House of Luxembourg

Last updated
House of Luxembourg
Maison de Luxembourg
Royal family
Arms of the Counts of Luxembourg.svg
Parent family House of Ardennes
Country
Founded12 February 1247 (1247-02-12)
Founder Henry V, Count of Luxembourg
Current headNone; extinct
Final ruler Elizabeth of Luxembourg
Titles
Distinctions Order of the Dragon
Dissolution2 August 1451 (1451-08-02)
Deposition1443 (1443)
Cadet branches Luxembourg-Brienne
(extinct in 1648)

The House of Luxembourg (French : Maison de Luxembourg; German : Haus Luxemburg) was a late medieval European royal family, whose members between 1308 and 1437 ruled as King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperors as well as Kings of Bohemia (Čeští králové, König von Böhmen) and Hungary. Their rule over the Holy Roman Empire was twice interrupted by the rival House of Wittelsbach.

French language Romance language

French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.

German language West Germanic language

German is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol (Italy), the German-speaking Community of Belgium, and Liechtenstein. It is also one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. There are also strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English.

Europe Continent in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.

Contents

History

The Luxembourg line was initially a cadet branch of the German (or Frankish) ducal House of LimburgArlon, when in 1247 Henry, younger son of Duke Waleran III of Limburg inherited the County of Luxembourg upon the death of his mother Countess Ermesinde, a scion of the House of Namur. Her father, Count Henry IV of Luxembourg, was related on his mother's side to the Ardennes-Verdun dynasty (also called the elder House of Luxembourg),[ citation needed ] which had ruled the county since the late 10th century.

In history and heraldry, a cadet branch consists of the male-line descendants of a monarch or patriarch's younger sons (cadets). In the ruling dynasties and noble families of much of Europe and Asia, the family's major assets—realm, titles, fiefs, property and income—have historically been passed from a father to his firstborn son in what is known as primogeniture; younger sons—cadets—inherited less wealth and authority to pass to future generations of descendants.

Franks people

The Franks were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine, on the edge of the Roman Empire. Later the term was associated with later Romanized Germanic dynasties within the collapsing Roman Empire, who eventually commanded the whole region between the rivers Loire and Rhine. They then imposed power over many other post-Roman kingdoms and Germanic peoples, and still later they were given recognition by the Catholic Church as successors to the old rulers of the Western Roman Empire.

Duchy of Limburg duchy in Western Europe between 1065-1795

The Duchy of Limburg or Limbourg was a state of the Holy Roman Empire. Its main territory including the capital Limbourg is today located within the Belgian province of Liège, with a small part in the neighbouring province of Belgian Limburg, within the east of Voeren.

Holy Roman Empire under Charles IV
Habsburg
Luxembourg
Wittelsbach HRR 14Jh.jpg
Holy Roman Empire under Charles IV
  Habsburg
  Luxembourg
  Wittelsbach

Count Henry V's grandson Henry VII, Count of Luxembourg upon the death of his father Henry VI at the 1288 Battle of Worringen, was elected Rex Romanorum in 1308. The election was necessary after the Habsburg king Albert I of Germany had been murdered, and Henry, backed by his brother Archbishop-Elector Baldwin of Trier, prevailed against Charles, Count of Valois. Henry arranged the marriage of his son John with the Přemyslid heiress Elisabeth of Bohemia in 1310, through whom the House of Luxembourg acquired the Kingdom of Bohemia, enabling that family to compete more effectively for power with the Habsburg and Wittelsbach dynasties. One year after being crowned Holy Roman Emperor at Rome, Henry VII, still on campaign in Italy, died in 1313.

Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor King of the Romans from 1308 to 1313

Henry VII was the King of Germany from 1308 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1312. He was the first emperor of the House of Luxembourg. During his brief career he reinvigorated the imperial cause in Italy, which was racked with the partisan struggles between the divided Guelf and Ghibelline factions, and inspired the praise of Dino Compagni and Dante Alighieri. He was the first emperor since the death of Frederick II in 1250, ending the great interregnum of the Holy Roman Empire; however, his premature death threatened to undo his life's work. His son, John of Bohemia, failed to be elected as his successor, and there was briefly another anti-king, Frederick the Fair contesting the rule of Louis IV.

Henry VI, Count of Luxembourg Count of Luxembourg

Henry VI was count of Luxembourg and Arlon from the death of his father, Henry V the Blond in 1281 until his own death at the battle of Worringen, seven years later, when he was succeeded by his son, Henry VII.

Battle of Worringen middle ages battle

The Battle of Worringen was fought on 5 June 1288 near the town of Worringen, which is now the northernmost borough of Cologne. It was the decisive battle of the War of the Limburg Succession, fought for the possession of the Duchy of Limburg between Archbishop Siegfried II of Cologne and Duke John I of Brabant, and one of the largest battles in Europe in the Middle Ages.

The prince-electors, perturbed by the rise of the Luxembourgs, disregarded the claims raised by Henry's heir King John, and the rule over the Empire was assumed by the Wittelsbach duke Louis of Bavaria. John instead concentrated on securing his rule in Bohemia and gradually vassalized the Piast dukes of adjacent Silesia from 1327 until 1335. His son Charles IV, in 1346 mounted the Imperial throne. His Golden Bull of 1356 served as a constitution of the Empire for centuries. Charles not only acquired the duchies of Brabant and Limburg in the west, but also the former March of Lusatia and even the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1373 under the Kingdom of Bohemia.

Prince-elector members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire

The Prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire, or Electors for short, were the members of the electoral college that elected the Holy Roman Emperor.

Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor

Louis IV, called the Bavarian, of the house of Wittelsbach, was King of the Romans from 1314, King of Italy from 1327, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1328.

Vassal person who has entered into a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe

A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe. The obligations often included military support by knights in exchange for certain privileges, usually including land held as a tenant or fief. The term is also applied to similar arrangements in other feudal societies.

The family's decline began under Charles' son King Wenceslaus, deposed by the prince-electors in 1400 who chose the Wittelsbach Elector Palatine Rupert. In 1410 rule was assumed by Wenceslaus' brother Sigismund, who once again stabilized the rule of the Luxembourgs and even contributed to end the Western Schism in 1417; however, with his death in 1437, the senior branch of the dynasty became extinct. He was succeeded by his son-in-law, the Habsburg archduke Albert V of Austria. The Habsburgs finally prevailed as Luxembourg heirs, ruling the Empire until the extinction of their senior branch upon the death of Maria Theresa in 1780.

Rupert, King of Germany King of Germany and Elector Palatine

Rupert of the Palatinate, a member of the House of Wittelsbach, was Elector Palatine from 1398 and King of Germany (rex Romanorum) from 1400 until his death.

Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor Monarch from the House Luxemburg, 1387 to 1437 King of Hungary, 1410 to 1437 King of Germany,  1419 to 1437 King of Bohemia and 1433 to 1437 Holy Roman Emperor

Sigismund of Luxembourg was Prince-elector of Brandenburg from 1378 until 1388 and from 1411 until 1415, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1387, King of Germany from 1411, King of Bohemia from 1419, King of Italy from 1431, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1433 until 1437, and the last male member of the House of Luxembourg. In 1396 he led the Crusade of Nicopolis, which attempted to liberate Bulgaria and save the Byzantine Empire and Constantinople from Ottoman rule. Afterwards, he founded the Order of the Dragon to fight the Turks. He was regarded as highly educated, spoke several languages and was an outgoing person who also took pleasure in the tournament. Sigismund was one of the driving forces behind the Council of Constance that ended the Papal Schism, but which also led to the Hussite Wars that dominated the later period of Sigismund's life.

Western Schism split within the Catholic Church from 1378 to 1417

The Western Schism, also called Papal Schism, Great Occidental Schism and Schism of 1378, was a split within the Catholic Church lasting from 1378 to 1417 in which two, by 1410 three, men simultaneously claimed to be the true pope, each excommunicated one another. Driven by politics rather than any theological disagreement, the schism was ended by the Council of Constance (1414–1418). For a time these rival claims to the papal throne damaged the reputation of the office.

Notable members

Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia Kaja4Gelnhausenkodex.jpg
Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia
King of the Romans title used by medieval German monarchs (for the monarch of the ancient Roman kingdom, use Q55375123)

King of the Romans was a title used by Syagrius, then by the German king following his election by the princes from the time of Emperor Henry II (1014–1024) onward. The title was predominantly a claim to become Holy Roman Emperor and was dependent upon coronation by the Pope.

Albert I of Germany King of Germany

Albert I of Habsburg, the eldest son of King Rudolf I of Germany and his first wife Gertrude of Hohenberg, was a Duke of Austria and Styria from 1282 and King of Germany from 1298 until his assassination.

House of Wittelsbach German noble family

The House of Wittelsbach is a European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria.

According to the Salic law, the succession could have been disputed, in which case it would have passed collaterally to the cadet branch of Ligny. That branch descended from a younger son of Henry V, and was headed by Louis de Luxembourg, Count of Saint-Pol, before he was executed for treason by Louis XI of France. [2]

Genealogy

Staufen dynasty.JPG

House of Limburg–Arlon

 

Waleran I
(† 1082)
Count of Limburg

Henry I
(1059 † 1119)
Count of Limburg

Waleran II
(1085 † 1139)
Duke of Limburg

Henry II
(1111 † 1167)
Duke of Limburg

Henry III
(1140 † 1221)
Limburg Old Arms.svg
Duke of Limburg

Waleran III
(1180 † 1226)
Armoiries Chypre.svg Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Duke of Limburg



Henry IV
(† 1247)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Duke of Limburg and Count of Berg


Waleran
(† 1242)
Armes Limbourg-Fauquemont.svg
Lord of Fauquemont

Henry V
(1217 † 1281)
Arms of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.svg
Count of Luxembourg


Gerard
(† 1276)
Armoiries Gerard de Durbuy.svg
Count of Durbuy



Adolf IV
(1220 † 1259)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Count of Berg

Waleran IV
(† 1279)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Duke of Limburg

Henry VI
(1250 † 1288)
Arms of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.svg
Count of Luxembourg

Waleran I
(1252 † 1288)
Armoiries Waleran I de Ligny.svg
Lord of Ligny


Adolf V
(† 1296)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Count of Berg

William I
(† 1308)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Count of Berg

Henry of Windeck
(† 1292)





Ermengarde
(† 1283)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
x Reginald I of Guelders

Henry VII
(1275 † 1313)
Armoiries Henri VII de Luxembourg.svg
Holy Roman Emperor

Waleran II
(1275 † 1354)
Armoiries Luxembourg-Ligny.png Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Lord of Ligny
Adolf VI
(† 1348)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Count of Berg
John the Blind
(1296 † 1346)
Armoiries Jean de Luxembourg.svg
King of Bohemia
John I
(1300 † 1364)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Lord of Ligny


Charles IV
(1316 † 1378)
Armoiries empereur Charles IV.svg
Holy Roman Emperor
King of Bohemia

John Henry
(1322 † 1372)
Armoiries Jean-Henri de Luxembourg.svg
Margrave
of Moravia

Wenceslaus I
(1337 † 1383)
Armoiries Wenceslas de Luxembourg.png
Duke of
Luxembourg

Guy
(1340 † 1371)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Count of Ligny
Count of Saint-Pol



Wenceslaus IV
(1361 † 1419)
Armoiries empereur Charles IV.svg
King of the Romans
King of Bohemia

Sigismund
(1368 † 1437)
Armoiries empereur Sigismond Ier.svg
Holy Roman Emperor
King of Bohemia and Hungary

John
(1370 † 1396)
Armoiries Luxembourg-Goerlitz.svg
Duke of Görlitz




Jobst
(1351 † 1411)
Armoiries Josse de Luxembourg.svg
holy roman emperor
margrave
of Moravia and
Brandenburg

Waleran III
(1356 † 1415)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Count of Ligny
and of Saint-Pol

John
(1370 † 1397)
Armoiries Jean de Luxembourg-Ligny.svg
Lord of Beauvoir
Count of Brienne




Elizabeth of Luxembourg
(1409 † 1442)
X Albert II of Habsburg

Elisabeth
(1390 † 1453)
Armoiries Luxembourg-Goerlitz.svg
Duchess of Luxembourg, sold duchy to the Dukes of Burgundy


Peter
(1390 † 1433)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Count of Saint-Pol




John II
(1392 † 1441)
Armoiries Jean de Luxembourg-Ligny.svg
Count of Ligny


Louis
(1418 † 1475)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Count of Saint-Pol



Peter II
(† 1482)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Count of Saint-Pol


Thibaud
(† 1477)
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg
Lord of Fiennes, Count of Brienne, Bishop of Le Mans


Jacques
(† 1487)
Blason Charles II de Ligny-Luxembourg (1576-1608).svg
Lord of Fiennes and Gavre

Early Luxembourg counts

The first instance of the house of Luxembourg seems to be:

 
Cunigunda of Montjoie

Waleran III
Duke of Limburg
│ │
Ermesinde
Countess of Luxembourg



Henry IV
Duke of Limburg and Count of Berg
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg

Waleran
Lord of Fauquemont
Armes Limbourg-Fauquemont.svg

Henry V
Count of Luxembourg
Arms of the Count of Luxembourg.svg

Gerard
Count of Durbuy
Armoiries Gerard de Durbuy.svg



Adolphe IV
Count of Berg
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg

Waleran IV
Duke of Limburg
Arms of the Duke of Limburg.svg

Henry VI
Count of Luxembourg
Arms of the Count of Luxembourg.svg

Waleran I
Lord of Ligny
Armoiries Waleran I de Ligny.svg

Ancestors

Two houses descended from the women of the counts of Luxembourg, the Counts of Loon and the Counts of Grandpré, wear a shield barry. Both families had a place in relation to the succession of the House of Ardennes. Indeed, the Count of Grandpré was the next heir of Conrad II of Luxembourg, the last representative of the Ardennes dynasty, but Emperor Frederick Barbarossa preferred that Luxembourg was held by a lord Germanic rather than French and attributed the county to Henry, son of Conrad's aunt Ermesinde and Count Godfrey I of Namur. The Counts of Loon are also in position to claim the inheritance Luxembourg, albeit weaker position:

 
Conrad I
(1040 † 1086)
Count of Luxembourg


Henry III
(† 1086)
Count of Luxembourg

William
(1081 † 1131)
Count of Luxembourg
X 1105 Matilda of Northeim

Ermesinde
(1075 † 1143)
X 1) Albert II, Count of Dagsburg
X 2) Godfrey I, Count of Namur



Conrad II
(† 1136)
Count of Luxembourg
s.p.

Liutgarde
(1120 † 1170)
X Henri II
(1125 † 1211)
Counts of Grandpré
Loon Arms.svg

Hugh VII1
(† 1137)
Count of Dagsburg

three children
died without issue

Mathilde1
X Folmar V
(† 1145)
Count of Metz

Henri IV²
(1112 † 1196)
Count of Namur and of Luxembourg

Ermesinde
(1186 † 1247)
X 1) Theobald I, Count of Bar
X 2) Waleran III, Duke of Limburg

Henry V
(1216 † 1284)
Count of Luxembourg
Arms of the Count of Luxembourg.svg


two sons
died without issue

Agnès
X Louis I, Count of Loon|Louis I
(1110 † 1171)
Counts of Loon
Loon Arms.svg
 
 
 
 

See also

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References

  1. "Sigismund (Holy Roman emperor)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2014-03-29.
  2. Cave, Roy; Coulson, Herbert (1965). A Source Book for Medieval Economic History. New York: Biblo and Tannen. p. 336.