House of Hanover

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House of Hanover
Royal Arms of the Kingdom of Hanover.svg
Parent house
Country
Etymology Hanover
Founded1635 – George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Current head Ernst August, Prince of Hanover
Titlesetc.
Deposition

The House of Hanover (German : Haus Hannover), whose members are known as Hanoverians ( /ˌhænəˈvɪəriənz,-nˈ-,-ˈvɛər-/ ), is a German royal house that ruled Hanover, Great Britain, and Ireland at various times during the 17th through 20th centuries. The house originated in 1635 as a cadet branch of the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg, growing in prestige until Hanover became an Electorate in 1692. George I became the first Hanoverian monarch of Great Britain and Ireland in 1714. At Victoria's death in 1901, the throne of the United Kingdom passed to her eldest son Edward VII, a member of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. The last reigning members of the House lost the Duchy of Brunswick in 1918 when Germany became a republic.

German language West Germanic language

German is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol in Italy, the German-speaking Community of Belgium and Liechtenstein. It is one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The languages that are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch, including Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. There are strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English.

Dynasty sequence of rulers considered members of the same family

A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "house", "family" and "clan", among others. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC.

Hanover City in Lower Saxony, Germany

Hanover or Hannover is the capital of and largest city in the state of Lower Saxony. Its 535,061 (2017) inhabitants make it the thirteenth-largest city in Germany as well as the third-largest city in Northern Germany after Hamburg and Bremen. The city lies at the confluence of the River Leine and its tributary Ihme, in the south of the North German Plain, and is the largest city in the Hannover–Braunschweig–Göttingen–Wolfsburg Metropolitan Region. It is the fifth-largest city in the Low German dialect area after Hamburg, Dortmund, Essen and Bremen.

Contents

The formal name of the house was the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Hanover line. [1] The senior line of Brunswick-Lüneburg, which ruled Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, became extinct in 1884. The House of Hanover is now the only surviving branch of the House of Welf, which is the senior branch of the House of Este. The current head of the House of Hanover is Ernst August, Prince of Hanover.

Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Former German principality

The Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel was a subdivision of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, whose history was characterised by numerous divisions and reunifications. Various dynastic lines of the House of Welf ruled Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel until the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806. As a result of the Congress of Vienna, its successor state, the Duchy of Brunswick, was created in 1815.

House of Welf noble family

The House of Welf is a European dynasty that has included many German and British monarchs from the 11th to 20th century and Emperor Ivan VI of Russia in the 18th century.

House of Este Old Italian noble family, dynastic House

The House of Este was an Italian princely family, linked with several contemporary royal dynasties, including the House of Habsburg and the British royal family.

History

Dukes and Electors of Brunswick-Lüneburg

George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, is considered the first member of the House of Hanover. [2] When the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg was divided in 1635, George inherited the Principality of Calenberg and moved his residence to Hanover. His son, Christian Louis inherited the Principality of Lüneburg from George's brother. Calenberg and Lüneburg were then shared between George's sons until united in 1705 under his grandson, also called George, who subsequently became George I of Great Britain. All held the title Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. George died in 1641 and was succeeded by:

Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg Duchy in Holy Roman Emprie 1235-1269; title of "Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg" used by rulers of all successor states

The Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, or more properly the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg, was a historical duchy that existed from the late Middle Ages to the Early Modern era within the Holy Roman Empire. The duchy was located in what is now northwestern Germany. Its name came from the two largest cities in the territory: Brunswick and Lüneburg.

Principality of Calenberg principality

The Principality of Calenberg was a dynastic division of the Welf duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg established in 1432. Calenberg was ruled by the House of Hanover from 1635 onwards; the princes received the ninth electoral dignity of the Holy Roman Empire in 1692. Their territory became the nucleus of the Electorate of Hanover, ruled in personal union with the Kingdom of Great Britain from 1714 onwards. The principality received its name from Calenberg Castle, a residence of the Brunswick dukes.

Christian Louis, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg Duke of Brunswick-Calenberg and Brunswick-Lüneburg

Christian Louis was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. A member of the House of Welf, from 1641 until 1648 he ruled the Principality of Calenberg, a subdivision of the duchy, and, from 1648 until his death, the Principality of Lüneburg.

George William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg

George William German: Georg Wilhelm was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. He ruled first over the Principality of Calenberg, a subdivision of the duchy, then over the Lüneburg subdivision. In 1689, he occupied the Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg and passed it on to his successors. George William was the father of Sophia Dorothea of Celle, wife of George I of Great Britain.

Ernest Augustus, Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg German prince

Ernest Augustus was a Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruled over the Principality of Calenberg, a subdivision of the duchy. He was appointed Prince-elector, but died before the appointment became effective. He was also the Prince-Bishop of the Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück.

Prince-elector members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire

The Prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire, or Electors for short, were the members of the electoral college that elected the Holy Roman Emperor.

Monarchs of Great Britain, Ireland, and Hanover

George Louis became the first British monarch of the House of Hanover as George I in 1714. [3] :13 The dynasty provided six British monarchs:

Of the Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland:

George I of Great Britain King of Great Britain and Ireland

George I was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) in the Holy Roman Empire from 23 January 1698 until his death in 1727. He was the first British monarch of the House of Hanover.

George II of Great Britain King of Great Britain and Ireland

George II was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 (O.S.) until his death in 1760.

George III of the United Kingdom King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland"`UNIQ--ref-00000006-QINU`"

George III was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820. He was concurrently Duke and prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg ("Hanover") in the Holy Roman Empire before becoming King of Hanover on 12 October 1814. He was the third British monarch of the House of Hanover, but unlike his two predecessors, he was born in Great Britain, spoke English as his first language, and never visited Hanover.

Of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland:

George I, George II, and George III also served as electors and dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg, informally, Electors of Hanover (cf. personal union ). From 1814, when Hanover became a kingdom, the British monarch was also King of Hanover.

In 1837, the personal union of the thrones of the United Kingdom and Hanover ended with the death of William IV. Succession to the Hanoverian throne was regulated by semi-Salic law (agnatic-cognatic), which gave priority to all male lines before female lines, so that it passed not to Queen Victoria but to her uncle, the Duke of Cumberland. [3] :13,14 In 1901, when Queen Victoria, the last British monarch provided by the House of Hanover, died, her son and heir Edward VII became the first British Monarch of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Edward taking his family name from that of his father, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. [3] :14

Kings of Hanover after the breakup of the personal union

British Royalty
House of Hanover
George I
George II
Sophia Dorothea, Queen in Prussia
George II
Frederick, Prince of Wales
Anne, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange
Princess Amelia
Princess Caroline
Prince George William of Wales
Prince William, Duke of Cumberland
Mary, Landgravine of Hesse-Cassel
Louise, Queen of Denmark and Norway
Grandchildren
Augusta, Duchess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
George III
Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany
Princess Elizabeth of Wales
Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh
Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn
Princess Louisa of Wales
Prince Frederick of Wales
Caroline Matilda, Queen of Denmark and Norway
Great-grandchildren
Princess Sophia of Gloucester
Princess Caroline of Gloucester
Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh
George III
George IV
Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany
William IV
Charlotte, Princess Royal and Queen of Württemberg
Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Princess Augusta Sophia
Elizabeth, Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg
Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover
Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex
Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge
Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh
Princess Sophia
Prince Octavius
Prince Alfred
Princess Amelia
Grandchildren
Charlotte, Princess Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Princess Charlotte of Clarence
Princess Elizabeth of Clarence
Victoria
Princess Frederica of Cumberland
George V of Hanover
Prince George, Duke of Cambridge
Augusta, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Princess Mary Adelaide, Duchess of Teck
Great-grandchildren
Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover
Princess Frederica, Baroness von Pawel-Rammingen
Princess Marie of Hanover
Great-great-grandchildren
Marie Louise, Margravine of Baden
George William, Hereditary Prince of Hanover
Alexandra, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Princess Olga of Hanover
Prince Christian of Hanover
Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick and Prince of Hanover
Great-great-great-grandchildren
Ernest Augustus, Hereditary Prince of Brunswick and Prince of Hanover
Prince George William of Hanover
Frederica, Queen of the Hellenes
George IV
William IV
Victoria

After the death of William IV in 1837, the following kings of Hanover continued the dynasty:

The Kingdom of Hanover came to an end in 1866 when it was annexed by Kingdom of Prussia and the king of Hanover (and duke of Cumberland) forced to go into exile in Austria. The 1866 rift between the House of Hanover and the House of Hohenzollern was settled only by the 1913 marriage of Princess Viktoria Luise of Prussia to Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick, the last king's grandson.

Prince-bishops of Osnabrück

At the end of the Thirty Years' War, the Peace of Westphalia (1648) awarded the Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück alternately to a Catholic bishop and to a cadet branch of Brunswick-Lüneburg. [5] Since the treaty gave cadets priority over heirs and reigning princes, Osnabrück became a form of appanage (in alternation) of the House of Hanover.

Osnabrück was mediatized to Hanover in 1803.

Dukes of Brunswick

In 1884, the senior branch of the House of Welf became extinct. By semi-Salic law, the House of Hanover would have acceded to the Duchy of Brunswick, but there had been strong Prussian pressure against having George V of Hanover or his son, the Duke of Cumberland, succeed to a member state of the German Empire, at least without strong conditions, including swearing to the German constitution. By a law of 1879, the Duchy of Brunswick established a temporary council of regency to take over at the Duke's death, and if necessary appoint a regent.

The Duke of Cumberland proclaimed himself Duke of Brunswick at the Duke's death, and lengthy negotiations ensued, but were never resolved. Prince Albert of Prussia was appointed regent; after his death in 1906, Duke John Albert of Mecklenburg succeeded him. The Duke of Cumberland's eldest son died in a car accident in 1912; the father renounced Brunswick in favor of his younger son Ernest Augustus, who married the Kaiser's daughter Victoria Louise the same year, swore allegiance to the German Empire, and was allowed to ascend the throne of the Duchy in November 1913. He was a major-general during the First World War; but he was overthrown as Duke of Brunswick in 1918. His father was also deprived of his British titles in 1919, for "bearing arms against Great Britain".

After having left Brunswick Palace, the duke and his family moved back to their exile seat Cumberland Castle at Gmunden, Austria, but in 1924 he received Blankenburg Castle and some other estates in a settlement with the Free State of Brunswick, and moved there in 1930. A few days before Blankenburg was handed over to the Red Army by British and US forces in late 1945, to become part of East Germany, the family was able to quickly move to Marienburg Castle (Hanover) with all their furniture, transported by British army trucks, on the order of King George VI. [6] Duke Ernest Augustus died at Marienburg Castle in 1953. His Herrenhausen Palace in Hanover had been completely destroyed during World War II. His eldest son, Prince Ernest Augustus, sold his remaining property at Herrenhausen Gardens in 1961, but kept the nearby Princely House, a small palace built in 1720 by George I for his daughter Anna Louise. It is now his grandson Ernest Augustus's private home, along with Marienburg Castle.

Claimants

Flag of the House of Hanover Flag of Hanover 1837-1866.svg
Flag of the House of Hanover

The later heads of the House of Hanover have been:

(See Line of succession to the Hanoverian Throne.)

The family has been resident in Austria since 1866 and thus took on Austrian nationality besides their German and British. Since the later king Ernest Augustus had been created Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale and Earl of Armagh by his father George III in 1799, these British peerages were inherited by his descendants. In 1914 the title of a Prince of Great Britain and Ireland was additionally granted to the members of the house by King George V. These peerages and titles however were suspended under the Titles Deprivation Act 1917. [7] However, the title Royal Prince of Great Britain and Ireland had been entered into the family's German passports, together with the German titles, in 1914. After the German Revolution of 1918–19, with the abolishment of nobility's privileges, [8] titles officially became parts of the last name. So, curiously, the British prince's title is still part of the family's last name in their German passports, while it is no longer mentioned in their British documents. [9]

On 29 August 1931, Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick, as head of the House of Hanover, declared the formal resumption, for himself and his dynastic descendants, of use of his former British princely title as a secondary title of pretense, which style, "Royal Prince of Great Britain and Ireland", his grandson, the current head of the house, also called Ernest Augustus, continues to claim. [10] He has the right to petition under the Titles Deprivation Act 1917 for the restoration of his ancestors' suspended British peerages Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale and Earl of Armagh, but he has not done so. His father, another Ernest Augustus, did, however, successfully claim British nationality after World War II by virtue of a hitherto overlooked (and since repealed) provision of the Sophia Naturalization Act 1705. [11] According to the decision taken by a court of the House of Lords, all family members bear the last name Guelph in the UK and are styled Royal Highnesses in their documents.

List of members

Patrilineal descent

  1. Oberto I, 912–975
  2. Oberto Obizzo, 940–1017
  3. Albert Azzo I, Margrave of Milan, 970–1029
  4. Albert Azzo II, Margrave of Milan, d.
  5. Welf I, Duke of Bavaria, 1037–1101
  6. Henry IX, Duke of Bavaria, 1074–1126
  7. Henry X, Duke of Bavaria, 1108–1139
  8. Henry the Lion, 1129–1195
  9. William of Winchester, Lord of Lunenburg, 1184–1213
  10. Otto I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1204–1252
  11. Albert I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1236–1279
  12. Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1268–1318
  13. Magnus the Pious, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1304–1369
  14. Magnus II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1328–1373
  15. Bernard I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1362–1434
  16. Frederick II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1408–1478
  17. Otto V, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1439–1471
  18. Heinrich, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1468–1532
  19. Ernest I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1497–1546
  20. William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1535–1592
  21. George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1582–1641
  22. Ernest Augustus, Elector of Hanover, 1629–1698
  23. George I of Great Britain, 1660–1727
  24. George II of Great Britain, 1683–1760
  25. Frederick, Prince of Wales, 1707–1751
  26. George III of the United Kingdom, 1738–1820
  27. Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, 1771–1851
  28. George V of Hanover, 1819–1878
  29. Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover, 1845–1923
  30. Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick, 1887–1953
  31. Ernest Augustus, Prince of Hanover, 1914–1987
  32. Ernst August, Prince of Hanover, b. 1954
  33. Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover, b. 1983

Legacy

Many towns and provinces across the British Empire were named after the ruling House of Hanover and its members, among them the U.S. state of Georgia, U.S. towns Hanover, Massachusetts, Hanover, New Hampshire, Hanover, Pennsylvania, Hanover Township, Jo Daviess County, Illinois, counties Hanover County, Virginia, Caroline County, Virginia, Brunswick County, Virginia, New Hanover County, North Carolina, Brunswick County, North Carolina, King George County, Virginia, places named Georgia in New Jersey, Vermont, Arkansas and South Dakota, seven towns in the U.S. and Canada named after Queen Charlotte, furthermore the Canadian province of New Brunswick and towns Hanover, Ontario, Guelph, Ontario, and Victoria, British Columbia, in South Africa the town Hanover, Northern Cape, in Australia the state Victoria (Australia) and the town Adelaide, in the UK six and in the US thirteen towns named Brunswick, furthermore one each in Australia and New Zealand, and worldwide more than fifty towns named Victoria. There are also numerous streets and squares, such as Hanover Square, Westminster, Hanover Square (Manhattan), Hanover Square, Syracuse or Queen Street, Brisbane with its intersections named after members of the House.

Georgian architecture gives distinction to the architectural styles current between 1714 and 1830 in most English-speaking countries.

See also

Notes

  1. "Royal Arms of Britain". Heraldica. Retrieved 10 May 2016. The House of Brunswick Luneburg being one of the most illustrious and most ancient in Europe, the Hanoverian branch having filled for more than a century one of the most distinguished thrones, its possessions being among the most considerable in Germany;
  2. Orr, Clarissa Campbell, ed. (2002). Queenship in Britain 1660-1837: Royal Patronage, Court Culture and Dynastic Politics (1st ed.). Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN   9780719057694.:195
  3. 1 2 3 Picknett, Lynn; Prince, Clive; Prior, Stephen; Brydon, Robert (2002). War of the Windsors: A Century of Unconstitutional Monarchy. Mainstream Publishing. ISBN   1-84018-631-3..
  4. In 1801, the British and Irish kingdoms merged, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
  5. Duggan, J. N. (2011). Sophia of Hanover: From Winter Princess to Heiress of Great Britain, 1630–1714. London: Peter Owen Publishers. ISBN   9780720614237. According to the Peace of Westphalia, the See of Osnabrück was to be held alternately by a Catholic and a Protestant incumbent; the Protestant bishop was to be a younger son of the Brunswick-Lüneburg family.
  6. Viktoria Luise (Herzogin zu Braunschweig und Lüneburg) (1977). The Kaiser's Daughter: Memoirs of H. R. H. Viktoria Luise, Duchess of Brunswick and Lüneburg, Princess of Prussia. Prenticse-Hall. ISBN   978-0-13-514653-8.
  7. Privately however the British Royal Family (of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, alias House of Windsor) continued to call their German branch the Cumberlands, for instance when Edward VIII described his visit to the family in Gmunden in a letter to his mother in 1937.
  8. In 1919 royalty and nobility lost their privileges as such in Germany, hereditary titles thereafter being legally retained only as part of the surname, according to Article 109 the Weimar Constitution.
  9. "In der Prinzenrolle". HAZ – Hannoversche Allgemeine.
  10. Ernst August (geb.1954) Prinz von Hannover at welfen.de (German)
  11. Attorney-General v HRH Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover [1957] 1 All ER 49

Further reading

Historiography

House of Hanover
Cadet branch of the House of Welf
New title
Duchy created from the
stem duchy of Saxony
Ruling house of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg
1235–1692
Duchy raised to Electorate
by Emperor Leopold I for aid
given in the Nine Years' War  
New title
Duchy raised to Electorate
Ruling house of the Electorate of Hanover
1692–1803
Electorate abolished
 Occupied by France in the Napoleonic Wars  
Preceded by
House of Stuart
Ruling house of the Kingdom of Great Britain
1714–1800
Kingdoms merged by
Acts of Union 1800
Ruling house of the Kingdom of Ireland
1714–1800
New title
Union of Great Britain and Ireland
Ruling house of the United Kingdom
1801–1901
Succeeded by
House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
New title
Electorate raised to Kingdom
at the Congress of Vienna
Ruling house of the Kingdom of Hanover
1814–1866
Kingdom abolished
 Annexed by Prussia in the
Austro-Prussian War
 
Preceded by
House of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel-Bevern
Ruling house of the Duchy of Brunswick
1913–1918
Duchy abolished
  German Revolution after defeat in World War I  

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