line was succeeded by cadet branches, the Houses of Valois and then Bourbon, which ruled until the French Revolution.

Continental Europe continent of Europe, excluding European islands

Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe, excluding its surrounding islands. It can also be referred to ambiguously as the European continent – which can conversely mean the whole of Europe – and by Europeans, simply the Continent.

Principal roles

Their principal roles (including the roles of their cadet branches) were as follows:

In history and heraldry, a cadet branch consists of the male-line descendants of a monarch or patriarch's younger sons (cadets). In the ruling dynasties and noble families of much of Europe and Asia, the family's major assets—realm, titles, fiefs, property and income—have historically been passed from a father to his firstborn son in what is known as primogeniture; younger sons—cadets—inherited less wealth and authority to pass to future generations of descendants.

Numerous other titles were attached to the crowns listed above.

History

Part of a series on the
History of Austria
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Timeline

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Counts of Habsburg

The Habsburg dominions around 1200 in the area of modern-day Switzerland are shown as Habsburg, among the houses of Savoy,      Zahringer and Kyburg Schweiz um 1200.png
The Habsburg dominions around 1200 in the area of modern-day Switzerland are shown as      Habsburg, among the houses of       Savoy ,       Zähringer and       Kyburg

The progenitor of the House of Habsburg may have been Guntram the Rich, a count in the Breisgau who lived in the 10th century, and forewith farther back as the early medieval Adalrich, Duke of Alsace, father of the Etichonids from which Habsburg derives. His grandson Radbot, Count of Habsburg founded the Habsburg Castle, after which the Habsburgs are named. The origins of the castle's name, located in what is now the Swiss canton of Aargau, are uncertain. There is disagreement on whether the name is derived from the High German Habichtsburg (hawk castle), or from the Middle High German word hab/hap meaning ford, as there is a river with a ford nearby. The first documented use of the name by the dynasty itself has been traced to the year 1108. [5] [6] [7] The Habsburg Castle was the family seat in the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries.

The Habsburgs expanded their influence through arranged marriages and by gaining political privileges, especially countship rights in Zürichgau, Aargau and Thurgau. In the 13th century, the house aimed its marriage policy at families in Upper Alsace and Swabia. They were also able to gain high positions in the church hierarchy for their members. Territorially, they often profited from the extinction of other noble families such as the House of Kyburg. [8]

Kings of the Romans

By the second half of the 13th century, count Rudolph IV (1218–1291) had become one of the most influential territorial lords in the area between the Vosges Mountains and Lake Constance. Due to these impressive preconditions, on 1 October 1273, Rudolph was chosen as the King of the Romans and received the name Rudolph I of Germany. [8]

In 1282, the Habsburgs gained the rulership of the Duchy of Austria, which they then held for over 600 years, until 1918. Through the forged privilegium maius document (1358/59), a special bond was created between the house and Austria. The document, forged at the behest of Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria (1339–1365), also attempted to introduce rules to preserve the unity of the family's Austrian lands. In the long term, this indeed succeeded, but Rudolph's brothers ignored the rule, leading to the separation of the Albertian and Leopoldian family lines in 1379. [8]

By marrying Elisabeth of Luxembourg, the daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund in 1437, Duke Albert V (1397–1439) became the ruler of Bohemia and Hungary, expanding the family's political horizons. The next year, Albert V was crowned as the King of the Romans as Albert II. After his early death in war with the Turks in 1439, and after the death of his son Ladislaus Postumus in 1457, the Habsburgs lost Bohemia and Hungary again. National kingdoms were established in these areas, and the Habsburgs were not able to restore their influence there for decades.

Holy Roman emperors

Growth of the Habsburg Empire in Central Europe Growth of Habsburg territories.jpg
Growth of the Habsburg Empire in Central Europe

In 1440, Frederick III was chosen by the electoral college to succeed Albert II as the king. Several Habsburg kings had attempted to gain the imperial throne over the years, but success finally arrived on 19 March 1452, when Pope Nicholas V crowned Frederick III as the Holy Roman Emperor in a grand ceremony held in Rome. In Frederick III, the Pope found an important political ally with whose help he was able to counter the conciliar movement. [8]

While in Rome, Frederick III married Eleanor of Portugal, enabling him to build a network of connections with dynasties in the west and southeast of Europe. Frederick was rather distant to his family; Eleanor, by contrast, had a great influence on the raising and education of Frederick's children, and therefore played an important role in the family's rise to prominence. After Frederick III's coronation, the Habsburgs were able to hold the imperial throne almost continuously for centuries, until 1806. [8]

As emperor, Frederick III took a leading role inside the family and positioned himself as the judge over the family's internal conflicts, often making use of the privilegium maius . He was able to restore the unity of the house's Austrian lands, as the Albertinian line was now extinct. Territorial integrity was also strengthened by the extinction of the Tyrolean branch of the Leopoldian line in 1490/1496. Frederick's aim was to make Austria a united country, stretching from the Rhine to the Mur and Leitha. [8]

On the external front, one of Frederick's main achievements was the Siege of Neuss (1474–75), in which he forced Charles the Bold of Burgundy to give his daughter Mary of Burgundy as wife to Frederick's son Maximilian. [8] The wedding took place on the evening of 16 August 1477 and ultimately resulted in the Habsburgs acquiring control of the Low Countries. After Mary's early death in 1482, Maximilian attempted to secure the Burgundian heritance to one of his and Mary's children Philip the Handsome. Charles VIII of France contested this, using both military and dynastic means, but the Burgundian succession was finally ruled in favour of Philip in the Treaty of Senlis in 1493. [9]

After the death of his father in 1493, Maximilian was proclaimed the new King of the Romans, receiving the name Maximilian I. Maximilian was initially unable to travel to Rome to receive the Imperial title from the Pope, due to opposition from Venice and from the French who were occupying Milan, as well a refusal from the Pope due to enemy forces being present on his territory. In 1508, Maximilian proclaimed himself as the "chosen Emperor," and this was also recognized by the Pope due to changes in political alliances. This had a historical consequence in that, in the future, the Roman King would also automatically become Emperor, without needing the Pope's consent. In 1530, Emperor Charles V became the last person to be crowned as the Emperor by the Pope. [9]

A map of the dominion of the Habsburgs following the Battle of Muhlberg (1547) as depicted in The Cambridge Modern History Atlas (1912); Habsburg lands are shaded green, but do not include the lands of the Holy Roman Empire over which they presided, nor the vast Castilian holdings outside of Europe, particularly in the New World. Habsburg Map 1547.jpg
A map of the dominion of the Habsburgs following the Battle of Mühlberg (1547) as depicted in The Cambridge Modern History Atlas (1912); Habsburg lands are shaded green, but do not include the lands of the Holy Roman Empire over which they presided, nor the vast Castilian holdings outside of Europe, particularly in the New World.

Maximilian's rule (1493–1519) was a time of great expansion for the Habsburgs. In 1497, Maximilian's son Philip the Handsome (also known as Phillip the Fair) married Joanna of Castile, also known as Joan the Mad, heiress of Castile, Aragon, and most of Spain. Phillip and Joan had six children, the eldest of whom became emperor Charles V and inherited the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon (including their colonies in the New World) as Charles I, Southern Italy, Austria, and the Low Countries. [10]

The foundations for the later empire of Austria-Hungary were laid in 1515 by the means of a double wedding between Louis, only son of Vladislaus II, King of Bohemia and Hungary, and Maximilian's granddaughter Mary; and between her brother Archduke Ferdinand and Vladislaus' daughter Anna. The wedding was celebrated in grand style on 22 July 1515, and has been described by some historians as the First Congress of Vienna due to its significant implications for Europe's political landscape. All the children were still minors, so the wedding was formally completed in 1521. Vladislaus died on 13 March 1516, and Maximilian died on 12 January 1519, but his designs were ultimately successful: on Louis's death in 1526, Maximilian's grandson and Charles V's brother Ferdinand, became the King of Bohemia.

The Habsburg dynasty achieved the position of a true world power by the time of Charles V's election in 1519, for the first and only time in their history—the "World Emperor" ruling an "empire on which the sun never sets".

The Habsburgs' policies against Protestantism led to an eradication of the former throughout vast areas under their control.

Division of the house: Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs

The Spanish and Austrian Habsburg Dominions in 1700, not showing their overseas empire, but showing the division between the Spanish and Austrian branch with their losses and gains. Habsburg dominions 1700.png
The Spanish and Austrian Habsburg Dominions in 1700, not showing their overseas empire, but showing the division between the Spanish and Austrian branch with their losses and gains.

After the abdication of Charles V in 1556, the Habsburg dynasty split into the branch of the Austrian Habsburgs and the branch of the Spanish Habsburgs. [11] Ferdinand I, King of Bohemia, Hungary, [12] and archduke of Austria in the name of his brother Charles V, became suo jure monarch as well as the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor (designated as successor already in 1531). Philip II of Spain, son of Charles V, became King of Spain and its colonial empire, and ruler of the Mezzogiorno of Italy. The Spanish Habsburgs also ruled Portugal for a time (1580–1640).

The Seventeen Provinces and the Duchy of Milan were also left in personal union under the King of Spain, but remained part of the Holy Roman Empire. Furthermore, the Spanish king had claims on Hungary and Bohemia. In the secret Oñate treaty, the Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs settled their mutual claims. The Spanish Habsburgs died out in 1700 (prompting the War of the Spanish Succession), as did the last male of the Austrian Habsburg line in 1740 (prompting the War of the Austrian Succession), and finally the last female of the Habsburg male line in 1780.

Extinction of the Spanish Habsburgs

The Habsburgs sought to consolidate their power by the frequent use of consanguineous marriages. This resulted in a cumulatively deleterious effect on their gene pool. Marriages between first cousins, or between uncle and niece, were commonplace in the family. A study of 3,000 family members over 16 generations by the University of Santiago de Compostela suggests that inbreeding directly led to their extinction. The gene pool eventually became so small that the last of the Spanish line Charles II, who was severely disabled from birth, perhaps by genetic disorders, possessed a genome comparable to that of a child born to a brother and sister, as did his father, probably because of "remote inbreeding". [13] [14]

Extinction of the Austrian Habsburgs

The Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Charles VI and in the female line in 1780 with the death of his daughter Maria Theresa; it was succeeded by the Vaudemont branch of the House of Lorraine in the person of her son Joseph II. The new successor house styled itself formally as House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen), although it was often referred to as simply the House of Habsburg. The heiress of the last Austrian Habsburgs Maria Theresa had married Francis Stephan, Duke of Lorraine [15] (both of them were great-grandchildren of Habsburg Emperor Ferdinand III, but from different empresses). Their descendants carried on the Habsburg tradition from Vienna under the dynastic name Habsburg-Lorraine, although technically a new ruling house came into existence in the Austrian territories, the House of Lorraine (see Dukes of Lorraine family tree). It is thought that extensive intra-family marriages within both lines contributed to their extinctions.

Habsburg-Lorraine

Austria-Hungary in 1915
Austria-Hungary map new.svg
Kingdoms and countries of Austria-Hungary:
Cisleithania (Empire of Austria [16] ): 1. Bohemia, 2. Bukovina, 3. Carinthia, 4. Carniola, 5. Dalmatia, 6. Galicia, 7. Küstenland, 8. Lower Austria, 9. Moravia, 10. Salzburg, 11. Silesia, 12. Styria, 13. Tirol, 14. Upper Austria, 15. Vorarlberg;
Transleithania (Kingdom of Hungary [16] ): 16. Hungary proper 17. Croatia-Slavonia; 18. Bosnia and Herzegovina (Austro-Hungarian condominium)

On 6 August 1806 the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved under the French Emperor Napoleon I's reorganization of Germany. However, in anticipation of the loss of his title of Holy Roman Emperor, Francis II declared himself hereditary Emperor of Austria (as Francis I) on 11 August 1804, three months after Napoleon had declared himself Emperor of the French on 18 May 1804.

Emperor Francis I of Austria used the official full list of titles: "We, Francis the First, by the grace of God Emperor of Austria; King of Jerusalem, Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Galicia and Lodomeria; Archduke of Austria; Duke of Lorraine, Salzburg, Würzburg, Franconia, Styria, Carinthia, and Carniola; Grand Duke of Cracow; Grand Prince of Transylvania; Margrave of Moravia; Duke of Sandomir, Masovia, Lublin, Upper and Lower Silesia, Auschwitz and Zator, Teschen, and Friule; Prince of Berchtesgaden and Mergentheim; Princely Count of Habsburg, Gorizia, and Gradisca and of the Tyrol; and Margrave of Upper and Lower Lusatia and Istria".

The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 created a real union, whereby the Kingdom of Hungary was granted co-equality with the Empire of Austria, that henceforth didn't include the Kingdom of Hungary as a crownland anymore. The Austrian and the Hungarian lands became independent entities enjoying equal status [17] Under this arrangement, the Hungarians referred to their ruler as king and never emperor (see k. u. k.). This prevailed until the Habsburgs' deposition from both Austria and Hungary in 1918 following defeat in World War I.

An ethno-linguistic map of Austria-Hungary, 1910 Austria Hungary ethnic.svg
An ethno-linguistic map of Austria–Hungary, 1910

On 11 November 1918, with his empire collapsing around him, the last Habsburg ruler, Charles I of Austria (who also reigned as Charles IV of Hungary) issued a proclamation recognizing Austria's right to determine the future of the state and renouncing any role in state affairs. Two days later, he issued a separate proclamation for Hungary. Even though he did not officially abdicate, this is considered the end of the Habsburg dynasty. In 1919, the new republican Austrian government subsequently passed a law banishing the Habsburgs from Austrian territory until they renounced all intentions of regaining the throne and accepted the status of private citizens. Charles made several attempts to regain the throne of Hungary, and in 1921 the Hungarian government passed a law which revoked Charles' rights and dethroned the Habsburgs.

The Habsburgs did not formally abandon all hope of returning to power until Otto von Habsburg, the eldest son of Charles I, on 31 May 1961 renounced all claims to the throne.

The dynasty's motto was "Leave the waging of wars to others! But you, happy Austria, marry; for the realms which Mars awards to others, Venus transfers to you." [18]

Family tree

Similarly, this family tree only includes male scions of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine who survived to adulthood:

Habsburg-Lorraine Genealogy.PNG

Monarchs of the House of Habsburg

The Habsburg Empire was never composed of a single unified and unitary state as Bourbon France, Hohenzollern Germany, or Great Britain was. It was made up of an accretion of territories that owed their historic loyalty to the head of the house of Habsburg as hereditary lord. The Habsburgs had mostly married the heiresses of these territories, most famously of Spain and the Netherlands. They used their coats of arms then as a statement of their right to rule all these territories. As there were many territories, so their arms were complex and reflected the waxing and waning position of the Habsburgs within European power politics. It was not until the 19th century (see below Arms of Dominion of the Austro-Hungarian Empire) that the arms began to take on their own life as symbols of a state which may have an existence outside of the Habsburg dynasty. A complete listing of the arms can be found at the Habsburg Armory.

Ancestors

Counts of Habsburg

Rangkronen-Fig. 18.svg
Arms of the Counts of Habsburgs. The Habsburgs all but abandoned this for the arms of Austria. It only reappeared in their triarch family arms in 1805. Arms of Counts of Habsbourg.svg
Arms of the Counts of Habsburgs. The Habsburgs all but abandoned this for the arms of Austria. It only reappeared in their triarch family arms in 1805.

Before Rudolph rose to German king, the Habsburgs were Counts of Baden in what is today southwestern Germany and Switzerland. [20]

Dukes/Archdukes of Austria

Ducal Hat of Styria.svg
The arms of Austria, originally belonging to the Babenberg dukes. They became all but synonmous with the Habsburgs, as the Habsburgs abandoned their own arms for these. Gules a fess argent.svg
The arms of Austria, originally belonging to the Babenberg dukes. They became all but synonmous with the Habsburgs, as the Habsburgs abandoned their own arms for these.

In the late Middle Ages, when the Habsburgs expanded their territories in the east, they usually ruled as dukes of the Duchy of Austria which covered only what is today Lower Austria (Niederösterreich) and the eastern part of Upper Austria (Oberösterreich). The Habsburg possessions also included the rest of what was then called Inner Austria (Innerösterreich), i.e. the Duchy of Styria, and then expanded west to include the Duchy of Carinthia and Carniola in 1335 and the Count of Tirol in 1363. Their original scattered possessions in the southern Alsace, south-western Germany and Vorarlberg were collectively known as Further Austria.

The senior Habsburg dynast generally ruled Lower Austria from Vienna as archduke ("paramount duke") of the Duchy of Austria. The Styrian lands had already been ruled in personal union by the Babenberg dukes of Austria since 1192 and were finally seized with the Austrian lands by the Habsburg king Rudolph I of Germany upon his victory in the 1278 Battle on the Marchfeld. In 1335 Rudolph's grandson Duke Albert II of Austria also received the Carinthian duchy with the adjacent March of Carniola at the hands of Emperor Louis the Bavarian as Imperial fiefs.

The Habsburg dukes gradually lost their homelands south of the Rhine and Lake Constance to the expanding Old Swiss Confederacy. Unless mentioned explicitly, the dukes of Austria also ruled over Further Austria until 1379, after that year, Further Austria was ruled by the Princely Count of Tyrol. Names in italics designate dukes who never actually ruled.

When Albert's son Duke Rudolf IV of Austria died in 1365, his younger brothers Albert III and Leopold III quarrelled about his heritage and in the Treaty of Neuberg of 1379 finally split the Habsburg territories: The Albertinian line would rule in the Archduchy of Austria proper (then sometimes referred to as "Lower Austria" (Niederösterreich), but comprising modern Lower Austria and most of Upper Austria), while the Leopoldian line ruled in the Styrian, Carinthian and Carniolan territories, subsumed under the denotation of "Inner Austria". At that time their share also comprised Tyrol and the original Habsburg possessions in Swabia, called Further Austria; sometimes both were collectively referred to as "Upper Austria" (Oberösterreich) in that context, also not to be confused with the modern state of that name.

After the death of Leopold's eldest son William in 1406, the Leopoldinian line was further split among his brothers into the Inner Austrian territory under Ernest the Iron and a Tyrolean/Further Austrian line under Frederick IV. In 1457 Ernest's son Duke Frederick V of Inner Austria also gained the Austrian archduchy after his Albertine cousin Ladislaus the Posthumous had died without issue. 1490 saw the reunification of all Habsburg lines, when Archduke Sigismund of Further Austria and Tyrol resigned in favour of Frederick's son Maximilian I. In 1512, the Habsburg territories were incorporated into the Imperial Austrian Circle.

Map of showing the constituent lands of the Archduchy of Austria: the Duchy of Austria comprising Upper Austria centred around Linz and Lower Austria centered around Vienna, Inner Austria comprising duchies of Styria, Carinthia and Carniola and the lands of the Austrian Littoral centered on Graz, and Further Austria comprising mostly the Sundgau territory with the town of Belfort in southern Alsace, the adjacent Breisgau region east of the Rhine, and usually the County of Tyrol. The part between Further Austria and the duchy of Austria was the Archbishopric of Salzburg. Carte archiduche Autriche.svg
Map of showing the constituent lands of the Archduchy of Austria: the Duchy of Austria comprising Upper Austria centred around Linz and Lower Austria centered around Vienna, Inner Austria comprising duchies of Styria, Carinthia and Carniola and the lands of the Austrian Littoral centered on Graz, and Further Austria comprising mostly the Sundgau territory with the town of Belfort in southern Alsace, the adjacent Breisgau region east of the Rhine, and usually the County of Tyrol. The part between Further Austria and the duchy of Austria was the Archbishopric of Salzburg.

Archduke of Austria, was invented in the Privilegium Maius , a 14th-century forgery initiated by Duke Rudolf IV of Austria. Originally, it was meant to denote the "ruler" (thus "Arch-") of the duchy of Austria, usually from Vienna, in an effort to put the Habsburgs on a par with the Prince-electors, as Austria had been bypassed as hereditary prince-electors of the empire when the Golden Bull of 1356 assigned that title to the highest ranking Imperial princes. The Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV refused to recognise the title.

The archducal title was only officially recognized in 1453 by Emperor Frederick III. [21] Emperor Frederick III himself used just "Duke of Austria", never Archduke, until his death in 1493. The title was first granted to Frederick's younger brother, Albert VI of Austria (died 1463), who used it at least from 1458.

In 1477, Frederick III also granted the title archduke to his first cousin, Sigismund of Austria, ruler of Further Austria. Frederick's son and heir, the future Emperor Maximilian I, started to use the title, but apparently only after the death of his wife Mary of Burgundy (died 1482), as Archduke never appears in documents issued jointly by Maximilian and Mary as rulers in the Low Countries (where Maximilian is still titled "Duke of Austria"). The title appears first in documents issued under the joint rule of Maximilian and Philip (his under-age son) in the Low Countries.

Archduke was initially borne by those dynasts who ruled a Habsburg territory, i.e., only by males and their consorts, appanages being commonly distributed to cadets. But these "junior" archdukes did not thereby become independent hereditary rulers, since all territories remained vested in the Austrian crown. Occasionally a territory might be combined with a separate gubernatorial mandate ruled by an archducal cadet.

From the 16th century onward, archduke and its female form, archduchess, came to be used by all the members of the House of Habsburg (e.g., Queen Marie Antoinette of France was born Archduchess Maria Antonia of Austria.

After the death of Rudolph IV, his brothers Albert III and Leopold III ruled the Habsburg possessions together from 1365 until 1379, when they split the territories in the Treaty of Neuberg, Albert keeping the Duchy of Austria and Leopold ruling over Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, the Windic March, Tirol, and Further Austria.

Albertine line: Dukes of Austria

Ducal Hat of Styria.svg

Leopoldine line: Dukes of Styria, Carinthia, Tyrol (Inner Austria)

Ducal Hat of Styria.svg
Armoiries Habsbourg-Styrie.svg

Leopoldine-Inner Austrian sub-line

Ducal Hat of Styria.svg

Leopoldine-Tyrol sub-line

Ducal Hat of Styria.svg
  • Frederick IV (Friedrich), brother of Ernst, 1402–1439 duke of Tyrol and Further Austria
  • Sigismund, also spelled Siegmund or Sigmund, 1439–1446 under the tutelage of the Frederick V above, then duke of Tyrol, and after the death of Albrecht VI in 1463 also duke of Further Austria.

Reuniting of Habsburg possessions

Sigismund had no children and adopted Maximilian I, son of duke Frederick V (emperor Frederick III). Under Maximilian, the possessions of the Habsburgs would be united again under one ruler, after he had re-conquered the Duchy of Austria after the death of Matthias Corvinus, who resided in Vienna and styled himself duke of Austria from 1485–1490.

King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperors prior to the reunion of the Habsburg possessions

Heraldic Imperial Crown (Common).svg

Kings of Hungary and Bohemia prior to the reunion of the Habsburg possessions

Crown of Saint Stephen.svg
Crown of St. Wenceslas.svg

Holy Roman Emperors, Archdukes of Austria

Heraldic Imperial Crown (Common).svg
Archducal Coronet.svg

The title Archduke of Austria, the one most famously associated with the Habsburgs, was invented in the Privilegium Maius, a 14th-century forgery initiated by Duke Rudolf IV of Austria. Originally, it was meant to denote the ruler of the (thus 'Arch')duchy of Austria, in an effort to put that ruler on par with the Prince-electors, as Austria had been passed over in the Golden Bull of 1356, when the electorships had been assigned. Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV refused to recognize the title. Ladislaus the Posthumous, Duke of Austria, who died in 1457, was never in his lifetime authorized to use it, and accordingly, not he nor anyone in his branch of the dynasty ever used the title.

Duke Ernest the Iron and his descendants unilaterally assumed the title "archduke". This title was only officially recognized in 1453 by his son, Emperor Frederick III, when the Habsburgs had (permanently) gained control of the office of the Holy Roman Emperor. Emperor Frederick III himself used just Duke of Austria, never Archduke, until his death in 1493.

Frederick's son and heir, the future Emperor Maximilian I, started to use the title, but apparently only after the death of his wife Mary of Burgundy (died 1482) as the title never appears in documents of joint Maximilian and Mary rule in the Low Countries (where Maximilian is still titled Duke of Austria). The title appears first in documents of joint Maximilian and Philip (his under-age son) rule in the Low Countries. It only gained currency with Charles V and the descendants of his brother, the Emperor Ferdinand.

Titular Dukes of Burgundy, Lords of the Netherlands

Cross of Burgundy-Gules and Link.svg


Coat of Arms of Philip IV of Burgundy.svg

The reigning duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold, was the chief political opponent of Maximilian's father Frederick III. Charles controlled not only Burgundy (both dukedom and county), but the wealthy and powerful Southern Netherlands, current Flanders, the real center of his power. Frederick was concerned about Burgundy's expansive tendencies on the western border of his Holy Roman Empire, and to forestall military conflict, he attempted to secure the marriage of Charles's only daughter, Mary of Burgundy, to his son Maximilian. After the Siege of Neuss (1474–75), he was successful. The wedding between Maximilian and Mary took place on the evening of 16 August 1477, after the death of Charles. [22] Mary and the Habsburgs lost the Duchy of Burgundy to France, but managed to defend and hold onto the rest what became the 17 provinces of the Habsburg Netherlands. After Mary's death in 1482, Maximilian acted as regent for his son:

The Netherlands were frequently governed directly by a regent or governor-general, who was a collateral member of the Habsburgs. By the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 Charles V combined the Netherlands into one administrative unit, to be inherited by his son Philip II. Charles effectively united the Netherlands as one entity. The Habsburgs controlled the 17 Provinces of the Netherlands until the Dutch Revolt in the second half of the 16th century, when they lost the seven northern Protestant provinces. They held onto the southern Catholic part (roughly modern Belgium and Luxembourg) as the Spanish and Austrian Netherlands until they were conquered by French Revolutionary armies in 1795. The one exception to this was the period of (1601–1621), when shortly before Philip II died on 13 September 1598, he renounced his rights to the Netherlands in favor of his daughter Isabella and her fiancé, Archduke Albert of Austria, a younger son of Emperor Maximilian II. The territories reverted to Spain on the death of Albert in 1621, as the couple had no surviving offspring, and Isabella acted as regent-governor until her death in 1633:

King of England

Spanish Habsburgs: Kings of Spain, Kings of Portugal (1581–1640)

Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1580-1668).svg
Coat of arms of Spanish Habsburgs (1581-1621 Version) showing the shield as kings of Portugal. Portugal regained its independence in 1640, and when Spain acknowledged this in 1668, it was removed. Full Ornamented Coat of Arms of Philip II of Spain (1580-1598).svg
Coat of arms of Spanish Habsburgs (1581–1621 Version) showing the shield as kings of Portugal. Portugal regained its independence in 1640, and when Spain acknowledged this in 1668, it was removed.

The Habsburg Kingdom(s) of Spain were more a personal union of possessions of the Habsburg king and dynast, who was King of Castile, Leon, Aragon, Valencia, sometime of Portugal, Naples and Sicily, Duke of Milan, and Lord of the Americas, as well as Duke of Brabant, Count of Flanders and Holland, Duke of Luxemburg (i.e. all the Habsburg Netherlands). A listing of a number of the titles can be seen here. The dynast (head of the Spanish Habsburgs, i.e. the King, showed this wide range of claims in his arms. There are many more variants of these arms in the Habsburg Armory, Spanish Section as well as coat of arms of the King of Spain, coat of arms of Spain, coat of arms of the Prince of Asturias, and coats of arms of Spanish Monarchs in Italy. The Spanish Habsburgs also kept up the Burgundian court tradition of the dynast being known by a "nickname" (e.g. the Bold, the Prudent, the Bewitched). [23] In Spain they were known as the ""Casa de Austria", and illegitimate sons were known as "de Austria" (see Don Juan de Austria and Don Juan José de Austria).

The War of the Spanish Succession took place after the extinction of the Spanish Habsburg line, to determine the inheritance of Charles II.

Austrian Habsburgs: Holy Roman Emperors, Kings of Hungary and Bohemia, Archdukes of Austria

Heraldic Imperial Crown (Common).svg
Crown of Saint Stephen.svg
Crown of St. Wenceslas.svg
Archducal Coronet.svg

The main junior line of the house ruled the Duchy of Austria, as well as the Kingdom of Bohemia and the Kingdom of Hungary. The dynasty however was split up again in 1564 among the children of deceased Emperor Ferdinand I of Habsburg. The Inner Austrian line founded by Archduke Charles II prevailed again, when his son and successor as regent of Inner Austria (i.e. the Duchy of Styria, the Duchy of Carniola with March of Istria, the Duchy of Carinthia, the Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca, and the Imperial City of Trieste, ruled from Graz) Ferdinand II in 1619 became Archduke of Austria and Holy Roman Emperor as well as King of Bohemia and Hungary in 1620. The Further Austrian/Tyrolean line of Ferdinand's brother Archduke Leopold V survived until the death of his son Sigismund Francis in 1665, whereafter their territories ultimately returned to common control with the other Austrian Habsburg lands. Inner Austrian stadtholders went on to rule until the days of Empress Maria Theresa in the 18th century.

The War of the Austrian Succession took place after the extinction of the male line of the Austrian Habsburg line upon the death of Charles VI. The direct Habsburg line itself became totally extinct with the death of Maria Theresa of Austria, when it was followed by the House of Lorraine, styled of Habsburg-Lorraine.

House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Holy Roman Emperors, Kings of Hungary and Bohemia, Archdukes of Austria

Heraldic Imperial Crown (Common).svg
Crown of Saint Stephen.svg
Crown of St. Wenceslas.svg
T08 Grossherzog.svg

Queen Maria Christina of Austria of Spain, great-granddaughter of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor above. Wife of Alfonso XII of Spain and mother of Alfonso XIII of the House of Bourbon. Alfonso XIII's wife Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg was descended from King George I of Great Britain from the Habsburg Leopold Line {above}.

The House of Habsburg-Lorraine retained Austria and attached possessions after the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire; see below.

A son of Leopold II was Archduke Rainer of Austria whose wife was from the House of Savoy; a daughter Adelaide, Queen of Sardina was the wife of King Victor Emmanuel II of Piedmont, Savoy, and Sardinia and King of Italy. Their Children married into the Royal Houses of Bonaparte; Saxe-Coburg and Gotha {Bragança} {Portugal}; Savoy {Spain}; and the Dukedoms of Montferrat and Chablis.

House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Emperors of Austria

Imperial Crown of Austria (Heraldry).svg


Wappen Habsburg-Lothringen Schild.svg
Small Coat of Arms of the Austrian Empire adopted by Francis I in 1804. On the center is the Small (personal) Coat of arms of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine adopted by Emperor Francis I. It shows (left to right) the arms of Habsburg, which had all but been abandoned in favor of Austria when the Habsburgs acquired Austria, the Arms of Austria, and the Arms of Lorraine. Coat of Arms of Emperor Franz Joseph I.svg
Small Coat of Arms of the Austrian Empire adopted by Francis I in 1804. On the center is the Small (personal) Coat of arms of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine adopted by Emperor Francis I. It shows (left to right) the arms of Habsburg, which had all but been abandoned in favor of Austria when the Habsburgs acquired Austria, the Arms of Austria, and the Arms of Lorraine.

(→Family Tree)

House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Grand dukes of Tuscany

Coat of arms of the House of Habsurg-Lorraine (Tuscany line).svg

Francis Stephen assigned the grand duchy of Tuscany to his second son Peter Leopold, who in turn assigned it to his second son upon his accession as Holy Roman Emperor. Tuscany remained the domain of this cadet branch of the family until Italian unification.

House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Tuscany line, post monarchy

Coat of arms of the House of Habsurg-Lorraine (Tuscany line).svg

House of Habsburg-Lorraine (Austria-Este): Dukes of Modena

The duchy of Modena was assigned to a minor branch of the family by the Congress of Vienna. It was lost to Italian unification. The Dukes named their line the House of Austria-Este, as they were descended from the daughter of the last D'Este Duke of Modena.

House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Modena line, post monarchy

Coat of Arms of the House of Habsburg Este.svg

House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Archduchess of Austria, Empress consort of Brazil and Queen consort of Portugal

Dona Maria Leopoldina of Austria (22 January 1797 – 11 December 1826) was an archduchess of Austria, Empress consort of Brazil and Queen consort of Portugal.

House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Empress consort of France

House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Duchess of Parma

The duchy of Parma was likewise assigned to a Habsburg, but did not stay in the House long before succumbing to Italian unification. It was granted to the second wife of Napoleon I of France, Maria Luisa Duchess of Parma, a daughter of the Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, who was the mother of Napoleon II of France. Napoleon had divorced his wife Rose de Tascher de la Pagerie (better known to history as Josephine de Beauharnais) in her favour.

House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Emperor of Mexico

Coat of Arms of the Mexican Empire adopted by Maximilian I in 1864 Coat of arms of Mexico (1864-1867).svg
Coat of Arms of the Mexican Empire adopted by Maximilian I in 1864

Maximilian, the adventurous second son of Archduke Franz Karl, was invited as part of Napoleon III's manipulations to take the throne of Mexico, becoming Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico. The conservative Mexican nobility, as well as the clergy, supported this Second Mexican Empire. His consort, Charlotte of Belgium, a daughter of King Leopold I of Belgium and a princess of the House of Saxe-Coburg Gotha, encouraged her husband's acceptance of the Mexican crown and accompanied him as Empress Carlota of Mexico. The adventure did not end well. Maximilian was shot in Cerro de las Campanas, Querétaro, in 1867 by the republican forces of Benito Juárez.

House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Heads of the House of Habsburg (post-monarchy)

Charles I was expelled from his domains after World War I and the empire was abolished. [20]

Current personal arms of the head of the house of Habsburg, claiming only the personal title of Archduke Habsburg Lothringen.png
Current personal arms of the head of the house of Habsburg, claiming only the personal title of Archduke

see Line of succession to the Austro-Hungarian throne

Burials

Kings of Hungary

The kingship of Hungary remained in the Habsburg family for centuries; but as the kingship was not strictly inherited (Hungary was an elective monarchy until 1687) and was sometimes used as a training ground for young Habsburgs, as "Palatine" of Hungary, the dates of rule do not always match those of the primary Habsburg possessions. Therefore, the kings of Hungary are listed separately.

Crown of Saint Stephen.svg
Arms of Hungary.svg

Albertine line: Kings of Hungary

Austrian Habsburgs: Kings of Hungary

House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Kings of Hungary

Crown of Saint Stephen.svg
Coa Hungary Country History Mid (1915).svg

Kings of Bohemia

Crown of St. Wenceslas.svg
Blason Boheme.svg

After Václav III’s death, there were no male heirs remaining in the Přemyslid line. Therefore, with the election of Rudolf in 1306, the kingship of Bohemia was a position elected by its nobles, although often the crown was transferred through war, such as John of Bohemia in 1310. [25] As a result, it was not an automatically inherited position. Until the rule of Ferdinand I, Habsburgs didn't gain hereditary accession to the throne and were displaced by other dynasties. Hence, the kings of Bohemia and their ruling dates are listed separately. The Habsburgs became hereditary kings of Bohemia in 1627. By their acquisition of the Bohemian Crown in 1526 the Habsburgs secured the highest rank among the secular prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire.

Main line

Albertine line: Kings of Bohemia

Austrian Habsburgs: Kings of Bohemia

House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Kings of Bohemia

Family name Habsburg

Most royal families did not have a family name until the 19th century. They were known as "of" (in German von) based on the main territory they ruled. For example, sons, daughters, grandsons and granddaughters of a ruling French King were known as "of France" (see Wikipedia on House of Bourbon). The name "Capet" was an invention of the French Revolutionaries. "Bourbon" was in some sense the name of the house as it was differentiated from the previous Valois kings. Princes and Princesses of the royal house of England were known as "of England", or later "Great Britain" (see House of Windsor) or "of" the main title associated with their parent (see Prince William of Wales). In the Middle Ages, princes of England were often known by the town or castle of their birth (see John of Gaunt, Henry Bolingbroke, or Henry of Monmouth). Even when the royal family had a last name (see House of Tudor, House of Stuart or House of Windsor), it was not used in their titles.

Similarly, the Habsburg name was used as one of the subsidiary titles of the rulers above, as in "Princely Count of Habsburg" (see above under Habsburg-Lorraine). The Habsburg arms (see above) were displayed only in the most complete (great arms) of the prince. The dynasty was known as the "house of Austria". Most of the princes above were known as Archduke xyz "of Austria" and had no need of a surname. Charles V was known in his youth after his birthplace as "Charles of Ghent". When he became king of the Spains he was known as "Charles of Spain", until he became emperor, when he was known as Charles V ("Charles Quint"). In Spain, the dynasty was known as the "casa de Austria", and illegitimate sons were given the title of "de Austria" (see Don Juan de Austria and Don Juan José de Austria). The arms displayed in their simplest form were those of Austria, which the Habsburgs had made their own, at times impaled with the arms of the Duchy of Burgundy (ancient).

Arms of Maximilian I of Habsburg.svg
Habsburg Lorraine.png
Habsburg Lorraine Tuscany.png
Habsburg Lorraine Trishield.png
Arms of Austria impaled with Burgundy (ancient). The most personal arms of Austrian princes from 1477 until 1740 (see here
Personal Arms of Joseph II and Marie Antoinette showing Austria impaled with Lorraine.
Tripartite personal arms of Leopold II and Francis II/I showing Austria, Lorraine and Tuscany, and used by the House of Austria-Tuscany (see Archduke Sigismund, Grand Duke of Tuscany).
Tripartite personal arms of the "Habsburg" ruling house after 1805 showing the return to prominence of the Habsburg arms. Used today by most archdukes/archduchesses.

When Maria Theresa married the duke of Lorraine, Francis Stephen (see above), there was a desire to show that the ruling dynasty continued as did all its inherited rights, as the ruling dynasty's right to rule was based on inherited legitimate birthright in each of the constituent territories. Using the concept of "Habsburg" as the traditional Austrian ruler was one of those ways. When Francis I became Emperor of Austria, there was an even further reinforcement of this by the reappearance of the arms of Habsburg in the tripart personal arms of the house with Austria and Lorraine. This also reinforced the "Germaness" of the Austrian Emperor and his claim to rule in Germany against the Prussian Kings, or at least to be included in "Germany". As Emperor Francis Joseph wrote to Napoleon III „Nein, ich bin ein deutscher Fürst“ [26] In the genealogical table above, some younger sons who had no prospects of the throne, were given the personal title of "count of Habsburg".

Today, as the dynasty is no longer on the throne, the surname of members of the house is taken to be "von Habsburg" or more completely "von Habsburg-Lothringen" (see Otto von Habsburg and Karl von Habsburg). Princes and members of the house use the Tripartite arms shown above, generally forgoing any imperial pretensions.

Arms of Dominion of the Austro-Hungarian Empire

The arms of dominion began to take on a life of their own in the 19th century as the idea of the state as independent from the Habsburg dynasty took root. They are the national arms as borne by a sovereign in his capacity as head of state and represent the state as separate from the person of the monarch or his dynasty. That very idea had been, heretofore, foreign to the concept of the Habsburg state. The state had been the personal property of the Habsburg dynast. Since the states, territories, and nationalities represented were in many cases only united to the Austro-Hungarian Empire by their historic loyalty to the head of the house of Habsburg as hereditary lord, these full ("grand") arms of dominion of Austria-Hungary reflect the complex political infrastructure that was necessarily to accommodate the many different nationalities and groupings within the empire after the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867.

Shield of the Austrian part of the empire (1867-1915). Imperial Coat of Arms of the Empire of Austria.svg
Shield of the Austrian part of the empire (1867–1915).
Enumeration Coat of arms of Austria-Hungary with numbers 1867-1915.png
Enumeration

After 1867 the eastern part of the empire, also called Transleithania, was mostly under the domination of the Kingdom of Hungary. The shield integrated the arms of the kingdom of Hungary, with two angels and supporters and the crown of St. Stephen, along with the territories that were subject to it:

The Kingdom of Dalmatia, the Kingdom of Croatia, the Kingdom of Slavonia (conjoined with Croatia as the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia - formally known as the Triune Kingdom of Croatia, Slavonia, and Dalmatia, although the claim to Dalmatia was mostly de jure), the Great Principality of Transylvania, the Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1915–1918), the City of Fiume and its district (modern Rijeka), and in the center, the Kingdom of Hungary.

The western or Austrian part of the empire, Cisleithania , continued using the shield of the Empire in 1815 but with the seals of various member territories located around the central shield. Paradoxically, some of these coats of arms belonged to the territories that were part of the Hungarian part of the empire and shield. This shield, the most frequently used until 1915, was known as the middle shield. There was also the small shield, with just the personal arms of the Habsburgs, as used in 1815.

IIIIIIIVV
Coa Hungary Country History (19th Century).svg Wappen Konigreich Galizien & Lodomerien.png Wappen Erzherzogtum Osterreich unter der Enns.png Wappen Herzogtum Salzburg.png Wappen Herzogtum Steiermark.png
Kingdom of Hungary Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Archduchy of Austria Duchy of Salzburg Duchy of Styria
VIVIIVIII
Wappen Gefurstete Grafschaft Tirol.png Wappen Herzogtum Karnten.png Wappen Herzogtum Krain.png Wappen Markgrafschaft Mahren.png Wappen Herzogtum Schlesien.png
Duchy of Tirol Duchy of Carinthia and Duchy of Carniola (Marshalled) Margraviate of Moravia and Duchy of Silesia (Marshalled)
IXXXI
Wappen Grossfurstentum Siebenburgen.png CoA of Kingdom of Illyria.svg Wappen Konigreich Bohmen.png
Great Principality of Transylvania Kingdom of Illyria Kingdom of Bohemia

Version of 1915

In 1915, in the middle of World War I, Austria-Hungary adopted a heraldic composition uniting the shield that was used in the Hungarian part, also known as the Lands of the Crown of St. Stephen, with a new version of the medium shield of the Austrian part as depicted above in the section on the main line of the Emperors of Austria.

Before 1915, the arms of the different territories of the Austrian part of the Empire (heraldry was added to some areas not shown in the previous version and to the left to the Hungarian part) appeared together in the shield positioned on the double-headed eagle coat of arms of the Austrian Empire as an inescutcheon. The eagle was inside a shield with a gold field. The latter shield was supported by two griffins and was topped by the Austrian Imperial Crown (previously these items were included only in the large shield). Then, shown in the center of both arms of dominion, as an inescutcheon to the inescutcheon, is the small shield, i.e. personal arms, of the Habsburgs. All this was surrounded by the collar Order of the Golden Fleece [27] [28]

Middle Coat of arms of the Austrian part of the Empire in 1915. It shows as a center shield (inescutcheon) the personal arms of Habsburg-Lorraine over the arms of dominions of the Habsburg lands. It usually had the personal arms of Habsburg-Lorraine in the center. Wappen Osterreichische Lander 1915 (Mittel).png
Middle Coat of arms of the Austrian part of the Empire in 1915. It shows as a center shield (inescutcheon) the personal arms of Habsburg-Lorraine over the arms of dominions of the Habsburg lands. It usually had the personal arms of Habsburg-Lorraine in the center.

In the heraldic composition of 1915, the shields of the two foci of the empire, Austria and Hungary, were brought together. The griffin supporter on the left was added for Austria and an angel on the right as a supporter for Hungary. The center featured the personal arms of the Habsburgs (Habsburg, Austria and Lorraine). This small shield was topped with a royal crown and surrounded by the collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece, below which was the Military Order of Maria Theresa, below which was the collars of the Orders of St. Stephen's and Leopold. At the bottom was the motto that read "AC INDIVISIBILITER INSEPARABILITER" ("indivisible and inseparable"). There were other simplified versions which did not have the supports depicted, and the simple shields of Austria and Hungary. These were the arms of the Empire of Austria with an inescutcheon of Austria, and the Arms of Hungary (with chequer of Croatia at the tip).

Middle Common Coat of Arms of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1915 showing most of the larger possessions of the Austrian Empire (left shield) and the Kingdom of Hungary (right shield). The personal arms of the Habsburg-Lorraines is in the center. The collection of territories that acknowledged the head of the Habsburgs as personal ruler shown by this representation put the Empire at a distinct disadvantage in comparison with the unified nation states that it shared the continent of Europe with. Austria-Hungaria transparency.png
Middle Common Coat of Arms of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1915 showing most of the larger possessions of the Austrian Empire (left shield) and the Kingdom of Hungary (right shield). The personal arms of the Habsburg-Lorraines is in the center. The collection of territories that acknowledged the head of the Habsburgs as personal ruler shown by this representation put the Empire at a distinct disadvantage in comparison with the unified nation states that it shared the continent of Europe with.
Austrian Lands
ShieldPartitionTerritory
Austrian shield.jpg Wappen Osterreichische Lander 1915 (Mittel) Numbers.png
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
XI
XII
XIII
XIV
XV
XVI
XVII
XVIII
XIX
XX
Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria
Kingdom of Bohemia
Kingdom of Dalmatia
Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia
Duchy of Salzburg
Margraviate of Moravia
County of Tirol
Duchy of Bukovina
Province of Vorarlberg
Margraviate of Istria
County of Gorizia (part of the Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca)
County of Gradisca (also part of the Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca)
Province of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Conjoined)
Imperial Free City of Trieste
Archduchy of Lower Austria
Archduchy of Upper Austria
Duchy of Styria
Duchy of Carniola
Duchy of Carinthia
Archduchy of Austria
Territories of the crown of St. Stephen
ShieldPartitionTerritory
Coa Hungary Country History Mid (1915).svg Wappen Ungarische Lander 1915 (Mittel) Numbers.png
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
Kingdom of Dalmatia (Legally Hungarian)
Kingdom of Croatia
Kingdom of Slavonia
Grand Principality of Transylvania
Province of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Conjoined)
City of Fiume and its district
Kingdom of Hungary
Personal Shield of the Dynasty
ShieldPartitionSignificance
Habsburg Lorraine Trishield.png
I
II
III
Count of Habsburg
Archduke of Austria
Duke of Lorraine
Wappen Ungarische Lander 1867 (Mittel).png Coa Hungary Country History med (1915).svg Imperial Coat of Arms of the Empire of Austria (1815).svg
Arms of the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen (1867–1915)Arms of the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen (1915–1918)Small Arms of Austria (Cisleithania) (1805–1918)
Imperial Coat of Arms of Austria.svg Coat of Arms of Emperor Franz Joseph I.svg Wappen Osterreich-Ungarn 1916 (Klein).png
Simple Arms of Cisleithania (1915–1918)Personal Arms of the Emperor Franz Josef (1848–1916)Simple Arms of the Austrian and Hungarian parts of the empire (1915–1918)

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 titular claim rather than de facto
  2. 1 2 jure uxoris

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Ferdinand II, a member of the House of Habsburg, was Holy Roman Emperor (1619–1637), King of Bohemia, and King of Hungary (1618–1637). He was the son of Archduke Charles II of Inner Austria, and Maria of Bavaria. In 1590, his parents, who were devout Catholics, sent him to study at the Jesuits' college in Ingolstadt, because they wanted to isolate him from the Lutheran nobles. In the same year, he inherited Inner Austria—Styria, Carinthia, Carniola and smaller provinces—from his father. Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, who was the head of the Habsburg family, appointed regents to administer Inner Austria on behalf of the minor Ferdinand.

Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire

Ferdinand III was Holy Roman Emperor from 15 February 1637 until his death, as well as King of Hungary and Croatia, King of Bohemia and Archduke of Austria.

Emperor of Austria

The Emperor of Austria was the ruler of the Austrian Empire and later the Austro-Hungarian Empire. A hereditary imperial title and office proclaimed in 1804 by Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, a member of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, and continually held by him and his heirs until Charles I relinquished power in 1918.

Archduke

Archduke was the title borne from 1358 by the Habsburg rulers of the Archduchy of Austria, and later by all senior members of that dynasty. It denotes a rank within the former Holy Roman Empire (962–1806), which was below that of Emperor and King and above that of (debatably) a Grand Duke, Duke and Prince.

House of Lorraine Royal house of Europe

The House of Lorraine originated as a cadet branch of the House of Metz. It inherited the Duchy of Lorraine in 1473 after the death of duke Nicholas I without a male heir. By the marriage of Francis of Lorraine to Maria Theresa in 1736, and with the success in the ensuing War of the Austrian Succession, the House of Lorraine was joined to the House of Habsburg, and was now known as Habsburg-Lorraine. Francis, his sons Joseph II and Leopold II, and grandson Francis II were the last four Holy Roman Emperors from 1745 to the dissolution of the empire in 1806. Habsburg-Lorraine inherited the Habsburg Empire, ruling the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary until the dissolution of the monarchy in 1918.

Duchy of Teschen former country

The Duchy of Teschen, also Duchy of Cieszyn or Duchy of Těšín (Czech: Těšínské knížectví, was one of the Duchies of Silesia centered on Cieszyn in Upper Silesia. It was split off the Silesian Duchy of Opole and Racibórz in 1281 during the feudal division of Poland and was ruled by Silesian dukes of the Piast dynasty from 1290 until the line became extinct with the death of Duchess Elizabeth Lucretia in 1653.

Leopold V, Archduke of Austria French bishop

Leopold V, Archduke of Further Austria was the son of Archduke Charles II of Inner Austria, and the younger brother of Emperor Ferdinand II, father of Ferdinand Charles, Archduke of Further Austria. He was Bishop of Passau and of Strasbourg, until he resigned to get married, and Archduke of Further Austria including Tirol.

Inner Austria

Inner Austria was a term used from the late 14th to the early 17th century for the Habsburg hereditary lands south of the Semmering Pass, referring to the Imperial duchies of Styria, Carinthia and Carniola and the lands of the Austrian Littoral. The residence of the Inner Austrian archdukes and stadtholders was at the Burg castle complex in Graz.

Duchy of Carniola historical state, Habsburgian crown land

The Duchy of Carniola was a State of the Holy Roman Empire, established under Habsburg rule on the territory of the former East Frankish March of Carniola in 1364. A hereditary land of the Habsburg Monarchy, it became a constituent land of the Austrian Empire in 1804 and part of the Kingdom of Illyria until 1849. A separate crown land from 1849, it was incorporated into the Cisleithanian territories of Austria-Hungary from 1867 until the state's dissolution in 1918. Its capital was Ljubljana.

Austria-Este Cadet branch of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine

The House of Habsburg-Este, holders of the title of Archduke of Austria-Este, is a cadet branch of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine and also descends from the House of Este. It was created in 1771 with the marriage between Ferdinand of Habsburg-Lorraine and Maria Beatrice d'Este, only daughter of the Duke of Modena, Ercole III d'Este. After the death of Ercole III in 1803, the Modena ruling branch of the Este family's male line ended, and the Habsburg-Estes inherited his possessions in Italy.

Přemyslid dynasty dynasty

The Přemyslid dynasty or House of Přemyslid was a Czech royal dynasty which reigned in the Duchy of Bohemia and later Kingdom of Bohemia and Margraviate of Moravia, as well as in parts of Poland, Hungary, and Austria.

Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel

Louis Rudolph, a member of the House of Welf, was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruling Prince of Wolfenbüttel from 1731 until his death. Since 1707, he ruled as an immediate Prince of Blankenburg.

Maximilian of Austria may refer to the following members of the Habsburg dynasty:

Archduchy of Austria fief of the Holy Roman Empire

The Archduchy of Austria was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire and the nucleus of the Habsburg Monarchy. With its capital at Vienna, the archduchy was centered at the Empire's southeastern periphery.

County of Tyrol Former county of Austria

The (Princely) County of Tyrol was an estate of the Holy Roman Empire established about 1140. Originally a jurisdiction under the sovereignty of the Counts of Tyrol, it was inherited by the Counts of Gorizia in 1253 and finally fell to the Austrian House of Habsburg in 1363. In 1804 the Princely County of Tyrol, unified with the secularised Prince-Bishoprics of Trent and Brixen, became a crown land of the Austrian Empire in 1804 and from 1867 a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria-Hungary.

Duchy of Styria

The Duchy of Styria was a duchy located in modern-day southern Austria and northern Slovenia. It was a part of the Holy Roman Empire until its dissolution in 1806 and a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria–Hungary until its dissolution in 1918.

Grand title of the Emperor of Austria

The grand title of the Emperor of Austria was the official list of the crowns, titles, and dignities which the emperors of Austria carried from the foundation of the empire by Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor's imperial proclamation of August 11, 1804 until the end of the monarchy in 1918.

References

  1. "The House of Austria – the Habsburgs and the Empire".
  2. Paula Sutter Fichtner, "Dynastic Marriage in Sixteenth-Century Habsburg Diplomacy and Statecraft: An Interdisciplinary Approach," American Historical Review Vol. 81, No. 2 (April 1976), pp. 243-265 in JSTOR
  3. A. Wess Mitchell (2018). The Grand Strategy of the Habsburg Empire. Princeton University Press. p. 307. ISBN   978-1-4008-8996-9.
  4. The Kingdom of Germany formed the central part of the Holy Roman Empire. Its rulers were styled King of the Romans before their coronation as Emperors.
  5. "Habsburger-Gedenkjahr im Aargau", Neue Zürcher Zeitung , (page 17) 23 May 2008.
  6. art-tv.ch Archived 2008-09-21 at the Wayback Machine
  7. "Kanton Aargau" (in German). Archived from the original on December 23, 2008.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Heinz-Dieter Heimann: Die Habsburger. Dynastie und Kaiserreiche. ISBN   3-406-44754-6.
  9. 1 2 Erbe, Michael: Die Habsburger 1493-1918. Eine Dynastie im Reich und in Europa. W. Kohlhammer, 2000. ISBN   3-17-011866-8
  10. Great Events from History, The Renaissance & Early Modern Era, Vol I, p. 112–114, author-Clare Callaghan, ISBN   1-58765-214-5.
  11. Hungary was partly under Habsburg rule from 1526. For 150 years most of the country was occupied by the Ottoman Turks but these territories were re-conquered in 1683–1699.
  12. Alvarez, Gonzalo; Ceballos, Francisco C.; Quinteiro, Celsa (April 15, 2009). Bauchet, Marc (ed.). "The Role of Inbreeding in the Extinction of a European Royal Dynasty". PLoS ONE. 4 (4): e5174. Bibcode:2009PLoSO...4.5174A. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005174. PMC   2664480 . PMID   19367331.
  13. FC Ceballos; G Alvarez (2013). "Royal dynasties as human inbreeding laboratories: the Habsburgs". Heredity. 111 (2): 114–121. doi:10.1038/hdy.2013.25. PMC   3716267 . PMID   23572123.
  14. Maria Theresa was originally engaged to Léopold Clément of Lorraine, older brother of Francis Stephan.
  15. 1 2 Wikisource-logo.svg Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Austria-Hungary"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 2–39.
  16. Microsoft Encarta: The height of the dual monarchy
  17. Spielvogel, Jackson J. Western Civilization: Comprehensive Volume. 5th ed. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth, 2003. 330. Print.
  18. File:Habsburg Family Tree.jpg
  19. 1 2 3 Montgomery-Massingberd, Hugh. "Burke’s Royal Families of the World: Volume I Europe & Latin America, 1977, pp. 18, 32. ISBN   0-85011-023-8
  20. Genealogisches Hanbduch des Adels, Furstliche Hauser Band XIV. Limburg ad der Lahn, Germany: C. A. Starke Verlag. 1991. pp. 91–93. ISBN   978-3-7980-0700-0.
  21. Heinz-Dieter Heimann: Die Habsburger. Dynastie und Kaiserreiche. ISBN   3-406-44754-6. pp. 38–45.
  22. 1 2 3 4 5 6 List of nicknames of European royalty and nobility: C
  23. "Otto von Habsburg, heir to Austria's last emperor, dies at 98". The Local: Germany's News in English. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  24. Hugh Agnew. The Czechs and the Lands of the Bohemian Crown. Studies of Nationalities. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 2004. pg. 29
  25. 1: Wolfgang Menzel: Die letzten 120 Jahre der Weltgeschichte, Band 6 (1740-1860), Adolph Krabbe, Stuttgart 1860, S. 211 Online , p. 211, at Google Books
    2.: Wolfgang Menzel: Supplementband zu der Geschichte der letzten 40 Jahre (1816-1856). Adolph Krabbe, Stuttgart 1860, S. 153 Online , p. 153, at Google Books
    Aus diesem wurde später: „Sire, ich bin ein deutscher Fürst“:
    Hermann Struschka: Kaiser Franz Josef I. Georg Szelinski, Wien 1888, S. 22 Online , p. 22, at Google Books
    Es kommt auch in der anglifizierten Schreibung „Sir, ich bin deutscher Fürst“ vor.
    Stenographische Protokolle – Abgeordnetenhaus – Sitzungsprotokolle. Haus der Abgeordneten – 14. Sitzung der XVIII. Session am 16. Juli 1907, S. 1337 alex.onb.ac.at 3: wikiquote:de:Franz Joseph I. von Österreich
  26. H. Ströhl: Die neuen österreichischen, ungarischen und gemeinsamen Wappen. Hrsg. auf Grund der mit d. allerhöchsten Handschreiben vom 10. u. 11. Okt. 1915, bezw. 2. u. 5. März 1916 erfolgten Einführung. Viena 1917.
  27. "Diem, P. Die Entwicklung des österreichischen Doppeladlers" . Retrieved 5 July 2012.

Further reading

Royal house
House of Habsburg
Founding year: 12th century
Preceded by
Přemyslid dynasty
Ruling House of the Duchy of Austria
1282–1453
Duchy Elevated
Became Archduchy
New title
Union of Austria and Hungary
Ruling House of Archduchy of Austria
1453–1780
House of Habsburg-Lorraine
Extinction of direct male line
Preceded by
House of Jagiellon
Ruling House of Kingdom of Hungary
1526–1780
Ruling House of Kingdom of Croatia
1527–1780
Ruling House of Kingdom of Bohemia
1526–1780
Preceded by
House of Aviz
Ruling House of Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves
1580–1640
Succeeded by
House of Braganza
Preceded by
House of Trastámara
Ruling House of Kingdom of Spain
1504–1700
Succeeded by
House of Bourbon
Preceded by
House of Savoy
Ruling House of Kingdom of Sicily
1720–1734
Preceded by
House of Valois
Ruling House of the Duchy of Burgundy and the Burgundian Netherlands
1477–1700
Preceded by
House of Bourbon
Ruling House of Kingdom of Naples
1713–1735
Ruling House of Kingdom of Sardinia
1713–1735
Succeeded by
House of Savoy
Ruling House of the Duchy of Burgundy and the Burgundian Netherlands
1713–1780
Succeeded by
House of Habsburg-Lorraine