House of Hohenzollern

Last updated
House of Hohenzollern
Wappen Hohenzollern 2.svg
Country Germany, Romania, Russia
Etymology Hohenzollern Castle
Foundedbefore 1061
Founder Burkhard I, Count of Zollern
Current head
Final ruler
Titles
Estate(s)Germany, Prussia, Romania, Russia
Deposition
Cadet branches

The House of Hohenzollern ( /hənˈzɒlərn/ , also US: /-əntsɔː-,ˌhənˈzɒlərn,-ˈzɔː-/ , [1] [2] [3] [4] German : Haus Hohenzollern, pronounced [ˌhaʊ̯s hoːənˈt͡sɔlɐn] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ), Romanian : Casa de Hohenzollern) is a German royal (and from 1871 to 1918, imperial) dynasty whose members were variously princes, electors, kings and emperors of Hohenzollern, Brandenburg, Prussia, the German Empire, and Romania. The family came from the area around the town of Hechingen in Swabia during the late 11th century and took their name from Hohenzollern Castle. [5] The first ancestors of the Hohenzollerns were mentioned in 1061.

Contents

The Hohenzollern family split into two branches, the Catholic Swabian branch and the Protestant Franconian branch, [6] which ruled the Burgraviate of Nuremberg and later became the Brandenburg-Prussian branch. The Swabian branch ruled the principalities of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen until 1849, and also ruled Romania from 1866 to 1947. Members of the Franconian branch became Margrave of Brandenburg in 1415 and Duke of Prussia in 1525.

The Margraviate of Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia were ruled in personal union after 1618 and were called Brandenburg-Prussia. From there, the Kingdom of Prussia was created in 1701, eventually leading to the unification of Germany and the creation of the German Empire in 1871, with the Hohenzollerns as hereditary German Emperors and Kings of Prussia.

Germany's defeat in World War I in 1918 led to the German Revolution. The Hohenzollerns were overthrown and the Weimar Republic was established, thus bringing an end to the German monarchy and Prussian monarchy. Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia is the current head of the formerly royal Prussian line, while Karl Friedrich, Prince of Hohenzollern is the head of the formerly princely Swabian line. [6]

County of Zollern

Hohenzollern Castle near Hechingen was built in the mid-19th century by Frederick William IV of Prussia. Burg Hohenzollern ak.jpg
Hohenzollern Castle near Hechingen was built in the mid-19th century by Frederick William IV of Prussia.
Alpirsbach Abbey, founded by the Hohenzollerns Alpirsbach Kloster Kirche innen.jpg
Alpirsbach Abbey, founded by the Hohenzollerns

Zollern, from 1218 Hohenzollern, was a county of the Holy Roman Empire. Later its capital was Hechingen.

The Hohenzollerns named their estates after Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps. The Hohenzollern Castle lies on an 855 meters high mountain called Hohenzollern. It still belongs to the family today.

The dynasty was first mentioned in 1061. According to the medieval chronicler Berthold of Reichenau, Burkhard I, Count of Zollern (de Zolorin) was born before 1025 and died in 1061. [7]

In 1095, Count Adalbert of Zollern founded the Benedictine monastery of Alpirsbach, situated in the Black Forest.

The Zollerns received the Graf title from Emperor Henry V in 1111. [8]

As loyal vassals of the Swabian Hohenstaufen dynasty, they were able to significantly enlarge their territory. Count Frederick III (c. 1139 – c. 1200) accompanied Emperor Frederick Barbarossa against Henry the Lion in 1180, and through his marriage was granted the Burgraviate of Nuremberg by Emperor Henry VI in 1192. In about 1185, he married Sophia of Raabs, the daughter of Conrad II, Burgrave of Nuremberg. [6] After the death of Conrad II who left no male heirs, Frederick III was granted Nuremberg as Burgrave Frederick I.

In 1218, the burgraviate passed to Frederick's elder son Conrad I, he thereby became the ancestor of the Franconian Hohenzollern branch, which acquired the Electorate of Brandenburg in 1415. [6]

Counts of Zollern (1061–1204)

After Frederick's death, his sons partitioned the family lands between themselves:

  • Conrad I received the county of Zollern and exchanged it for the Burgraviate of Nuremberg with his younger brother Frederick IV in 1218, thereby founding the Franconian branch of the House of Hohenzollern. Members of the Franconian line eventually became the Brandenburg-Prussia branch and later converted to Protestantism.
  • Frederick IV received the burgraviate of Nuremberg in 1200 from his father and exchanged it for the county of Zollern in 1218 with his brother, thereby founding the Swabian branch of the House of Hohenzollern, which remains Catholic. [6]

Franconian branch

The senior Franconian branch of the House of Hohenzollern was founded by Conrad I, Burgrave of Nuremberg (1186–1261).

The family supported the Hohenstaufen and Habsburg rulers of the Holy Roman Empire during the 12th to 15th centuries, being rewarded with several territorial grants. Beginning in the 16th century, this branch of the family became Protestant and decided on expansion through marriage and the purchase of surrounding lands.

In the first phase, the family gradually added to their lands, at first with many small acquisitions in the Franconian region of Germany:

In the second phase, the family expanded their lands further with large acquisitions in the Brandenburg and Prussian regions of Germany and present-day Poland:

These acquisitions eventually transformed the Franconian Hohenzollerns from a minor German princely family into one of the most important dynasties in Europe.

From 8 January 1701 the title of Elector of Brandenburg was attached to the title of King in Prussia and, from 13 September 1772, to that of King of Prussia.

Burgraves of Nuremberg (1192–1427)

COA family de Burggrafen von Nurnberg (Haus Hohenzollern).svg
Region of Nuremberg, Ansbach, Kulmbach and Bayreuth (Franconia) Ansbach-Bayreuth.png
Region of Nuremberg, Ansbach, Kulmbach and Bayreuth (Franconia)

At Frederick V's death on 21 January 1398, his lands were partitioned between his two sons:

After John III/I's death on 11 June 1420, the margraviates of Brandenburg-Ansbach and Brandenburg-Kulmbach were briefly reunited under Frederick VI/I/I. He ruled the Margraviate of Brandenburg-Ansbach after 1398. From 1420, he became Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach. From 1411 Frederick VI became governor of Brandenburg and later Elector and Margrave of Brandenburg as Frederick I. Upon his death on 21 September 1440, his territories were divided among his sons:

In 1427 Frederick, Elector of Brandenburg sold Nuremberg Castle and his rights as burgrave to the Imperial City of Nuremberg. The territories of Brandenburg-Ansbach and Brandenburg-Kulmbach remained possessions of the family, once parts of the Burgraviate of Nuremberg.

Margraves of Brandenburg-Ansbach (1398–1791)

Wappen Brandenburg-Ansbach.svg

On 2 December 1791, Christian II Frederick sold the sovereignty of his principalities to King Frederick William II of Prussia.

Margraves of Brandenburg-Kulmbach (1398–1604), later Brandenburg-Bayreuth (1604–1791)

CoA.Brand-Bayreuth.png

On 2 December 1791, Charles Alexander sold the sovereignty of his principalities to King Frederick William II of Prussia.

Dukes of Jägerndorf (1523–1622)

Krnov znak.png

The Duchy of Jägerndorf (Krnov) was purchased in 1523.

The duchy of Jägerndorf was confiscated by Emperor Ferdinand III in 1622.

Brandenburg-Prussian branch

Margraves of Brandenburg (1415–1619)

Frederick VI became Margrave of Brandenburg in 1415. FrederikIboek.jpg
Frederick VI became Margrave of Brandenburg in 1415.

In 1411, Frederick VI, Burgrave of the small but wealthy Nuremberg, was appointed governor of Brandenburg in order to restore order and stability. At the Council of Constance in 1415, King Sigismund elevated Frederick to the rank of Elector and Margrave of Brandenburg as Frederick I. According to the Iron Kingdom, the most comprehensive book about the History of Prussia written by historian Christopher Clark, in 1417, Elector Frederick purchased Brandenburg from its then-sovereign, Emperor Sigismund, for 400,000 Hungarian guilders.

PortraitName
Dynastic StatusReignBirthDeathMarriages
Friedrich I. von Brandenburg.jpg Frederick I also as Frederick VI Burgrave of Nuremberg1415–144013711440 Elisabeth of Bavaria
Friedrich II 300f.jpg Frederick II Son of1440–147114131471 Catherine of Saxony
AlbrechtAchilles.jpg Albrecht III Achilles Brother of1471–148614141486 Margaret of Baden

Anna of Saxony

JohannCicero1500.JPG John Cicero Son of1486–149914551499Margaret of Thuringia
Lucas Cranach (I) - Joachim I Nestor - Jagdschloss Grunewald.jpg Joachim I Nestor Son of1499–153514841535 Elizabeth of Denmark
JoachimII.vonBrandenburg.JPG Joachim II Hector Son of1535–157115051571 Magdalena of Saxony

Hedwig of Poland

JohannGeorg1564.JPG John George Son of1571–159815251598 Sophie of Legnica

Sabina of Brandenburg-Ansbach
Elisabeth of Anhalt-Zerbst

JoachimFriedrichBrandenburg1600.JPG Joachim Frederick Son of1598–160815461608 Catherine of Brandenburg-Küstrin

Eleanor of Prussia

Johann Sigismund 02 IV 13 2 0026 01 0318 a Seite 1 Bild 0001.jpg John Sigismund Son of

personal union with Prussia after 1618 called Brandenburg-Prussia.

1608–161915721619 Anna, Duchess of Prussia

Margraves of Brandenburg-Küstrin (1535–1571)

DEU Kuestrin-Kietz COA.svg

The short-lived Margraviate of Brandenburg-Küstrin was set up as a secundogeniture of the House of Hohenzollern.

Margraves of Brandenburg-Schwedt (1688–1788)

Wappen der Stadt Schwedt.svg

Although recognized as a branch of the dynasty since 1688, the Margraviate of Brandenburg-Schwedt remained subordinate to the electors, and was never an independent principality.

Dukes of Prussia (1525–1701)

POL Prusy ksiazece COA.svg
Growth of Brandenburg-Prussia, 1600-1795 Acprussiamap2.gif
Growth of Brandenburg-Prussia, 1600–1795

In 1525, the Duchy of Prussia was established as a fief of the King of Poland. Albert of Prussia was the last Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights and the first Duke of Prussia. He belonged to the Ansbach branch of the dynasty. The Duchy of Prussia adopted Protestantism as the official state religion.

From 1701, the title of Duke of Prussia was attached to the title of King in and of Prussia.

Kings in Prussia (1701–1772)

Arms of East Prussia.svg
Coronation of Frederick I in Konigsberg Preussen 1701 Konigsberg.jpg
Coronation of Frederick I in Königsberg

In 1701, the title of King in Prussia was granted, without the Duchy of Prussia being elevated to a Kingdom within Poland but recognized as a kingdom by the Holy Roman Emperor, theoretically the highest sovereign in the West. From 1701 onwards the titles of Duke of Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg were always attached to the title of King in Prussia. The Duke of Prussia adopted the title of king as Frederick I, establishing his status as a monarch whose royal territory lay outside the boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire, with the assent of Emperor Leopold I: Frederick could not be "King of Prussia" because part of Prussia's lands were under the suzerainty of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland. In Brandenburg and the other Hohenzollern domains within the borders of the empire, he was legally still an elector under the ultimate overlordship of the emperor. By this time, however, the emperor's authority had become purely nominal over the other German prices outside the immediate hereditary lands of the emperor. Brandenburg was still legally part of the empire and ruled in personal union with Prussia, though the two states came to be treated as one de facto. The king was officially Margrave of Brandenburg within the Empire until the Empire's dissolution in 1806. In the age of absolutism, most monarchs were obsessed with the desire to emulate Louis XIV of France with his luxurious palace at Versailles.

In 1772, the Duchy of Prussia was elevated to a kingdom.

PortraitName
Dynastic StatusReignBirthDeathMarriages
Frederick I of Prussia (cropped).jpg Frederick I
Son of1701–1713
Duke of Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg since 1688
16571713 Elisabeth Henriette of Hesse-Kassel

Sophia Charlotte of Hanover
Sophia Louise of Mecklenburg-Schwerin

Friedrich Wilhelm I 1713.jpg Frederick William I Son of1713–174016881740 Sophia Dorothea of Hanover
Friedrich der Grosse (1781 or 1786) - Google Art Project.jpg Frederick II
the Great
Son of1740–1772
King of Prussia from 1772
17121786 Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel-Bevern

Kings of Prussia (1772–1918)

Expansion of Prussia, 1807-1871 Ac.prussiamap3.png
Expansion of Prussia, 1807–1871

Frederick William's successor, Frederick the Great gained Silesia in the Silesian Wars so that Prussia emerged as a great power. The king was strongly influenced by French culture and civilization and preferred the French language.

In the 1772 First Partition of Poland, the Prussian king Frederick the Great annexed neighboring Royal Prussia, i.e., the Polish voivodeships of Pomerania (Gdańsk Pomerania or Pomerelia), Malbork, Chełmno and the Prince-Bishopric of Warmia, thereby connecting his Prussian and Farther Pomeranian lands and cutting the rest of Poland from the Baltic coast. The territory of Warmia was incorporated into the lands of former Ducal Prussia, which, by administrative deed of 31 January 1772 were named East Prussia. The former Polish Pomerelian lands beyond the Vistula River together with Malbork and Chełmno Land formed the Province of West Prussia with its capital at Marienwerder (Kwidzyn) in 1773. The Polish Partition Sejm ratified the cession on 30 September 1772, whereafter Frederick officially went on to call himself King "of" Prussia. From 1772 onwards the titles of Duke of Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg were always attached to the title King of Prussia.

In 1871, the Kingdom of Prussia became a constituent member of the German Empire, and the King of Prussia gained the additional title of German Emperor.

PortraitName
Dynastic StatusReignBirthDeathMarriages
Friedrich der Grosse (1781 or 1786) - Google Art Project.jpg Frederick II
the Great
Son of1772–1786
King in Prussia since 1740
17121786 Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel-Bevern
Friedrich Wilhelm II., Konig von Preussen (Graff Kopie).jpg Frederick William II Nephew of1786–179717441797Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Lüneburg

Frederika Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt

Friedrich Wilhelm III., Konig von Preussen (unbekannter Maler).jpg Frederick William III Son of1797–184017701840 Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz

Auguste von Harrach

Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia (1847).jpg Frederick William IV Son of1840–186117951861 Elisabeth Ludovika of Bavaria
Kaiser Wilhelm I. .JPG William I Brother of1861–1888
German Emperor from 1871
17971888 Augusta of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
Emperor Friedrich III.png Frederick III Son of
1888
German Emperor
18311888 Victoria, Princess Royal
Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany - 1902.jpg Wilhelm II Son of1888–1918
German Emperor
18591941 Augusta Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein

Hermine Reuss of Greiz

German Emperors (1871–1918)

Wappenschild des Deutschen Kaiserreiches (1889-1918).svg
Prussia in the German Empire, 1871-1918 Prussiamap.gif
Prussia in the German Empire, 1871–1918

In 1871, the German Empire was proclaimed. With the accession of William I to the newly established imperial German throne, the titles of King of Prussia, Duke of Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg were always attached to the title of German Emperor.

Prussia's Minister President Otto von Bismarck convinced William that German Emperor instead of Emperor of Germany would be appropriate. He became primus inter pares among other German sovereigns.

William II intended to develop a German navy capable of challenging Britain's Royal Navy. The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria on 28 June 1914 set off the chain of events that led to World War I. As a result of the war, the German, Russian, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires ceased to exist.

In 1918, the German empire was abolished and replaced by the Weimar Republic. After the outbreak of the German revolution in 1918, both Emperor William II and Crown Prince William signed the document of abdication.


Prussian Hohenzollern religion and religious policy

The official religion of the state was "bi-confessional". John Sigismund's most significant action was his conversion from Lutheranism to Calvinism, after he had earlier equalized the rights of Catholics and Protestants in the Duchy of Prussia under pressure from the King of Poland. He was probably won over to Calvinism during a visit to Heidelberg in 1606, but it was not until 25 December 1613 that he publicly took communion according to the Calvinist rite. The vast majority of his subjects in Brandenburg, including his wife Anna of Prussia, remained deeply Lutheran, however. After the Elector and his Calvinist court officials drew up plans for mass conversion of the population to the new faith in February 1614, as provided for by the rule of Cuius regio, eius religio within the Holy Roman Empire, there were serious protests, with his wife backing the Lutherans. This was doubly important as Anna brought with her the duchy of Prussia into the Brandenburg line of the house and the nascent Brandenburg-Prussian state. Resistance was so strong that in 1615, John Sigismund backed down and relinquished all attempts at forcible conversion. Instead, he allowed his subjects to be either Lutheran or Calvinist according to the dictates of their own consciences. Henceforward, Brandenburg-Prussia would be a bi-confessional state, with the ruling Hohenzollern house staying Calvinist. [10]

This situation persisted until Frederick William III of Prussia. Frederick William was determined to unify the Protestant churches to homogenize their liturgy, organization, and architecture. The long-term goal was to have fully centralized royal control of all the Protestant churches in the Prussian Union of churches. The merging of the Lutheran and Calvinist (Reformed) confessions to form the United Church of Prussia was highly controversial. Angry responses included a large and well-organized opposition. The crown's aggressive efforts to restructure religion were unprecedented in Prussian history. In a series of proclamations over several years, the Church of the Prussian Union was formed, bringing together the majority group of Lutherans and the minority group of Reformed Protestants. The main effect was that the government of Prussia had full control over church affairs, with the king himself recognized as the leading bishop. [11]

Brandenburg-Prussian branch since 1918 abdication

Georg Friedrich, the head of the Prussian Hohenzollerns and his wife Georg Friedrich Prinz von Preussen-5835.jpg
Georg Friedrich, the head of the Prussian Hohenzollerns and his wife

In June 1926, a referendum on expropriating the formerly ruling princes of Germany without compensation failed and as a consequence, the financial situation of the Hohenzollern family improved considerably. A settlement between the state and the family made Cecilienhof property of the state but granted a right of residence to Crown Prince Wilhelm and his wife Cecilie. The family also kept the ownership of Monbijou Palace in Berlin, Oleśnica Castle in Silesia, Rheinsberg Palace, Schwedt Palace and other property until 1945.

Since the abolition of the German monarchy, no Hohenzollern claims to imperial or royal prerogatives are recognized by Germany's Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany of 1949, which guarantees a republic.

The communist government of the Soviet occupation zone expropriated all landowners and industrialists; the House of Hohenzollern lost almost all of its fortune, retaining a few company shares and Hohenzollern Castle in West Germany. The Polish government appropriated the Silesian property and the Dutch government seized Huis Doorn, the Emperor's seat in exile.

After German reunification, however, the family was legally able to reclaim their portable property, namely art collections and parts of the interior of their former palaces. Negotiations on the return of or compensation for these assets are not yet completed.

The Berlin Palace, home of the German monarchs, was rebuilt in 2020. The Berlin Palace and the Humboldt Forum are located in the middle of Berlin.

Order of succession

NameTitular
reign
Relation to predecessor
Wilhelm II 1918–1941Succeeded himself as pretender to the throne.
Crown Prince Wilhelm 1941–1951Son of
Louis Ferdinand, Prince of Prussia 1951–1994Son of
Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia since 1994Grandson of
Carl Friedrich, Prince of PrussiaSon of (heir apparent)

The head of the house is the titular King of Prussia and German Emperor. He also bears a historical claim to the title of Prince of Orange. Members of this line style themselves princes of Prussia.

Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia, the current head of the royal Prussian House of Hohenzollern, was married to Princess Sophie of Isenburg on 27 August 2011. On 20 January 2013, she gave birth to twin sons, Carl Friedrich Franz Alexander and Louis Ferdinand Christian Albrecht, in Bremen. Carl Friedrich, the elder of the two, is the heir apparent. [12]

Royal House of Hohenzollern table

Table of the Royal Brandenburg-Prussian House of Hohenzollern Genealogy of House of Hohenzollern.svg
Table of the Royal Brandenburg-Prussian House of Hohenzollern

Family Tree of the House of Hohenzollern

House of Hohenzollern
Wappen Hohenzollern 2.svg
House of
Hohenzollern
Burkhard I
Count of Zollern
r. ?-1061
before 1025-1061
Frederick I
Count of Zollern
r. ?-before 1125
?-before 1125
Frederick II
Count of Zollern
r. c. 1125-1145
before 1125-c. 1145
Burkhard II
Count of Zollern
r. c. 1145-1150/5
Gotfried
Count of Zollern
r. c. 1150/5-1160
Frederick I
Burgrave of
Nuremberg

r. c. 1192-1200

Frederick III
Count of Zollern
r. after 1145-c. 1200
before 1139-c. 1200
Franconian Branch Swabian Branch
Conrad I
Burgrave of
Nuremberg

r. 1218-1261
1186-c. 1261
Frederick IV
Count of
Hohenzollern

r. 1218-1255

Frederick II
Burgrave of
Nuremberg

r. 1204-1218
c. 1188-1255
Frederick III
Burgrave of
Nuremberg

r. 1261-1297
c. 1220-1297
Frederick V
the Illustrious

Count of
Hohenzollern

r. 1255-1289
?-1289
John I
Burgrave of
Nuremberg

r. 1297-1300
c. 1279-1300
Frederick IV
Burgrave of
Nuremberg

r. 1300-1332
1287-1332
Frederick VI
the Knight

Count of
Hohenzollern

r. 1289-1298
?-1298
John II
the Acquirer

Burgrave of
Nuremberg

r. 1332-1357
c. 1309-1357
Frederick VII
Count of
Hohenzollern

r. 1298-1309
?-1309
Frederick VIII
Easter Sunday

Count of
Hohenzollern

r. 1309-1333
?-1333
Frederick V
Burgrave of
Nuremberg

r. 1357-1397
1333-1398
Frederick IX
the Old

Count of
Hohenzollern

r. 1333-1377/9
?-1377/9
Frederick
Count of Strasbourg
Brandenburg-
Prussian Branch
John III
Burgrave of
Nuremberg

r. 1397-1420

John I
Margrave of
Brandenburg-
Kulmbach

r. 1398-1420
c. 1369-1420
Frederick I
Elector of
Brandenburg

r. 1415-1440

Frederick VI
Burgrave of
Nuremberg

r. 1397-1427
1371-1440
Frederick X
the Younger

Count of
Hohenzollern

r. 1377/9-1412
?-1412
Frederick XI
the Elder

Count of
Hohenzollern

r. 1377/9–1401
?-1401
John II
the Alchemist

Margrave of
Brandenburg-
Kulmbach

r. 1440-1457
Margrave of
Brandenburg

r. 1426-1440
1406-1464
Frederick II
the Iron

Elector of
Brandenburg

r. 1440-1470
1413-1471
Albrecht III
Achilles

Elector of
Brandenburg

r. 1471-1486
1414-1486
Eitel Frederick I
Count of
Hohenzollern

r. 1426-1439
c. 1384-1439
Frederick XII
Count of
Hohenzollern

r. 1401–1426
before 1401-1443
John II Cicero
Elector of
Brandenburg

r. 1486-1486
1414-1486
Frederick II
Margrave of
Brandenburg-
Ansbach

r. 1486-1536
Margrave of
Brandenburg-
Kulmbach

r. 1495-1515
1460-1536
Siegmund
Margrave of
Brandenburg-
Kulmbach

r. 1486-1495
1468-1495
Jobst Nicholas I
Count of
Hohenzollern

r. 1433-1488
1433-1488
Joachim I
Nestor

Elector of
Brandenburg

r. 1499-1535
1484-1535
Casimir
Margrave of
Brandenburg-
Kulmbach

r. 1515-1527
1481-1527
George
Margrave of
Brandenburg-
Ansbach

r. 1536-1543
1484-1543
Albert
Duke of Prussia
r. 1525-1568
1490-1568
Eitel Frederick II
Count of
Hohenzollern

r. 1488-1512
c. 1452-1512
Joachim II
Hector

Elector of
Brandenburg

r. 1535-1571
1505-1571
John
Margrave of
Brandenburg-
Küstrin

r. 1535-1571
1513-1571
Albert II
Alcibiades

Margrave of
Brandenburg-
Kulmbach

r. 1527-1553
1522-1557
George
Frederick

Margrave of
Brandenburg-
Ansbach

r. 1543-1603
Margrave of
Brandenburg-
Kulmbach

r. 1553-1603
1539-1603
Albert
Frederick

Duke of Prussia
r. 1568-1618
1553-1618
Eitel Frederick III
Count of
Hohenzollern

r. 1512-1525
1494-1525
John George
Elector of
Brandenburg

r. 1571-1598
1525-1598
Charles I
Count of
Hohenzollern

r. 1525-1576
1516-1576
House of
Hohenzollern-
Hechingen
House of
Hohenzollern-
Sigmaringen
House of
Hohenzollern-
Haigerloch
Joachim
Frederick

Elector of
Brandenburg

r. 1598-1608
1546-1608
Christian
Margrave of
Brandenburg-
Bayreuth

r. 1603-1655
1581-1655
Joachim Ernest
Margrave of
Brandenburg-
Ansbach

r. 1603-1625
1583-1625
Eitel Frederick IV
Count of
Hohenzollern-
Hechingen

r. 1576-1605
1545-1605
Charles II
Count of
Hohenzollern-
Sigmaringen

r. 1576-1606
1547-1606
Christopher
Count of
Hohenzollern-
Haigerloch

r. 1576-1592
1552-1592
John
Sigismund

Elector of
Brandenburg

r. 1608-1619
Duke of Prussia
r. 1618-1619
1572-1619
Erdman
Augustus

1615-1651
George Albert
1619-1666
Frederick III
Margrave of
Brandenburg-
Ansbach

r. 1625-1634
1616-1634
Albert II
Margrave of
Brandenburg-
Ansbach

r. 1634-1667
1620-1667
John George
Count of
Hohenzollern-
Hechingen

r. 1605-1623
Prince of
Hohenzollern-
Hechingen

r. 1623
1577-1623
John
Count of
Hohenzollern-
Sigmaringen

r. 1606-1623
Prince of
Hohenzollern-
Sigmaringen

r. 1623-1638
Count of
Hohenzollern-
Haigerloch

r. 1634-1638
1578-1638
John
Christopher

Count of
Hohenzollern-
Haigerloch

r. 1592-1623
1586-1623
George
William

Elector of
Brandenburg

Duke of Prussia
r. 1619-1640
1595-1640
Christian
Ernest

Margrave of
Brandenburg-
Bayreuth

r. 1655-1712
1644-1712
Christian Henry
1661-1708
John
Frederick

Margrave of
Brandenburg-
Ansbach

r. 1667-1686
1654-1686
Eitel Frederick V
Prince of
Hohenzollern-
Hechingen

r. 1623-1661
1601-1661
Philip
Prince of
Hohenzollern-
Hechingen

r. 1661-1671
1616-1671
Meinrad I
Prince of
Hohenzollern-
Sigmaringen

Count of
Hohenzollern-
Haigerloch

r. 1638-1681
1605-1681
Charles
Count of
Hohenzollern-
Haigerloch

r. 1623-1634
1588-1634
Frederick
William
the Great Elector

Elector of
Brandenburg

Duke of Prussia
r. 1640-1688
1620-1688
George
William

Margrave of
Brandenburg-
Bayreuth

r. 1712-1726
1678-1726
George Frederick
Charles

Margrave of
Brandenburg-
Bayreuth

r. 1726-1735
1688-1735
Frederick
Christian

Margrave of
Brandenburg-
Bayreuth

r. 1763-1769
1708-1769
Frederick
William

Prince of
Hohenzollern-
Hechingen

r. 1671-1735
1663-1735
Herman Frederick Maximilian I
Prince of
Hohenzollern-
Sigmaringen

r. 1681-1689
1636-1689
Francis
Anthony

Count of
Hohenzollern-
Haigerloch

r. 1681-1702
1657-1702
Brandenburg-
Schwedt
Branch
Frederick I
the Mercenary King

Duke of Prussia
r. 1688-1701
King in Prussia
r. 1701-1713

Frederick III
Elector of
Brandenburg

r. 1688-1713
1657-1713
Philip
William

Margrave of
Brandenburg-
Schwedt

r. 1688-1711
1669-1711
Frederick
Margrave of
Brandenburg-
Bayreuth

r. 1735-1763
1711-1763
Christian
Albert

Margrave of
Brandenburg-
Ansbach

r. 1686-1692
1675-1692
George
Frederick II
the Younger

Margrave of
Brandenburg-
Ansbach

r. 1692-1703
1678-1703
William
Frederick

Margrave of
Brandenburg-
Ansbach

r. 1703-1723
1686-1723
Frederick
Louis

Prince of
Hohenzollern-
Hechingen

r. 1730-1750
1688-1750
Joseph
Frederick William

Prince of
Hohenzollern-
Hechingen

r. 1750-1798
1717-1798
Francis Xavier Meinrad II
Prince of
Hohenzollern-
Sigmaringen

r. 1689-1715
Count of
Hohenzollern-
Haigerloch

r. 1702-1715
1673-1715
Ferdinand
Leopold

Count of
Hohenzollern-
Haigerloch

r. 1702-1750
1692-1750
Francis
Christopher
Anthony

Count of
Hohenzollern-
Haigerloch

r. 1750-1767
1699-1767
Frederick
William I
the Soldier King

King in Prussia
Elector of
Brandenburg

r. 1713-1740
1688-1740
Frederick
William

Margrave of
Brandenburg-
Schwedt

r. 1731-1771
1700-1771
Frederick
Henry

Margrave of
Brandenburg-
Schwedt

r. 1771-1788
1709-1788
Charles William
Frederick

Margrave of
Brandenburg-
Ansbach

r. 1723-1757
1712-1757
Herman
Prince of
Hohenzollern-
Hechingen

r. 1798-1810
1751-1810
Joseph
Frederick
Ernest

Prince of
Hohenzollern-
Sigmaringen

r. 1715-1769
Count of
Hohenzollern-
Haigerloch

r. 1767-1769
1702-1769
Frederick II
the Great

King in Prussia
r. 1740-1772
King of Prussia
r. 1772-1786
Elector of
Brandenburg

r. 1740-1786
1688-1740
Augustus William
1722-1758
Alexander
Margrave of
Brandenburg-
Ansbach

r. 1757-1791
Margrave of
Brandenburg-
Bayreuth

r. 1769-1791
1736-1806
Frederick
Herman Otto

Prince of
Hohenzollern-
Hechingen

r. 1810-1838
1776-1838
Charles
Frederick

Prince of
Hohenzollern-
Sigmaringen

r. 1769-1785
1724-1785
Frederick
William II

King of Prussia
Elector of
Brandenburg

r. 1786-1797
1744-1797
Constantine
Prince of
Hohenzollern-
Hechingen

r. 1838-1849
1801-1869
Anthony
Alois

Prince of
Hohenzollern-
Sigmaringen

r. 1785-1831
1762-1831
Frederick
William III

King of Prussia
r. 1797-1840
Elector of
Brandenburg

r. 1797-1806
1770-1840
Charles
Prince of
Hohenzollern-
Sigmaringen

r. 1831-1848
1785-1853
Frederick
William IV

King of Prussia
r. 1840-1861
1795-1861
William I
German Emperor
r. 1871-1888
King of Prussia
r. 1861-1888
1797-1888
Charles
Anthony

Prince of
Hohenzollern-
Sigmaringen

r. 1848-1849
Prince of
Hohenzollern

r. 1869-1885
1811-1885
Frederick III
German Emperor
King of Prussia
r. 1888
1831-1888
Leopold
Prince of
Hohenzollern

r. 1885-1905
1835-1905
Charles I
Domnitor of Romania
r. 1866-1881
King of Romania
r. 1881-1914
1839-1914
Romanian Branch
William II
German Emperor
King of Prussia
r. 1888-1918
1859-1941
William
Prince of
Hohenzollern

r. 1905-1927
1864-1927
Ferdinand I
King of Romania
r. 1914-1927
1865-1927
Frederick
Prince of
Hohenzollern

r. 1927-1965
1891-1965
Charles II
King of Romania
r. 1930-1940
1893-1953
Frederick
William

Prince of
Hohenzollern

r. 1965-2010
1924-2010
Michael I
King of Romania
r. 1927-1930,
1940-1947

1921-2017
Charles
Frederick

Prince of
Hohenzollern

r. 2010-present
1952-present

Swabian branch

Combined coat of arms of the House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1849) Schloss Sigmaringen Wappen.jpg
Combined coat of arms of the House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1849)

The cadet Swabian [13] branch of the House of Hohenzollern was founded by Frederick IV, Count of Zollern. The family ruled three territories with seats at, respectively, Hechingen, Sigmaringen and Haigerloch. The counts were elevated to princes in 1623. The Swabian branch of the Hohenzollerns is Roman Catholic.

Affected by economic problems and internal feuds, the Hohenzollern counts from the 14th century onwards came under pressure by their neighbors, the Counts of Württemberg and the cities of the Swabian League, whose troops besieged and finally destroyed Hohenzollern Castle in 1423. Nevertheless, the Hohenzollerns retained their estates, backed by their Brandenburg cousins and the Imperial House of Habsburg. In 1535, Count Charles I of Hohenzollern (1512–1576) received the counties of Sigmaringen and Veringen as Imperial fiefs. [6]

In 1576, when Charles I, Count of Hohenzollern died, his county was divided to form the three Swabian branches. Eitel Frederick IV took Hohenzollern with the title of Hohenzollern-Hechingen, Karl II took Sigmaringen and Veringen, and Christopher got Haigerloch. Christopher's family died out in 1634.

In 1695, the remaining two Swabian branches entered into an agreement with the Margrave of Brandenburg, which provided that if both branches became extinct, the principalities should fall to Brandenburg. Because of the Revolutions of 1848, Constantine, Prince of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Karl Anton, Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen abdicated their thrones in December 1849. The principalities were ruled by the Kings of Prussia from December 1849 onwards, with the Hechingen and Sigmaringen branches obtaining official treatment as cadets of the Prussian royal family.

The Hohenzollern-Hechingen branch became extinct in 1869. A descendant of this branch was Countess Sophie Chotek, morganatic wife of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Lotharingen.

Counts of Hohenzollern (1204–1575)

Hohenzollern-herb-rodowy.jpg
Hohenzollern region, in present-day Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany (red color) and their Prussian cousins' kingdom (light beige) German Empire - Prussia - Hohenzollern (1871).svg
Hohenzollern region, in present-day Baden-Württemberg, Germany (red color) and their Prussian cousins' kingdom (light beige)

In 1204, the County of Hohenzollern was established out of the fusion of the County of Zollern and the Burgraviate of Nuremberg. The Swabian branch inherited the county of Zollern and, being descended from Frederick I of Nuremberg, were all named "Friedrich" down through the 11th generation. [14] Each one's numeral is counted from the first Friedrich to rule his branch's appanage. [14]

The most senior of these in the 12th century, Count Frederick VIII (d. 1333), had two sons, the elder of whom became Frederick IX (d. 1379), first Count of Hohenzollern, and fathered Friedrich X who left no sons when he died in 1412. [14]

But the younger son of Friedrich VIII, called Friedrich of Strassburg, uniquely, took no numeral of his own, retaining the old title "Count of Zollern" and pre-deceased his brother in 1364/65. [14] Prince Wilhelm Karl zu Isenburg's 1957 genealogical series, Europäische Stammtafeln , says Friedrich of Strassburg shared, rather, in the rule of Zollern with his elder brother until his premature death. [14]

It appears, but is not stated, that Strassburg's son became the recognized co-ruler of his cousin Friedrich X (as compensation for having received no appanage and/or because of incapacity on the part of Friedrich X) and, as such, assumed (or is, historically, attributed) the designation Frederick XI although he actually pre-deceased Friedrich X, dying in 1401.

Friedrich XI, however, left two sons who jointly succeeded their cousin-once-removed, being Count Frederick XII (d. childless 1443) and Count Eitel Friedrich I (d. 1439), the latter becoming the ancestor of all subsequent branches of the Princes of Hohenzollern. [14]

In the 12th century, a son of Frederick I secured the county of Hohenberg. The county remained in the possession of the family until 1486.

The influence of the Swabian line was weakened by several partitions of its lands. In the 16th century, the situation changed completely when Eitel Frederick II, a friend and adviser of the emperor Maximilian I, received the district of Haigerloch. His grandson Charles I was granted the counties of Sigmaringen and Vehringen by Charles V.

Counts, later Princes of Hohenzollern-Hechingen (1576–1849)

Stetten Abbey church in Hechingen, the burial place of the Swabian line Klosterkirche Stetten (Hechingen).JPG
Stetten Abbey church in Hechingen, the burial place of the Swabian line
Hohenzollern-Hechingen-1.PNG

The County of Hohenzollern-Hechingen was established in 1576 with allodial rights. It included the original County of Zollern, with the Hohenzollern Castle and the monastery at Stetten.

In December 1849, the ruling princes of both Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen abdicated their thrones, and their principalities were incorporated as the Prussian province of Hohenzollern. [6] The Hechingen branch became extinct in dynastic line with Konstantin's death in 1869.

PortraitName
Dynastic StatusReignBirthDeathMarriages
Eitelivs Fridericvs Comes Zollerensis.jpg Eitel Friedrich IV Son of Charles I 1576–160515451605Veronica of Ortenburg

Sibylle of Zimmern
Johanna of Eberstein

Coat of Arms of House of Hohenzollern (small).png Johann Georg Son of

raised to Prince in 1623

1605–162315771623Franziska of Salm-Neufville
Coat of Arms of House of Hohenzollern (small).png Eitel Frederick VSon of

also count of Hohenzollern-Hechingen

1623–166116011661Maria Elisabeth van Bergh ’s-Heerenberg
Coat of Arms of House of Hohenzollern (small).png Philipp Brother of1661–167116161671Marie Sidonie of Baden-Rodemachern
Friedrich Wilhelm, Furst von Hohenzollern-Hechingen (1663-1735).jpg Friedrich Wilhelm Son of1671–173516631735Maria Leopoldina of Sinzendorf

Maximiliane Magdalena of Lützau

Coat of Arms of House of Hohenzollern (small).png Friedrich Ludwig Son of1735–175016881750unmarried
JosefHohenzollernHechingen.jpg Josef Friedrich Wilhelm Son of Herman Frederick of Hohenzollern-Hechingen1750–179817171798Maria Theresia Folch de Cardona y Silva

Maria Theresia of Waldburg-Zeil

Hermannhohenzollern.jpg Hermann Son of Franz Xaver of Hohenzollern-Hechingen1798–181017511810Louise of Merode-Westerloo

Maximiliane of Gavre
Maria Antonia of Waldburg-Zeil-Wurzach

Coat of Arms of House of Hohenzollern (small).png Friedrich Hermann Otto Son of1810–183817761838 Pauline, Duchess of Sagan
Konstantin von Hohenzollern-Hechingen.jpg Constantine Son of1838–184918011869 Eugénie de Beauharnais

Amalie Schenk von Geyern

Counts of Hohenzollern-Haigerloch (1576–1634 and 1681–1767)

Wappen Haigerloch.svg

The County of Hohenzollern-Haigerloch was established in 1576 without allodial rights.

Between 1634 and 1681, the county was temporarily integrated into the principality of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen.

Upon the death of Francis Christopher Anton in 1767, the Haigerloch territory was incorporated into the principality of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen.

Counts, later Princes of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1576–1849)

Sigmaringen Castle Sigmaringen Schloss BW 2015-04-28 17-37-14.jpg
Sigmaringen Castle

The County of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was established in 1576 with allodial rights and a seat at Sigmaringen Castle.

Hohenzollern-2.PNG

In December 1849, sovereignty over the principality was yielded to the Franconian branch of the family and incorporated into the Kingdom of Prussia, which accorded status as cadets of the Prussian Royal Family to the Swabian Hohenzollerns. The last ruling Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, Karl Anton, would later serve as Minister President of Prussia between 1858 and 1862.

PortraitName
Dynastic StatusReignBirthDeathMarriages
Karl II hohenzollern.jpg Charles II Son of Charles I 1576–160615471606Euphrosyne of Oettingen-Wallerstein

Elisabeth of Palant

Jean de Hohenzollern 1578-1638.jpg Johann Son of

elevated to Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen in 1623

1606–163815781638Johanna of Hohenzollern-Hechingen
Meinrad von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen.jpg Meinrad I Son of1638–168116051681Anna Marie of Törring at Seefeld
Maximilien I de Hohenzollern.jpg Maximilian I Son of1681–168916361689Maria Clara of Berg-'s-Heerenberg
Coat of Arms of House of Hohenzollern (small).png Meinrad II Son of1689–171516731715Johanna Catharina of Montfort
JosefFriedrErnstHohenzSig.jpg Joseph Friedrich Ernst Son of1715–176917021769Marie Franziska of Oettingen-Spielberg

Judith of Closen-Arnstorf
Maria Theresa of Waldburg-Trauchburg

Coat of Arms of House of Hohenzollern (small).png Karl Friedrich Son of1769–178517241785Johanna of Hohenzollern-Bergh
Adel im Wandel401.jpg Anton Aloys Son of1785–183117621831 Amalie Zephyrine of Salm-Kyrburg
Adel im Wandel403.jpg Karl Son of1831–184817851853 Marie Antoinette Murat

Katharina of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst

Richard Lauchert - Furst Karl Anton von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1811-1885).jpg Karl Anton Son of1848–184918111885 Josephine of Baden

House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen after 1849

Map of the Prussian Province of Hohenzollern after 1850 Karte-Hohenzollern.png
Map of the Prussian Province of Hohenzollern after 1850
Karl Friedrich, Prince of Hohenzollern, head of the Swabian branch Graf von dem Bergh, Fotografie Furst Karl Friedrich von Hohenzollern.jpg
Karl Friedrich, Prince of Hohenzollern, head of the Swabian branch

The family continued to use the title of Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. After the Hechingen branch became extinct in 1869, the Sigmaringen branch adopted title of Prince of Hohenzollern.

In 1866, Prince Charles of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was chosen prince of Romania, becoming King Carol I of Romania in 1881.

Charles's elder brother, Leopold, Prince of Hohenzollern, was offered the Spanish throne in 1870 after a revolt exiled Isabella II in 1868. Although encouraged by Bismarck to accept, Leopold declined in the face of French opposition. Nonetheless, Bismarck altered and then published the Ems telegram to create a casus belli : France declared war, but Bismarck's Germany won the Franco-Prussian War.

The head of the Sigmaringen branch (the only extant line of the Swabian branch of the dynasty) is Karl Friedrich, styled His Highness The Prince of Hohenzollern. His official seat is Sigmaringen Castle. [6]

Kings of the Romanians

Kingdom of Romania - Small CoA.svg

Reigning (1866–1947)

Coronation of Carol I in Bucharest Crowning of Carol I, 10 May 1881.jpg
Coronation of Carol I in Bucharest
Evolution of Romania Romania territory during 20th century.gif
Evolution of Romania

The Principality of Romania was established in 1862, after the Ottoman vassal states of Wallachia and Moldavia had been united in 1859 under Alexandru Ioan Cuza as Prince of Romania in a personal union. He was deposed in 1866 by the Romanian parliament.

Prince Charles of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was invited to become reigning Prince of Romania in 1866. In 1881 he became Carol I, King of Romania. Carol I had an only daughter who died young, so the younger son of his brother Leopold, Prince Ferdinand of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, would succeed his uncle as King of Romania in 1914, and his descendants, having converted to the Orthodox Church, continued to reign there until the end of the monarchy in 1947.

PortraitName
Dynastic StatusReignBirthDeathMarriages
Carol I King of Romania.jpg Carol I Son of Karl Anton, Prince of Hohenzollern

titled as Prince until 1881

1866–191418391914 Elisabeth of Wied
King Ferdinand of Romania.jpg Ferdinand I Nephew of Carol I 1914–192718651927 Marie of Edinburgh
Mihai.jpg Michael I Grandson of Ferdinand I
1st reign
1927–1930 (regency)19212017 Anne of Bourbon-Parma
Carol al II-lea.jpg Carol II Son of Ferdinand I 1930–194018931953 Zizi Lambrino

Helen of Greece and Denmark
Magda Lupescu

Mihai.jpg Michael I Son of Carol II
2nd reign
1940–194719212017 Anne of Bourbon-Parma

Succession since 1947

In 1947, the King Michael I abdicated and the country was proclaimed a People's Republic. Michael did not press his claim to the defunct Romanian throne, but he was welcomed back to the country after half a century in exile as a private citizen, with substantial former royal properties being placed at his disposal. However, his dynastic claim was not recognized by post-Communist Romanians.

On 10 May 2011, King Michael I severed the dynastic ties between the Romanian Royal Family and the House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. [15] After that the branch of the Hohenzollerns was dynastically represented only by the last king Michael, and his daughters. Having no sons, he declared that his dynastic heir, instead of being a male member of the Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen princely family to which he formerly belonged patrilineally and in accordance with the last Romanian monarchical constitution, should be his eldest daughter Margareta. [16]

The royal house remains popular in Romania [17] and in 2014 Prime Minister Victor Ponta promised a referendum on whether or not to reinstate the monarchy if he were re-elected. [18]

Residences

Palaces of the Prussian Hohenzollerns

Palaces of the Franconian branches

Palaces of the Swabian Hohenzollerns

Property claims

In mid-2019, it was revealed that Prince Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia, Head of the House of Hohenzollern had filed claims for permanent right of residency for his family in Cecilienhof, or one of two other Hohenzollern palaces in Potsdam, as well as return of the family library, 266 paintings, an imperial crown and sceptre, and the letters of Empress Augusta Victoria. [19]

Central to the argument was that Monbijou Palace, which had been permanently given to the family following the fall of the Kaiser, was demolished by the East German government in 1959. Lawyers for the German state argued that the involvement of members of the family in National Socialism had voided any such rights. [19]

In June 2019, a claim made by Prince Georg Friedrich that Rheinfels Castle be returned to the Hohenzollern family was dismissed by a court. In 1924, the ruined Castle had been given by the state of Rhineland-Palatinate to the town of St Goar, under the provision it was not sold. In 1998, the town leased the ruins to a nearby hotel. His case made the claim that this constituted a breach of the bequest. [20]

Coats of arms

Members of the family after abdication

Royal Prussian branch

Princely Swabian branch

See also

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Hohenzollern Castle is the ancestral seat of the imperial House of Hohenzollern. The third of three hilltop castles built on the site, it is located atop Mount Hohenzollern, above and south of Hechingen, on the edge of the Swabian Jura of central Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

The state of Prussia developed from the State of the Teutonic Order. The original flag of the Teutonic Knights had been a black cross on a white flag. Emperor Frederick II in 1229 granted them the right to use the black Eagle of the Holy Roman Empire. This "Prussian Eagle" remained the coats of arms of the successive Prussian states until 1947.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Margraviate of Brandenburg</span> Holy Roman Empire principality (1157–1806)

The Margraviate of Brandenburg was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire from 1157 to 1806 that played a pivotal role in the history of Germany and Central Europe.

Hohenzollern-Haigerloch was a small county in southwestern Germany. Its rulers belonged to the Swabian branch of the House of Hohenzollern. It became part of the neighboring Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen in 1767.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Frederick William, Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt</span> German nobleman

Frederick William of Brandenburg-Schwedt was a German nobleman. In his lifetime, from 1711 to 1771, he held the titles Prince in Prussia and Margrave of Brandenburg, with the style Royal Highness. He was made a knight of the Order of the Black Eagle.

The German Emperors after 1873 had a variety of titles and coats of arms, which in various compositions became the officially used titles and coats of arms. The title and coat of arms were last fixed in 1873, but the titles did not necessarily mean that the area was really dominated, and sometimes even several princes bore the same title.

References

  1. "Hohenzollern". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). HarperCollins. Retrieved 18 May 2019.
  2. "Hohenzollern". Collins English Dictionary . HarperCollins . Retrieved 18 May 2019.
  3. "Hohenzollern" (US) and "Hohenzollern". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 2020-02-14.
  4. "Hohenzollern". Merriam-Webster Dictionary . Retrieved 18 May 2019.
  5. "Encyclopædia Britannica. Hohenzollern Dynasty".
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Genealogisches Handbuch des Adels, Fürstliche Häuser XIX. "Haus Hohenzollern". C.A. Starke Verlag, 2011, pp. 30–33. ISBN   978-3-7980-0849-6.
  7. Jeep, John M. (2001). Jeep, John. Medieval Germany: An Encyclopedia. ISBN   9780824076443.
  8. "Cawley, Charles. Swabia, Nobility".
  9. 1 2 3 Schmid, Ludwig (1862). Geschichte der Grafen von Zollern-Hohenberg. Geschichte der Grafen von Zollern-Hohenberg. Anhang. Historisch-topographische Zusammenstellung der Grafschaft und Besitzungen des Hauses Zollern-Hohenberg. Google Books: Gebrüder Scheitlin. Retrieved February 1, 2013. schmid zollern.
  10. Christopher Clark The Iron Kingdom: The Rise and Downfall of Prussia 1600-1947 (Penguin, 2007) pp. 115–121
  11. Christopher Clark (1996). "Confessional policy and the limits of state action: Frederick William III and the Prussian Church Union 1817–40". Historical Journal. 39 (4): 985–1004. doi:10.1017/S0018246X00024730. JSTOR   2639865. S2CID   159976974.
  12. "Official Website of the House of Hohenzollern: Prinz Georg Friedrich von Preußen". Archived from the original on 2014-02-18. Retrieved 2014-02-07.
  13. Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe, Jiří Louda & Michael Maclagan, 1981, pp. 178–179.
  14. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Huberty, Michel; Giraud, Alain; Magdelaine, F.; B. (1989). L'Allemagne Dynastique, Tome V – Hohenzollern-Waldeck. France: Laballery. pp. 30, 33. ISBN   2-901138-05-5.
  15. "Romania's former King Michael ends ties with German Hohenzollern dynasty". The Canadian Press. Retrieved 2011-05-11.
  16. ""King Michael I broke ties with historical and dynastic House of Hohenzollern" in Adevarul – News Bucharest, 10 May 2011".
  17. V.P. Long live the ex-king; The former King Michael is received warmly in parliament economist.com October 25, 2011
  18. "Romania may hold a referendum on the return of Monarchy". royalcentral.co.uk. 29 October 2014.
  19. 1 2 Derek Scally (25 July 2019). "The fall of the House of Hohenzollern". Irish Times.
  20. Josie Le Blond (25 June 2019). "Kaiser's descendant loses court battle to regain 13th-century castle". The Guardian.

Further reading

Royal house
House of Hohenzollern
Founding year: 12th century
German unification Ruling House of Germany
18 January 1871 – 9 November 1918
Vacant
Prussia established Ruling House of Prussia
1525 – 9 November 1918
Romanian unification Ruling House of Romania
26 March 1881 – 30 December 1947
Vacant