House of Lancaster

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House of Lancaster
Arms of Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Leicester and Lancaster.svg
As descendants of the sovereign in the male line, the Earls of Lancaster bore the arms of the kingdom differenced by a label azure of three points each charged with three fleurs de lys Or. The last male of this family was granted a dukedom, which was then re-created for the second house.
Parent house House of Plantagenet
Country Kingdom of England
Founded1267
Founder Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster and Leicester
Current headExtinct in the male line
Final ruler Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster
Titles Earl of Lancaster
Earl of Leicester
Count of Champagne and Brie
Lord of Beaufort and Nogent [1]
Earl of Moray
Earl Ferrers
Earl of Derby
Earl of Salisbury
Earl of Lincoln
Duke of Lancaster
Estate(s)England
Dissolution1361
House of Lancaster
Arms of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster.svg
Arms of John of Gaunt, the arms of the kingdom differenced by a label ermine. His royal descendants bore the arms undifferenced.
Parent house House of Plantagenet
Country Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg Kingdom of England
France moderne.svg Kingdom of France
Royal Coat of Arms of the Crown of Castile (1284-1390).svg Kingdom of Castille
PortugueseFlag1385.svg Kingdom of Portugal
Founded1362
Founder John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster
Current headExtinct in the male line
Final ruler Henry VI of England
Titles Duke of Lancaster
King of England
King of France
Estate(s)England
Dissolution1471
Cadet branches

The House of Lancaster was the name of two cadet branches of the royal House of Plantagenet. The first house was created when Henry III of England created the Earldom of Lancaster from which the house was namedfor his second son Edmund Crouchback in 1267. Edmund had already been created Earl of Leicester in 1265 and was granted the lands and privileges of Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, after de Montfort's death and attainder at the end of the Second Barons' War. [2] When Edmund's son Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster, inherited his father-in-law's estates and title of Earl of Lincoln he became at a stroke the most powerful nobleman in England, with lands throughout the kingdom and the ability to raise vast private armies to wield power at national and local levels. [3] This brought himand Henry, his younger brotherinto conflict with their cousin Edward II of England, leading to Thomas's execution. Henry inherited Thomas's titles and he and his son, who was also called Henry, gave loyal service to Edward's son Edward III of England.

In history and heraldry, a cadet branch consists of the male-line descendants of a monarch or patriarch's younger sons (cadets). In the ruling dynasties and noble families of much of Europe and Asia, the family's major assets—realm, titles, fiefs, property and income—have historically been passed from a father to his firstborn son in what is known as primogeniture; younger sons—cadets—inherited less wealth and authority to pass to future generations of descendants.

House of Plantagenet Royal dynasty in medieval England

The House of Plantagenet was a royal house which originated from the lands of Anjou in France. The name Plantagenet is used by modern historians to identify four distinct royal houses: the Angevins, who were also counts of Anjou; the main body of the Plantagenets following the loss of Anjou; and the Plantagenets' two cadet branches, the houses of Lancaster and York. The family held the English throne from 1154, with the accession of Henry II, until 1485, when Richard III died in battle.

Henry III of England King of England

Henry III, also known as Henry of Winchester, was King of England, Lord of Ireland, and Duke of Aquitaine from 1216 until his death. The son of King John and Isabella of Angoulême, Henry assumed the throne when he was only nine in the middle of the First Barons' War. Cardinal Guala declared the war against the rebel barons to be a religious crusade and Henry's forces, led by William Marshal, defeated the rebels at the battles of Lincoln and Sandwich in 1217. Henry promised to abide by the Great Charter of 1225, which limited royal power and protected the rights of the major barons. His early rule was dominated first by Hubert de Burgh and then Peter des Roches, who re-established royal authority after the war. In 1230, the King attempted to reconquer the provinces of France that had once belonged to his father, but the invasion was a debacle. A revolt led by William Marshal's son, Richard, broke out in 1232, ending in a peace settlement negotiated by the Church.

Contents

The second house of Lancaster was descended from John of Gaunt, who married the heiress of the first house, Blanche of Lancaster. Edward III married all his sons to wealthy English heiresses rather than following his predecessors' practice of finding continental political marriages for royal princes. Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster, had no male heir so Edward married his son John to Henry's heiress daughter and John's third cousin Blanche of Lancaster. This gave John the vast wealth of the House of Lancaster. Their son Henry usurped the throne in 1399, creating one of the factions in the Wars of the Roses. There was an intermittent dynastic struggle between the descendants of Edward III. In these wars, the term Lancastrian became a reference to members of the family and their supporters. The family provided England with three kings: Henry IV, who ruled from 1399 to 1413, Henry V (1413–1422), and Henry VI (1422–1461 and 1470–1471).

John of Gaunt 14th-century English nobleman, royal duke, and politician

John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster was an English prince, military leader, and statesman. He was the third of the five sons of King Edward III of England who survived to adulthood. Due to his royal origin, advantageous marriages, and some generous land grants, Gaunt was one of the richest men of his era, and an influential figure during the reigns of both his father, Edward, and his nephew, Richard II. As Duke of Lancaster, he is the founder of the royal House of Lancaster, whose members would ascend to the throne after his death. His birthplace, Ghent, corrupted into English as Gaunt, was the origin for his name. When he became unpopular later in life, scurrilous rumours and lampoons circulated that he was actually the son of a Ghent butcher, perhaps because Edward III was not present at the birth. This story always drove him to fury.

Blanche of Lancaster 14th-century English noblewoman

Blanche of Lancaster was a member of the English royal House of Plantagenet and the daughter of the kingdom's wealthiest and most powerful peer, Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster. She was the first wife of John of Gaunt, the mother of King Henry IV, and the grandmother of King Henry V of England.

Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster Duke of lancaster,

Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster, 4th Earl of Leicester and Lancaster, Earl of Derby, of Bolingbroke Castle in Lincolnshire, was a member of the English royal family and a prominent English diplomat, politician, and soldier. He was the wealthiest and most powerful peer of the realm. The son and heir of Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, and Maud Chaworth, he became one of King Edward III's most trusted captains in the early phases of the Hundred Years' War and distinguished himself with victory in the Battle of Auberoche. He was a founding member and the second Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1348, and in 1351 was created Duke of Lancaster. An intelligent and reflective man, Grosmont taught himself to write and was the author of the book Livre de seyntz medicines, a highly personal devotional treatise. He is remembered as one of the founders and early patrons of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, which was established by two guilds of the town in 1352.

The House became extinct in the male line upon the murder in the Tower of London of Henry VI, following the battlefield execution of his son Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales, by supporters of the House of York in 1471. Lancastrian cognatic descent from John of Gaunt and Blanche of Lancaster's daughter Phillipa continued in the royal houses of Spain and Portugal while the Lancastrian political cause was maintained by Henry Tudor a relatively unknown scion of the Beauforts eventually leading to the establishment of the House of Tudor. The Lancastrians left a legacy through the patronage of the artsmost notably in founding Eton College and King's College, Cambridge but to historians' chagrin their propaganda, and that of their Tudor successors, means that it is Shakespeare's partly fictionalized history plays rather than medievalist scholarly research that has the greater influence on modern perceptions of the dynasty. [4]

Tower of London A historic castle on the north bank of the River Thames in central London

The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames in central London. It lies within the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, which is separated from the eastern edge of the square mile of the City of London by the open space known as Tower Hill. It was founded towards the end of 1066 as part of the Norman Conquest of England. The White Tower, which gives the entire castle its name, was built by William the Conqueror in 1078 and was a resented symbol of oppression, inflicted upon London by the new ruling elite. The castle was used as a prison from 1100 until 1952, although that was not its primary purpose. A grand palace early in its history, it served as a royal residence. As a whole, the Tower is a complex of several buildings set within two concentric rings of defensive walls and a moat. There were several phases of expansion, mainly under kings Richard I, Henry III, and Edward I in the 12th and 13th centuries. The general layout established by the late 13th century remains despite later activity on the site.

Edward of Westminster, also known as Edward of Lancaster, was the only son of King Henry VI of England and Margaret of Anjou. He was killed aged seventeen at the Battle of Tewkesbury, making him the only heir apparent to the English throne to die in battle.

House of York Cadet branch of the English royal House of Plantagenet

The House of York was a cadet branch of the English royal House of Plantagenet. Three of its members became kings of England in the late 15th century. The House of York was descended in the male line from Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, the fourth surviving son of Edward III, but also represented Edward's senior line, being cognatic descendants of Lionel, Duke of Clarence, Edward III's second surviving son. It is based on these descents that they claimed the English crown. Compared with the House of Lancaster, it had a senior claim to the throne of England according to cognatic primogeniture but junior claim according to the agnatic primogeniture. The reign of this dynasty ended with the death of Richard III of England at the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485. It became extinct in the male line with the death of Edward Plantagenet, 17th Earl of Warwick, in 1499.

Origin of the Earls of Lancaster

After the supporters of Henry III of England suppressed opposition from the English nobility in the Second Barons' War, Henry granted to his second son Edmund Crouchback the titles and possessions forfeited by attainder of the barons' leader, Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, including the Earldom of Leicester, on 26 October 1265. Later grants included the first Earldom of Lancaster on 30 June 1267 and that of Earl Ferrers in 1301. Edmund was also Count of Champagne and Brie from 1276 by right of his wife. [2] Henry IV of England would later use his descent from Edmund to legitimise his claim to the throne, even making the spurious claim that Edmund was the elder son of Henry but had been passed over as king because of his deformity. [5]

Second Barons War 1260s civil war in England

The Second Barons' War (1264–1267) was a civil war in England between the forces of a number of barons led by Simon de Montfort against the royalist forces of King Henry III, led initially by the king himself and later by his son, the future King Edward I. The war featured a series of massacres of Jews by Montfort's supporters including his sons Henry and Simon, in attacks aimed at seizing and destroying evidence of Baronial debts. After a rule of just over a year, Montfort was killed by forces loyal to the King in the Battle of Evesham.

Edmund Crouchback Earl of Lancaster and Leicester

Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster, 1st Earl of Leicester, of Grosmont Castle in Monmouthshire, Wales, a member of the House of Plantagenet, was the second surviving son of King Henry III of England and Eleanor of Provence. In his childhood he had a claim on the Kingdom of Sicily, but he never ruled there. He was granted all the lands of Simon de Montfort in 1265, and from 1267 he was titled Earl of Leicester. In that year he also began to rule Lancashire, but he did not take the title Earl of Lancaster until 1276. Between 1276 and 1284 he governed the counties of Champagne and Brie with his second wife, Blanche of Artois, in the name of her daughter Joan, and he was described in the English patent rolls as earl of Lancaster and Champagne. His nickname, "Crouchback", refers to his participation in the Ninth Crusade.

In English criminal law, attainder or attinctura was the metaphorical "stain" or "corruption of blood" which arose from being condemned for a serious capital crime. It entailed losing not only one's life, property and hereditary titles, but typically also the right to pass them on to one's heirs. Both men and women condemned of capital crimes could be attainted.

Seal of Edmund Crouchback Edmond1.jpg
Seal of Edmund Crouchback

Edmund's second marriage to Blanche of Artois, the widow of the King of Navarre, placed him at the centre of the European aristocracy. Blanche's daughter Joan I of Navarre was queen regnant of Navarre and through her marriage to Philip IV of France was queen consort of France. Edmund's son Thomas became the most powerful nobleman in England, gaining the Earldoms of Lincoln and Salisbury through marriage to the heiress of Henry de Lacy, 3rd Earl of Lincoln. His income was £11,000 per annumdouble that of the next wealthiest earl. [3]

Blanche of Artois Queen consort of Navarre

Blanche of Artois was a member of the Capetian House of Artois who, as queen dowager, held regency over the Kingdom of Navarre and the County of Champagne. She was first married to Henry I of Navarre, after whose death she became regent in the name of their infant daughter, Joan I. She passed on the regency of Navarre to Philip III of France, her cousin and her daughter's prospective father-in-law, but retained the administration of Champagne. She later shared the government of Champagne with her second husband, the English prince Edmund Crouchback, until her daughter reached the age of majority.

Henry I of Navarre King of navarre

Henry the Fat was King of Navarre and Count of Champagne and Brie from 1270 until his death.

Joan I of Navarre Queen of Navarre

Joan I was queen regnant of Navarre and countess of Champagne from 1274 until 1305; she was also queen consort of France by marriage to Philip IV of France. She was the daughter of king Henry I of Navarre and Blanche of Artois.

Thomas and his younger brother Henry served in the coronation of their cousin King Edward II of England on 25 February 1308; Thomas carried Curtana, the Sword of Mercy, and Henry carried the royal sceptre. [6] After initially supporting Edward, Thomas became one of the Lords Ordainers, who demanded the banishment of Piers Gaveston and the governance of the realm by a baronial council. After Gaveston was captured, Thomas took the lead in his trial and execution at Warwick in 1312. [7] Edward's authority was weakened by poor governance and defeat by the Scots at the Battle of Bannockburn. This allowed Thomas to restrain Edward's power by republishing the Ordinances of 1311. Following this achievement Thomas took little part in the governance of the realm and instead retreated to Pontefract Castle. [8] This allowed Edward to regroup and re-arm, leading to a fragile peace in August 1318 with the Treaty of Leake. In 1321 Edward's rule again collapsed into civil war. Thomas raised a northern army but was defeated and captured at the Battle of Boroughbridge in March 1322. He was sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered but because he was Edward's cousin he was given a quicker death by beheading. [9]

Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster Earl of lancaster and leicester

Henry, 3rd Earl of Leicester and Lancaster was a grandson of King Henry III (1216–1272) of England and was one of the principals behind the deposition of King Edward II (1307–1327), his first cousin.

Coronation of the British monarch ceremony (specifically, initiation rite) in which the monarch of the United Kingdom is formally invested with regalia and crowned at Westminster Abbey

The coronation of the British monarch is a ceremony in which the monarch of the United Kingdom is formally invested with regalia and crowned at Westminster Abbey. It corresponds to the coronations that formerly took place in other European monarchies, all of which have abandoned coronations in favour of inauguration or enthronement ceremonies.

Edward II of England King of England

Edward II, also called Edward of Carnarvon, was King of England from 1307 until he was deposed in January 1327. The fourth son of Edward I, Edward became the heir apparent to the throne following the death of his elder brother Alphonso. Beginning in 1300, Edward accompanied his father on campaigns to pacify Scotland, and in 1306 was knighted in a grand ceremony at Westminster Abbey. Following his father's death, Edward succeeded to the throne in 1307. He married Isabella, the daughter of the powerful King Philip IV of France, in 1308, as part of a long-running effort to resolve tensions between the English and French crowns.

Henry joined the revolt of Edward's wife Isabella of France and Mortimer in 1326, pursuing and capturing Edward at Neath in South Wales. [9] Following Edward's deposition at the Parliament of Kenilworth in 1326 and reputed murder at Berkeley Castle, [10] Thomas's conviction was posthumously reversed and Henry regained possession of the Earldoms of Lancaster, Derby, Salisbury and Lincoln that had been forfeit for Thomas's treason. His restored prestige led to him knighting the young King Edward III of England before his coronation. [11] Mortimer lost support over the Treaty of Edinburgh–Northampton that formalised Scotland's independence, and his developing power in the Welsh Marches provoked jealousy from the barons. When Mortimer called a parliament to make his new powers and estates permanent with the title of Earl of March in 1328, Henry led the opposition and held a counter-meeting. In response, Mortimer ravaged the lands of Lancaster and checked the revolt. Edward III was able to assume control in 1330 but Henry's further influence was restricted by poor health and blindness for the last fifteen years of his life. [12] [13]

Duchy and Palatinate of Lancaster

English Royalty
Second House of Lancaster
Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg
John, Duke of Lancaster
Henry IV
Henry V
Henry VI

Henry's son, also called Henry, was born at the castle of Grosmont in Monmouthshire between 1299 and 1314. [1] According to the younger Henry's memoirs, he was better at martial arts than academic subjects and did not learn to read until later in life. [14] Henry was coeval with Edward III and was pivotal to his reign, becoming his best friend and most trusted commander. [15] Henry was knighted in 1330, represented his father in parliament and fought in Edward's Scottish campaign. [16] After the outbreak of the Hundred Years' War, Henry took part in several diplomatic missions and minor campaigns and was present at the great English victory in the naval Battle of Sluys in 1340. [17] Later, he was required to commit himself as hostage in the Low Countries for Edward's considerable debts. He remained hostage for a year and had to pay a large ransom for his own release. [18]

In 1345, Edward III launched a major, three-pronged attack on France. The Earl of Northampton attacked from Brittany, Edward from Flanders, and Henry from Aquitaine in the south. [15] Moving rapidly through the country, Henry confronted the Comte d'Isle at the Battle of Auberoche and achieved a victory described as "the greatest single achievement of Lancaster's entire military career". [19] The ransom from the prisoners has been estimated at £50,000. [20] Edward rewarded Henry by including him as a founding knight of the Order of the Garter. [21] An even greater honour was bestowed on Lancaster when Edward created him Duke of Lancaster. The title of duke was relatively new in England, with only Cornwall being a previous ducal title. Lancaster was also given palatinate status for the county of Lancashire, which entailed a separate administration independent of the crown. [22] There were two other counties palatine; Durham was an ancient ecclesiastical palatinate and Chester was crown property.

In 1350, Henry was present at the naval victory at Winchelsea, where he saved the life of the Black Prince. [23] He spent 1351-2 on crusade in Prussia where a quarrel with Otto, Duke of Brunswick, almost led to a duel between the two men, which was only averted by the intervention of John II of France. [24] As campaigning in France resumed, Henry participated in the last great offensive of the Rheims campaign of 1359–60the first phase of the Hundred Years' Warbefore returning to England where he fell ill and died, most likely of the plague, at Leicester Castle. [25]

Edward III of England married John of Gaunt, his third surviving son, to Henry's heiress Blanche of Lancaster. On Henry's death, Edward conferred on Gaunt the second creation of the title of Duke of Lancaster, which made Gaunt, after Edward, the wealthiest landowner in England. Gaunt enjoyed great political influence during his lifetime, but upon his death in 1399 his lands were confiscated by Richard II. Gaunt's exiled son and heir Henry of Bolingbroke returned home and gathered military support in clear contravention of Richard's treason act of 1397, which included a definition of treason of "or [to] ... raiseth People and rideth against the King to make War within his Realm ...". Although he claimed his aim was restoration of his Lancaster inheritance, this Act and Henry's knowledge of Richard's charactersuspicious and vindictiveprobably meant Henry knew that only by removing Richard from power could he be secure. [26] Henry unified popular opposition to Richard II, took control of the kingdom and Richardrecognising that he had insufficient support to resistsurrendered to Henry's forces at Conwy Castle. Henry instigated a commission to decide who should be king. Richard was forced to abdicate and although Henry was not next in line, he was chosen by an unlawfully constituted parliament dominated by his supporters. [27] After the first unrest of his reign and a revolt by the Earls of Salisbury, Gloucester, Exeter and Surrey, Richard reputedly starved to death. [28] There is some debate as to whether this was self-inflicted or ordered by Henry to end the risk of restoration without leaving incriminating marks on the body. [29]

Reign of Henry IV

There is much debate amongst historians about Henry's accession, in part because some see it as a cause of the Wars of the Roses. For many historians, the accession by force of the throne broke principles the Plantagenets had established successfully over two and a half centuries and allowed any magnate with sufficient power and Plantagenet blood to have ambitions to assume the throne. Richard had attempted to disinherit Henry and remove him from the succession. In response Henry's legal advisors, led by William Thirning, dissuaded Henry from claiming the throne by right of conquest and instead look for legal justification. [30] Although Henry established a committee to investigate his assertion that his mother had legitimate rights through descent from Edmund Crouchback, whom he said was the elder son of Henry III of England but was set aside because of deformity, no evidence was found. The eight-year-old Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March, was the heir general to Richard II by being the grandson of Edward III's second son, Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, and also the son of Richard's last nominated heir. In desperation, Henry's advisors made the case that Henry was heir male to Henry III and this was supported by thirteenth-century entails. [31] Mortimer's sister Anne de Mortimer married Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge, son of Edward III's fourth son Edmund of Langley, consolidating Anne's place in the succession with that of the more junior House of York. [32] As a child Mortimer was not considered a serious contender and as an adult he showed no interest in the throne, instead loyally serving the House of Lancaster. Mortimer informed Henry V when Conisburgh, in what was later called the Southampton Plot, attempted to place him on the throne instead of Henry's newly crowned sontheir mutual cousinleading to the execution of Conisburgh and the other plotters. [33]

Henry IV was plagued with financial problems, the political need to reward his supporters, frequent rebellions and declining healthincluding leprosy and epilepsy. [34] The Percy family had been some of Henry's leading supporters, defending the North from Scotland largely at their own expense, but revolted in the face of lack of reward and suspicion from Henry. Henry Percy (Hotspur) was defeated and killed at the Battle of Shrewsbury. In 1405, Hotspur's father Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland, supported the Archbishop of York, Richard le Scrope, in another rebellion, after which the elder Percy fled to Scotland and his estates were confiscated. Henry had Scrope executed in an act comparable to the murder of another Archbishop Thomas Becket by men loyal to Henry II. This would probably have led to Henry's excommunication but the church was in the midst of the Western Schism, with competing popes keen on Henry's support; it protested but took no action. [35] In 1408, Percy invaded England once more and was killed at the Battle of Bramham Moor. [36] In Wales, Owain Glyndŵr's widespread rebellion was only suppressed with the recapture of Harlech Castle in 1409, although sporadic fighting continued until 1421. [37]

Henry IV was succeeded by his son Henry V, [38] and eventually by his grandson Henry VI in 1422. [39]

Henry V and the Hundred Years' War

Henry V's victory at the Battle of Agincourt Battle of Agincourt, St. Alban's Chronicle by Thomas Walsingham.jpg
Henry V's victory at the Battle of Agincourt

Henry V of England was a successful and ruthless monarch. [40] He was quick to re-assert the claim to the French throne he inherited from Edward III, continuing what was later called the Hundred Years' War. The war was not a formal, continuous conflict but a series of English raids and military expeditions from 1337 until 1453. There were six major royal expeditions; Henry himself led the fifth and sixth, but these were unlike the smaller, frequent, provincial campaigns. [41] In Henry's first major campaignand the fifth major royal campaign of the warhe invaded France, captured Harfleur, made a chevauchée to Calais and won a near-total victory over the French at the Battle of Agincourt despite being outnumbered, outmanoeuvred and low on supplies. [42] In his second campaign, he recaptured much of Normandy and in a treaty secured a marriage to Catherine of Valois. The terms of the Treaty of Troyes were that Henry's and Catherine's heirs would succeed to the throne of France. This condition was contested by the Dauphin and the momentum of the war changed. In 1421, Henry's brother Thomas, Duke of Clarence, was killed at the Battle of Baugé, and Henry V died of dysentery at Vincennes in 1422. [39] [43]

Henry VI of England was less than a year old but his unclesled by Henry V's brother John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford continued the war. [44] There were more victories, including the Battle of Verneuil, but it was impossible to maintain campaigning at this level given the relative economic and manpower resources of England against France. Joan of Arc's involvement helped the French remove the siege of Orleans [45] and win the Battle of Patay before Joan was captured by the Burgundians, sold to the English, tried as a witch and burned at the stake. The Dauphin was crowned and continued the successful Fabian tactics of avoiding full frontal assault and exploiting logistical advantage. [46]

Henry VI and the fall of the House of Lancaster

The Hundred Years' War caused political division between the Lancastrians and the other Plantagenets during the minority of Henry VI: Bedford wanted to maintain the majority of the Lancastrian's French possessions; Humphrey of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Gloucester wanted to hold only Calais; and Cardinal Beaufort desired a negotiated peace. [43] [47] Gloucester's attacks on Beaufort forced the latter from public life but brought him little advantage as the earl of Suffolk's influence over the king enabled him to direct policy for the rest of the decade. Gloucester remained heir presumptive but in 1441 his ambitious wife, Eleanor Cobham, consulted astrologers on the likelihood of the king's death and was arrested for treasonable necromancyalthough Gloucester was not implicated he was discredited forced into retirement. In 1447 Suffolk had him arrested and within days he died in prison. [43]

England's ally Philip III, Duke of Burgundy defected to Charles, when the English ambassadors' refusal to renounce the claim to the French crown stalled negotiations, signing the Treaty of Arras (1435). [48] The French reorganised the superior numbers of their feudal levies into a modern professional army and retook Paris, Rouen, Bordeaux and Normandy. Victories at the Battle of Formigny in 1450 and the Battle of Castillon in 1453 brought the war to an end with the House of Lancaster losing forever all its French holdings, except Calais and the Channel Islands. [49] [50]

Henry VI proved to be a weak king and vulnerable to the over-mighty subjects who developed private armies of retainers. Rivalries often spilled over from the courtroom into armed confrontations, such as the Percy–Neville feud. [51] Without the common purpose of the war in France, Henry's cousin Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York, and Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, used their networks to defy the crown. [52] Henry became the focus of discontent as the population, agricultural production, prices, the wool trade and credit declined in the Great Slump. [53] This led to radical demands from the lower classes. In 1450, Jack Cade raised a rebellion to force Henry to address the economic problems or abdicate his throne. [54] The uprising was suppressed but conflict remained between villagers, gentry and aristocracy. Society remained deeply unsettled and radical demands continued to be suppressed such as those from the yeoman brothers John and William Merfold. [55]

Symbolic representation of the Wars of the Roses in art Choosing the Red and White Roses.jpg
Symbolic representation of the Wars of the Roses in art

Henry's marriage to Margaret of Anjou prompted criticism from Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York, because it included the surrender of Maine and an extended truce with France. York was Henry's cousin through his descent from Edward III sons Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, and Edmund, Duke of York. This gave York political influence but he was removed from English and French politics through his appointment as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. [56] On returning to England, York was conscious of the fate of Henry's uncle Humphrey at the hands of the Beauforts and suspicious that Henry intended to nominate Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset, as heir presumptive, and recruited military forces. Armed conflict was avoided because York lacked aristocratic support and was forced to swear allegiance to Henry. However, when Henry later underwent a mental breakdown, York was named regent. Henry was trusting and not a man of war, but Margaret was more assertive and showed open enmity towards Yorkparticularly after the birth of a male heir that resolved the succession question and assured her position. [57]

According to historian Robin Storey, "If Henry's insanity was a tragedy; his recovery was a national disaster". [58] When Henry's sanity returned, the court party reasserted its authority but York and his relatives, the Nevilles, defeated them at the First Battle of St Albans. Historian Anthony Goodman suggests that around 50 men were killed; among them were Somerset and two Percy lords, Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland, and Thomas Clifford, 8th Baron de Clifford, creating feuds that would confound reconciliation attempts despite the shock to the ruling class caused by the armed conflict. [59] [60] Threatened with treason charges and lacking support, York, Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, and Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, fled abroad. Henry was captured by the opposition when the Nevilles returned and won the Battle of Northampton. [61] York joined them, surprising parliament by claiming the throne and then forcing through the Act of Accord stating that Henry would remain as monarch for his lifetime and that York would succeed him. The disinheriting of Henry's son Edward was unacceptable to Margaret so the conflict continued. York was killed at the Battle of Wakefield and his head was displayed at Micklegate Bar, York, along with those of Edmund, Earl of Rutland, and Richard Neville, Earl of Salisburyboth of whom were captured and beheaded. [62]

Margaret gained the support of the Scottish queen Mary of Guelders, and with a Scottish army she pillaged into southern England. [63] The citizens of London feared the city being plundered and enthusiastically welcomed York's son Edward, Earl of March. [64] Margaret's defeat at the Battle of Towton confirmed Edward's position and he was crowned. [65] Disaffected with Edward's marriage to Elizabeth Woodville and preferment of her formerly Lancastrian-supporting family, Warwick and Clarence defected to the Lancastrians. The alliance was sealed with the marriage of Henry's son Edward to Anne, Warwick's daughter. Edward and Richard, Duke of Gloucester, fled England. When they returned, Clarence switched sides at the Battle of Barnet and Warwick and his brother were killed. Henry, Margaret and Edward of Lancaster were caught at the Battle of Tewkesbury before they could escape back to France. Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales, was executed on the battlefield and John Beaufort, Marquess of Dorset, was killed in the fightingmeaning that when his brother Edmund Beaufort, 4th Duke of Somerset, was executed two days later, the Beaufort family became extinct in the legitimate male line. The captive Henry was murdered on 21 May 1471 in the Tower of London and buried in Chertsey Abbey, extinguishing the House of Lancaster. [66]

Legacy

Shakespeare's history plays

"This royal throne of kings, this sceptr’d isle,
This earth of majesty, this seat of Mars,
This other Eden, demi-paradise,
This fortress built by Nature for herself
Against infection and the hand of war,
This happy breed of men, this little world,
This precious stone set in the silver sea,
Which serves it in the office of a wall,
Or as a moat defensive to a house
Against the envy of less happier lands;
This blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England...

—John of Gaunt's speech in Richard II ,
Act II, Scene I, 40–50 [67]

It is a source of irritation to historians that Shakespeare's influence on the perception of the later medieval period exceeds that of academic research. [68] While the chronology of Shakespeare's history plays runs from King John to Henry VIII, they are dominated by eight plays in which members of the House of Lancaster play a significant part, voicing speeches on a par with those in Hamlet and King Lear. [69] These plays are:

According to the historian Norman Davies, the plays were constrained by the political and religious requirements of Tudor England. While they are factually inaccurate, they demonstrate how the past and the House of Lancaster are remembered in terms of myth, legend, ideas and popular misconceptions. Shakespeare avoided contentious political and religious issues to dubiously illustrate Tudor England as having rejected medieval conflict and entered an era of harmony and prosperity. The famous patriotic "sceptr'd isle" speech is voiced by John of Gaunt, a man who spent the majority of his life in Aquitaine, and is a piece of poetic licence that illustrates English prejudices. Henry V is one-sided with little sympathy for the French. [70] Many of these historical lines illustrate historical myth rather than realism. [71]

Succession

Lancastrian cognatic descent from John of Gaunt and Blanche's daughter Phillipa continued in the royal houses of Spain and Portugal. [72] The remnants of the Lancastrian court party coalesced support around Henry Tudor a relatively unknown scion of the Beauforts. They had been amongst the most ardent supporters of the House of Lancaster and were descended illegitimately from John of Gaunt by his mistress Katherine Swynford. However John of Gaunt and Katherine subsequently married and their children were legitimated by the Pope and by Parliament during the reign of Richard II. Henry IV had tried to debar them from the succession by use of his royal prerogative to avoid competition with the House of Lancaster's claims to the throne but this was of limited effect. By some calculations of primogeniture, there were as many as 18 peopleincluding both his mother and future wifewith what some might claim a better right to the throne. By 1510, this figure had increased with the birth of an additional 16 possible Yorkist claimants. [73]

With the House of Lancaster extinct, Henry claimed to be the Lancastrian heir through his mother Lady Margaret Beaufort. His father was Henry VI's maternal half-brother. In 1485, Henry Tudor united increasing opposition within England to the reign of Richard III with the Lancastrian cause to take the throne. To further legitimise his claim, Henry married Elizabeth of York Edward IV of England's daughterand promoted the House of Tudor as a dynasty of dual Lancastrian and Yorkist descent. [74]

Religion, education and the arts

King's College Chapel, Cambridge Cambridge King's College Chapel 2011 03.jpg
King's College Chapel, Cambridge

The Lancastrians were both pious and well read. Henry IV was the first English king known to have possessed a vernacular Bible, supported the canonization of John Twenge, gave a pension to the anchoress Margaret Pensax and maintained close relations with several Westminster recluses. His household accounts as king record conventional payments to large numbers of paupers (12,000 on Easter day 1406) and the intercession for him of twenty-four oratores domini regis at 2d each per day. However, his reliance on the church was both personal and political. Archbishop Arundel gave the Lancastrians vital support and carried other bishops with him. In return the church required support for religious orthodoxy against heresy. Lollards were suppressed and heresy was made a capital offence in England under the statute of De haeretico comburendo even though Henry could not afford to overly antagonize his supporters with Lollard sympathies, including those among his Lancastrian retainers. [26]

According to the author of the Gesta Henrici quinti, Henry V aimed ‘to promote the honour of God, the extension of the Church, the deliverance of his country and the peace and tranquillity of kingdoms’. He was deeply religious, engaged with ecclesiastical issues and saw that his role as king was to honour God, extend the church, fight heresy and defend the established social order. All his victories, especially Agincourt, were attributed to divine intervention. Henry V founded Syon Abbey in 1415, as penance for his father's execution of Archbishop Scrope, and three monasteries in London: for Carthusian, Bridgettine and Celestine orders. [75] The equally devout Henry VI continued the architectural patronage begun by his father, founding Eton College and King's College, Cambridge and leaving a lasting educational and architectural legacy in buildings including King's College Chapel and Eton College Chapel. [76]

The Lancastrian regime was founded and legitimised by formal lying that was both public and official. This has been described as "a series of unconstitutional actions" based "upon three major acts of perjury". [77] The historian K.B. McFarlane found it hard "to think of another moment of comparable importance in medieval English political history when the supply of information was so effectively manipulated as it was by Henry IV on this occasion". [78] The Lancastrians patronised poets for panegyric purposes for years before Henry IV ascended the throne, including Geoffrey Chaucer who dedicated The Book of the Duchess to Blanche of Lancaster around 1368. In 1400, poets in the pay of Henry IV were directed to propaganda purposes. John Gower based his Cronica Tripertita on the official Lancastrian accounts of the usurpation:"The Record and Process of the Deposition of Richard II" from 1399. Gower also produced a number of further favourable works including "In praise of peace" which was dedicated to Henry IV. [79]

Earls and Dukes of Lancaster (first creation)

EarlPortraitBirthMarriagesDeath
Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster and Leicester [80] Contemporary illustration of Edmund Crouchback.jpg 16 January 1245
London
son of Henry III of England and Eleanor of Provence
(1) Aveline de Forz
1269
0 children
(2) Blanche of Artois
21 September 1271
4 children
Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster
Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster
John of Lancaster, Lord of Beaufort
Mary of Lancaster
5 June 1296
Bayonne, Gascony
aged 51
Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster and Leicester [81] BodleianDouce231Fol1rEdCrouchbackAndStGeorge.jpg c. 1278
Grismond Castle, Monmouthshire
son of Edmund Crouchback and Blanche of Artois
Alice de Lacey
28 October 1294 – Divorced 1318
0 children
22 March 1322
Pontefract, Yorkshire
Executed by order of Edward II of England
aged 43–44
Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Leicester [1] Arms of Henry, 3rd Earl of Leicester and Lancaster.svg 1281
Grosmont Castle, Monmouthshire
son of Edmund Crouchback and Blanche of Artois
Matilda de Chaworth
7 children
Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster
Blanche of Lancaster, Baroness Wake of Liddell
Maud of Lancaster, Countess of Ulster
Joan of Lancaster, Baroness Mowbray
Isabel of Lancaster, Prioress of Amesbury
Eleanor of Lancaster, Countess of Arundel
Mary of Lancaster, Baroness Percy
22 September 1345
Leicestershire
aged 63–64
Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster, 4th Earl of Lancaster and Leicester [1] Portrait of Henry, Duke of Lancaster - William Bruges's Garter Book (c.1440-1450), f.8 - BL Stowe MS 594 (cropped).jpg c. 1310
Grosmont Castle, Monmouthshire
son of Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster
Isabel de Beaumont
1334
2 children
Maud, Countess of Leicester
Blanche, Duchess of Lancaster
23 March 1361
Leicester Castle, Leicestershire
Black Death
aged 50–51
Blanche, Duchess of Lancaster, 5th Countess of Lancaster and Leicester [82] Tomb of John of Gaunt and Blanche of Lancaster.jpg 25 March 1345/1347 [83]
Bolingbroke Castle, Lincolnshire
daughter of Henry of Grosmont
John of Gaunt
19 May 1359
7 children
Philippa, Queen of Portugal
John of Lancaster
Elizabeth of Lancaster, Duchess of Exeter
Edward of Lancaster
John of Lancaster
Henry IV Bolingbroke, King of England
Isabel of Lancaster
12 September 1369 [84]
Tutbury Castle, Staffordshire
Black Death
aged about 22

Dukes of Lancaster (second creation)

DukePortraitBirthMarriagesDeath
John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster [85]
Earl by right of his wife, the title Duke of Lancaster was vacant because there were no male heirs. Created Duke by his father Edward III of England
Johnofgaunt.jpg 6 March 1340
Ghent, Flanders
son of Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault
(1) Blanche of Lancaster
1359
7 children
See above
(2) Constance of Castile
21 September 1371
2 children
Catherine, Queen of Castile
John of Lancaster
(3) Katherine Swynford
13 January 1396
4 children
House of Beaufort
John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset
Cardinal Henry Beaufort, Bishop of Winchester
Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter
Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland
3 February 1399
Leicester Castle, Leicestershire
aged 58

Lancastrian Kings of England

NamePortraitBirthMarriagesDeathClaim
Henry IV of England [86] British - Henry IV - Google Art Project.jpg 3 April 1367
Bolingbroke Castle
son of John of Gaunt and Blanche of Lancaster
(1) Mary de Bohun
Arundel Castle
20 July 1380
seven children
Edward of Lancaster
Henry V of England
Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence
John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford
Humphrey of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Gloucester
Blanche, Electress Palatine
Philippa, Queen of Denmark, Norway and Sweden
(2) Joanna of Navarre
Winchester Cathedral
7 February 1403
no children
20 March 1413
Westminster, London
aged 45
Henry's claim was extremely tenuous. He claimed the throne through his mother's descent from Edmund on the basis that he was older than Edward I but had been set aside because of deformity. This was not widely accepted
Henry V of England [87] Henry V of England.jpg 9 August 1387
Monmouth Castle
son of Henry IV and Mary de Bohun
Catherine of Valois
Troyes Cathedral
2 June 1420
one son
Henry VI of England
31 August 1422
Château de Vincennes
aged 35
son of Henry IV
(agnatic primogeniture)
Henry VI of England [88] British - Henry VI - Google Art Project.jpg 6 December 1421
Windsor Castle
son of Henry V and Catherine of Valois
Margaret of Anjou
Titchfield Abbey
22 April 1445
one son
Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales
21 May 1471
Tower of London
aged 49
(believed murdered)
son of Henry V
(agnatic primogeniture)

Family tree

Coats of Arms


ArmoiriesÉcuNom et blasonnement
Coat of Arms of Henry IV of England (1399-1413).svg Royal Arms of England (1340-1367).svg

Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg

Henry IV of England (1367 † 1413), son of John of Guant, duke of Lancaster grandson of Edward III of England. He deposed his cousin Richard II of England and became king.
Écartelé, aux 1 et 4, d'azur semé de lys d'or ( France ancien) ; aux 2 et 3 de gueules à trois léopards d'or armés et lampassés d'azur (England) [89]  · [90] .


In 1406, he simplified the French arms in imitation of Charles V  :

Écartelé, aux 1 et 4, d'azur à trois fleurs de lys d'or (France moderne) ; aux 2 et 3, de gueules à trois léopards d'or armés et lampassés d'azur (England) [89]  · [90] .

He utilized as his supporters the lion of England and the antilope.

Coat of Arms of Henry IV & V of England (1413-1422).svg Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg Henry V of England (1387 † 1422), King of England, lord or Ireland, Duke of Acquitaine ; son of Henry IV.


Écartelé, aux 1 et 4, d'azur à trois fleurs de lys d'or (France moderne) ; aux 2 et 3, de gueules à trois léopards d'or armés et lampassés d'azur (England) [89]  · [90] .


He utilized the lion of England and the antilope badge of his father as supporters.

Coat of Arms of Henry VI of England (1422-1471).svg
Royal Arms of England (1470-1471).svg Henry VI of England (1421 † 1471), king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Acquitaine. In 1422, under the Treaty of Troyes, he was crowned king of France and changed his armories.


Écartelé, aux 1 et 4, d'azur à trois fleurs de lys d'or (France moderne) ; aux 2 et 3, de gueules à trois léopards d'or armés et lampassés d'azur (England) [89]  · [90] .


Per pale, I d'azur three fleurs de lys d'or (France moderne) ; au II Écartelé, aux 1 et 4, d'azur à trois fleurs de lys d'or (France moderne) ; aux 2 et 3, de gueules à trois léopards d'or armés et lampassés d'azur (England) [89]  · [90] .

He utilized the lion of England and the antilope badge of his grandfather as supporters.

ArmsNameLifeBlazonNotes
Arms of Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Leicester and Lancaster.svg
Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Leicester and Lancaster1245–1296Gules, three lions passant guardant Or, with a label of three points Azure each charged with three fleurs de lys Or [91] Son of: King Henry III and Queen Eleanor.
Arms of Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Leicester and Lancaster.svg
Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster 1278–1322Gules, three lions passant guardant Or, with a label of three points Azure each charged with three fleurs de lys Or [91] Son of: Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Leicester and Lancaster and Blanche of Artois.
Arms of Henry, 3rd Earl of Leicester and Lancaster.svg
Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster 1281–1345Gules, three lions passant guardant Or, a baston Azure [92] Son of: Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Leicester and Lancaster and Blanche of Artois.
Arms of Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Leicester and Lancaster.svg
Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster 1310–1361Gules, three lions passant guardant Or, with a label of three points Azure each charged with three fleurs de lys Or [92] Son of: Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Maud Chaworth
ArmsNameLifeBlazonNotes
Arms of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster.svg Arms of John of Gaunt, King of Castile.svg John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster1340–1399Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points ermine [93]

Quarterly, Castile and Leon, impaling, quarterly, France and England, a label of three points ermine [94]

Son of: King Edward III and Queen Philippa.

See: House of Lancaster

Arms of Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Leicester and Lancaster.svg
Blanche of Lancaster 1345–1369England a label of France (Old Lancaster) [93] Daughter of: Henry of Grosmont, Duke of Lancaster and Isabel of Beaumont.

Married to: John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster; 1359–1369.

Arms of Castille (English heraldry).svg
Constance of Castile 1354–1394Quarterly, Castile and Leon (Kingdom of Castile) [94] Daughter of: King Peter of Castile and María de Padilla.

Married to: John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster; 1371–1394.

Arms of Katherine Swynford.svg
Katherine Swynford 1350–1403Gules, three Catherine wheels Or (Roet) [94] Daughter of: Payne de Roet.

Married to: John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster; 1396–1399.

Colour key
(Line of descent)
  Monarchs
  Paternal descent
  Maternal descent
  Consorts
  Illegitimate descent
  Collaterals

Descendants of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster

ArmsNameLifeBlazonNotes
Arms of Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Hereford.svg Arms of Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Hereford and Lancaster.svg Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Hereford and Lancaster
(later King Henry IV)
1366-1413As Duke of Hereford:

Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of five points ermine (Richmond) [95]


As Duke of Lancaster and Hereford:

Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of five points two of ermine (Richmond) and three Azure flory Or (Lancaster) [95]

Son of: John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster and Blanche of Lancaster.
Arms of John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset (Bastard).svg Arms of John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset.svg John Beaufort, Earl of Somerset1373-1410Per pale, Argent and Azure, over all on a bend Gules three lions passant guardant Or with a label of three points Azure each charges with three fleur de lys Or [96]

Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, within a bordure componée Argent and Azure [96]

Illegitimate Son (legitimated in 1396) of: John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster and Katherine Swynford.

See: House of Beaufort

Arms of John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset.svg
Henry Beaufort, Cardinal of St. Eusebius and Bishop of Winchester1374-1447Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, within a bordure componée Argent and Azure [97] Illegitimate Son (legitimated in 1396) of: John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster and Katherine Swynford.
Arms of Thomas Beaufort, 1st Duke of Exeter.svg Arms of Thomas Beaufort, 1st Duke of Exeter moderne.svg Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter1377-1426Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, within a bordure componée Azure and Ermine [98] Illegitimate Son (legitimated in 1396) of: John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster and Katherine Swynford.


Descendants of Henry IV of England

ArmsNameLifeBlazonNotes
Royal Arms of England (1340-1367).svg Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg King Henry IV 1366-1413Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England [99]

Changed to France moderne in line with changes made in that kingdom: Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France moderne, 2nd and 3rd England [99]

Son of: John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster and Blanche of Lancaster.

In 1376, the kings of France altered the royal coat of arms, replacing the field semée fleurs de lys with three fleurs de lys, alluding to the Trinity. This new design is referred to as France Moderne, the previous one being France Ancien. From about 1400 the kings of England imitated this change. As modified, the monarchs of England continued to bear arms in this form until the crown union with Scotland in 1603. [100]

First king of the House of Lancaster.

Arms of the House of de Bohun.svg
Mary de Bohun 1370-1394Azure, a bend Argent between two cotise and six lions rampant Or (de Bohun) [95] Daughter of: Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford and Joan FitzAlan.

Married to: Henry Bolingbroke (later King Henry IV); 1380-1394.

Arms of Joan of Navarre.svg
Joan of Navarre 1370-1437Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien and a baston gobony Argent and Gules (Evreux), 2nd and 3rd, Gules, a cross, a saltire and an orle of chain linked together Or (Navarre) [101] Daughter of: King Charles II of Navarre and Joan of Valois.

Married to: King Henry IV; 1399-1413.

ArmsNameLifeBlazonNotes
Arms of the Prince of Wales (Modern).svg
Henry of Monmouth, Prince of Wales
(later King Henry V)
1386-1422Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France moderne, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points Argent [102] Son of: King Henry IV and Mary de Bohun.
Arms of Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence.svg
Thomas of Lancaster, Duke of Clarence1387-1421Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France moderne, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points ermine, each with a canton Gules [103] Son of: King Henry IV and Mary de Bohun.
Arms of John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford.svg
John of Lancaster, Duke of Bedford1389-1435Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France moderne, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of five points, the two on the dexter side ermine and each of the other three charged with three fleurs de lys [104] Son of: King Henry IV and Mary de Bohun.
Arms of Humphrey of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Gloucester.svg
Humphrey of Lancaster, Duke of Gloucester1390-1447Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France moderne, 2nd and 3rd England, within a bordure Argent [104] Son of: King Henry IV and Mary de Bohun.
Descendants of Henry V of England
ArmsNameLifeBlazonNotes
Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg
King Henry V 1386-1422Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France moderne, 2nd and 3rd England [105] Son of: King Henry IV and Mary de Bohun.
Arms of Catherine of Valois.svg
Catherine of Valois 1401-1437Azure, three fleur de lys Or (France moderne) [105] Daughter of: King Charles VI of France and Isabeau of Bavaria.

Married to: King Henry V; 1420-1422.

Later married to: Owen Tudor; 1428?-1437, progenitor of the House of Tudor.

ArmsNameLifeBlazonNotes
Royal Arms of England (1470-1471).svg
King Henry VI 1421-1471France moderne, impaling, quarterly, 1st and 4th, France moderne, 2nd and 3rd England [106] Son of: King Henry V and Catherine of Valois.

Throne usurped by Edward, Earl of March, who became King Edward IV in 1461.

Arms of Margaret of Anjou.svg
Margaret of Anjou 1430-1482Quarterly of six, 1st, barry of eight Argent and Gules (Hungary), 2nd, Azure, semée of fleur de lys Or, a label of three points Gules (Naples), 3rd, Argent, a cross potent between four crosses Or (Jerusalem), 4th, Azure, semée of fleur de lys Or, a bordure Gules (Anjou), 5th Azure, semée of crosses crosslet fitchée, two barbels addorsée Or (Bar), 6th, Or, on a bend Gules three allerions Argent (Lorraine) [107] Daughter of: King René of Naples, Duke of Anjou and Isabella of Lorraine.

Married to: King Henry VI; 1445-1471.

ArmsNameLifeBlazonNotes
Arms of the Prince of Wales (Modern).svg
Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales1453-1471Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France moderne, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points Argent [108] Son of: King Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou.

Killed at the Battle of Tewkesbury 1471.

Colour key
(Line of descent)
  Monarchs
  Paternal descent
  Maternal descent
  Consorts
  Illegitimate descent
  Collaterals

Descendants of John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset

ArmsNameLifeBlazonNotes
Arms of John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset (Bastard).svg Arms of John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset.svg John Beaufort, Earl of Somerset1373-1410Per pale, Argent and Azure, over all on a bend Gules three lions passant guardant Or with a label of three points Azure each charges with three fleur de lys Or [96]

Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, within a bordure componée Argent and Azure [96]

Illegitimate Son (legitimated in 1396) of: John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster and Katherine Swynford.
Arms of Margaret Holland, Countess of Somerset.svg Margaret Holland, Countess of Somerset1385-1439Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, within a bordure componée Argent and Azure, impaling, Gules, three lions passant guardant Or, within a bordure Argent [96] Daughter of: Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent and Alice Holland, Countess of Kent

Married to: John Beaufort, Earl of Somerset; 1399-1410

Married to: Thomas of Lancaster, Duke of Clarence; 1411-1421

ArmsNameLifeBlazonNotes
Beaufort Arms (France modern).svg John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset1403-1444Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France moderne, 2nd and 3rd England, within a bordure componée Argent and Azure [109] Son of: John Beaufort, Earl of Somerset and Margaret Holland.
Arms of Margaret Beauchamp.svg Margaret Beauchamp 1406-1482Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France moderne, 2nd and 3rd England, within a bordure componée Argent and Azure, impaling, Gules, on a fess Or a mullet Sable, between six martlets, three, two and one, of the second (Beauchamp) [109] Daughter of: John Beauchamp of Bletso and Edith Stourton.

Married to: Sir Oliver St John, of Bletsoe; 1425-1437.

Married to: John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset; 1439-1444.

Married to: Lionel de Welles, Baron Welles; 1447-1461.

ArmsNameLifeBlazonNotes
Beaufort Arms (France modern).svg Arms of Lady Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond.svg Lady Margaret Beaufort 1443-1509Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France moderne, 2nd and 3rd England, within a bordure componée Argent and Azure [110]

Quarterly, France moderne and England, a bordure Azure charged alternatively with fleurs de lys and martlets Or, impaling, Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France moderne, 2nd and 3rd England, within a bordure componée Argent and Azure [110]

Daughter of: John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset and Margaret Beauchamp.

Married to: Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond; 1455-1456.

Married to: Sir Henry Stafford; 1462-1471.

Married to: Thomas Stanley, Earl of Derby; 1472-1504.

Arms of Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond.svg Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond1430-1456Quarterly, France moderne and England, a bordure Azure charged alternatively with fleurs de lys and martlets Or [110] Son of: Sir Owen Tudor and Catherine of Valois.

Half brother to King Henry VI, legitimated by Parliament in 1453.

ArmsNameLifeBlazonNotes
Arms of Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond.svg Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond
(later King Henry VII)
1457-1509Quarterly, France moderne and England, a bordure Azure charged alternatively with fleurs de lys and martlets Or [111]

Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France moderne, 2nd and 3rd England [112]

Son of: Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond and Lady Margaret Beaufort.

Defeats King Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, claims the throne as King Henry VII.

See: House of Tudor

Arms of Elizabeth of York (Princess).svg Arms of Elizabeth of York.svg Elizabeth of York 1466-1503Quarterly, 1st, quarterly, 1st and 4th, France moderne, 2nd and 3rd England, 2nd and 3rd de Burgh, 4th Mortimer [113] Daughter of: King Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville.

Married to: King Henry VII; 1486-1503.

Heiress of the House of York.

Lancaster badges

The Red Rose of Lancaster derives from the gold rose badge of Edward I of England. Other members of his family used variants of the royal badge, with the king's brother, the Earl of Lancaster, using a red rose. [114] It is believed that the Red Rose of Lancaster was the House of Lancaster's badge during the Wars of the Roses. Evidence for this "wearing of the rose" includes land tenure records requiring service of a red rose yearly for a manor held directly from Henry VI of England. [115] There are, however, doubts as to whether the red rose was actually an emblem taken up by the Lancastrians during the Wars of the Roses. Adrian Ailes has noted that the red rose "probably owes its popular usage to Henry VII quickly responding to the pre-existing Yorkist white rose in an age when signs and symbols could speak louder than words."

It also allowed Henry to invent and exploit his most famous heraldic device, the Tudor Rose, combining the so-called Lancastrian red rose and the White Rose of York. This floral union neatly symbolised the restoration of peace and harmony and his marriage in January 1486 to Elizabeth of York. It was a brilliant piece of simple heraldic propaganda." [116] The Tudor Rose is used as the plant badge of England (Scotland uses the thistle, Ireland uses the shamrock, and Wales uses the leek).

See also

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The Battle of Wakefield took place in Sandal Magna near Wakefield in northern England, on 30 December 1460. It was a major battle of the Wars of the Roses. The opposing forces were an army led by nobles loyal to the captive King Henry VI of the House of Lancaster and his Queen Margaret of Anjou on one side, and the army of Richard, Duke of York, the rival claimant to the throne, on the other.

Katherine Swynford Duchess of lancaster

Katherine Swynford, Duchess of Lancaster, also spelled Katharine or Catherine, was the third wife of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, a son of King Edward III. She had been the Duke's lover for many years before their marriage. The couple's children, born before the marriage, were later legitimised during the reign of the Duke's nephew, Richard II. When the Duke's son from his first marriage overthrew Richard, becoming Henry IV, he introduced a provision that neither they nor their descendants could ever claim the throne of England, however, the legitimacy for all rights was a parliamentary statute that Henry IV lacked the authority to amend.

Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York 15th-century English noble

Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York, also named Richard Plantagenet, was a leading English magnate, a great-grandson of King Edward III through his father, and a great-great-great-grandson of the same king through his mother. He inherited vast estates and served in various offices of state in Ireland, France, and England, a country he ultimately governed as Lord Protector during the madness of King Henry VI.

Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York Duke of york

Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, KG was the fourth surviving son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. Like many medieval English princes, Edmund gained his nickname from his birthplace: Kings Langley Palace in Hertfordshire. He was the founder of the House of York, but it was through the marriage of his younger son, Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge, to Anne de Mortimer, great-granddaughter of Edmund's elder brother Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, that the House of York made its claim to the English throne in the Wars of the Roses. The other party in the Wars of the Roses, the incumbent House of Lancaster, was formed from descendants of Edmund's elder brother John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, Edward III's third son.

Anne de Mortimer Medieval English noble

Anne Mortimer was a medieval English noblewoman who became an ancestress to the royal House of York, one of the parties in the fifteenth-century dynastic Wars of the Roses. It was her line of descent which gave the Yorkist dynasty its claim to the throne. Anne was the mother of Richard, Duke of York, and thus grandmother of kings Edward IV and Richard III.

Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March 14th/15th-century English noble

Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, 7th Earl of Ulster was an English nobleman and a potential claimant to the throne of England. A great-great-grandson of King Edward III of England, he was heir presumptive to King Richard II of England, his granduncle, when Richard II was deposed in favour of Henry IV. Edmund Mortimer's claim to the throne was the basis of rebellions and plots against Henry IV and his son Henry V, and was later taken up by the House of York in the Wars of the Roses, though Mortimer himself was an important and loyal vassal of Henry V and Henry VI. Edmund was the last Earl of March of the Mortimer family.

Earl of Lancaster Wikimedia disambiguation page

The title of Earl of Lancaster was created in the Peerage of England in 1267. It was succeeded by the title Duke of Lancaster in 1351, which expired in 1361.

House of Beaufort noble family

The House of Beaufort is an English noble family, which originated in the fourteenth century and played an important role in the Wars of the Roses in the fifteenth century. The name Beaufort refers to Montmorency-Beaufort, once the possession of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, third son of King Edward III.

Isabella of Castile, Duchess of York Duchess of York

Isabella of Castile, Duchess of York was the daughter of King Peter and his mistress María de Padilla. She accompanied her elder sister, Constance, to England after Constance's marriage to John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, and married Gaunt's younger brother, Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York.

Joan of Lancaster Baroness de Mowbray

Joan of Lancaster sometimes called Joan Plantagenet after her dynasty's name, was the third daughter of Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Maud Chaworth.

Issue of Edward III of England

King Edward III of England and his wife, Philippa of Hainault, had eight sons and six daughters. The Wars of the Roses were fought between the different factions of Edward III's descendants. The following list outlines the genealogy supporting male heirs ascendant to the throne during the conflict, and the roles of their cousins. However to mobilise arms and wealth, significant major protagonists were Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, Edmund Beaufort, 4th Duke of Somerset and Henry Percy, 3rd Earl of Northumberland and their families. A less powerful but determining role was played by Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham and Elizabeth Woodville and their families.

Events from the 1460s in England.

Wars of the Roses Dynastic civil war in England during the 15th-century

The Wars of the Roses were a series of English civil wars for control of the throne of England fought between supporters of two rival cadet branches of the royal House of Plantagenet: the House of Lancaster, associated with the Red Rose of Lancaster, and the House of York, whose symbol was the White Rose of York. Eventually, the wars eliminated the male lines of both families. The conflict lasted through many sporadic episodes between 1455 and 1487, but there was related fighting before and after this period between the parties. The power struggle ignited around social and financial troubles following the Hundred Years' War, unfolding the structural problems of bastard feudalism, combined with the mental infirmity and weak rule of King Henry VI which revived interest in the House of York's claim to the throne by Richard of York. Historians disagree on which of these factors to identify as the main reason for the wars.

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Bibliography

House of Lancaster
Cadet branch of the House of Plantagenet
Preceded by
House of Valois
Ruling house of the Kingdom of France
(disputed with the House of Valois)
1422–1453
Succeeded by
House of Valois
Preceded by
House of Plantagenet
(senior line)
Ruling house of the Duchy of Aquitaine
1399–1422
Ruling house of the Kingdom of England
1399–1461
Succeeded by
House of York
Preceded by
House of York
Ruling house of the Kingdom of England
1470–1471