House of Medici

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Noble House
Augmented Arms of Medici.svg
Coat of arms of the House of Medici
Blazon:Or, five balls in orle gules, in chief a larger one of the arms of France (viz. Azure, three fleurs-de-lis or) was granted by Louis XI in 1465. [1]
CountryFlag of Florence.svg  Republic of Florence
Flag of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany (1562-1737).svg Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Flag of the Papal States (1825-1870).svg  Papal States
Duchy of Urbino
EtymologyBy Medico, Castellan of Potrone, considered the first ancestor of the house
Place of origin Mugello, Tuscia (present-day Tuscany)
Founded1230;793 years ago (1230)
FounderGiambuono de' Medici [2]
Final ruler Gian Gastone de' Medici
Final head Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici
Connected families
Distinctions Order of Saint Stephen
Traditions Catholicism
("Hurry slowly")
Dissolution1743 (1743) (Original line)
Cadet branches14 cadet branches; still alive only 2:

The House of Medici (English: /ˈmɛdɪi/ MED-i-chee, [4] Italian:  [ˈmɛːditʃi] ) was an Italian banking family and political dynasty that first consolidated power in the Republic of Florence under Cosimo de' Medici, during the first half of the 15th century. The family originated in the Mugello region of Tuscany, and prospered gradually until it was able to fund the Medici Bank. This bank was the largest in Europe during the 15th century and facilitated the Medicis' rise to political power in Florence, although they officially remained citizens rather than monarchs until the 16th century.


The Medici produced four popes of the Catholic Church—Pope Leo X (1513–1521), Pope Clement VII (1523–1534), Pope Pius IV (1559–1565) [5] and Pope Leo XI (1605)—and two queens of France—Catherine de' Medici (1547–1559) and Marie de' Medici (1600–1610). [6] In 1532, the family acquired the hereditary title Duke of Florence. In 1569, the duchy was elevated to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany after territorial expansion. The Medici ruled the Grand Duchy from its inception until 1737, with the death of Gian Gastone de' Medici. The grand duchy witnessed degrees of economic growth under the early grand dukes, but was bankrupt by the time of Cosimo III de' Medici (r. 1670–1723).

The Medicis' wealth and influence was initially derived from the textile trade guided by the wool guild of Florence, the Arte della Lana . Like other families ruling in Italian signorie , the Medici dominated their city's government, were able to bring Florence under their family's power, and created an environment in which art and humanism flourished. They and other families of Italy inspired the Italian Renaissance, such as the Visconti and Sforza in Milan, the Este in Ferrara, the Borgia and Della Rovere in Rome, and the Gonzaga in Mantua.

The Medici Bank, from when it was created in 1397 to its fall in 1494, was one of the most prosperous and respected institutions in Europe, and the Medici family was considered the wealthiest in Europe for a time. From this base, they acquired political power initially in Florence and later in wider Italy and Europe. They were among the earliest businesses to use the general ledger system of accounting through the development of the double-entry bookkeeping system for tracking credits and debits.

The Medici family have claimed to have funded the invention of the piano and opera, [7] [ verification needed ] [8] [ non-tertiary source needed ] financed the construction of Saint Peter's Basilica and Santa Maria del Fiore, and were patrons of Brunelleschi, Botticelli, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, Machiavelli, Galileo, and Francesco Redi, among many others in the arts and sciences. They were also protagonists of the counter-reformation, from the beginning of the reformation through the Council of Trent and the French wars of religion.


The Medici family came from the agricultural Mugello region [9] north of Florence, and they are first mentioned in a document of 1230. [10] The origin of the name is uncertain. Medici is the plural of medico , meaning "medical doctor". [11] The dynasty began with the founding of the Medici Bank in Florence in 1397.

Rise to power

Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici, founder of the Medici bank Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici.jpg
Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici, founder of the Medici bank
The Confirmation of the Rule, by Domenico Ghirlandaio Ghirlandaio a-pucci-lorenzo-de-medici-f-sassetti 1.jpg
The Confirmation of the Rule, by Domenico Ghirlandaio

For most of the 13th century, the leading banking centre in Italy was Siena. But in 1298, one of the leading banking families of Europe, the Bonsignoris, went bankrupt, and the city of Siena lost its status as the banking centre of Italy to Florence. [12] Until the late 14th century, the leading family of Florence was the House of Albizzi. In 1293, the Ordinances of Justice were enacted; effectively, they became the constitution of the Republic of Florence throughout the Italian Renaissance. [13] The city's numerous luxurious palazzi were becoming surrounded by townhouses built by the prospering merchant class. [14]

The main challengers to the Albizzi family were the Medici, first under Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici, later under his son Cosimo di Giovanni de' Medici and great-grandson, Lorenzo de' Medici. The Medici controlled the Medici Bank—then Europe's largest bank—and an array of other enterprises in Florence and elsewhere. In 1433, the Albizzi managed to have Cosimo exiled. [15] The next year, however, a pro-Medici Signoria (civic government) led by Tommaso Soderini, Oddo Altoviti and Lucca Pitti was elected and Cosimo returned. The Medici became the city's leading family, a position they would hold for the next three centuries. Florence remained a republic until 1537, traditionally marking the end of the High Renaissance in Florence, but the instruments of republican government were firmly under the control of the Medici and their allies, save during intervals after 1494 and 1527. Cosimo and Lorenzo rarely held official posts but were the unquestioned leaders.

The Medici family was connected to most other elite families of the time through marriages of convenience, partnerships, or employment, so the family had a central position in the social network: several families had systematic access to the rest of the elite families only through the Medici, perhaps similar to banking relationships. Some examples of these families include the Bardi, Altoviti, Ridolfi, Cavalcanti and the Tornabuoni. This has been suggested as a reason for the rise of the Medici family. [16]

Members of the family rose to some prominence in the early 14th century in the wool trade, especially with France and Spain. Despite the presence of some Medici in the city's government institutions, they were still far less notable than other outstanding families such as the Albizzi or the Strozzi. One Salvestro de' Medici was speaker of the woolmakers' guild during the Ciompi revolt of 1378–82, and one Antonio de' Medici was exiled from Florence in 1396. [17] Involvement in another plot in 1400 caused all branches of the family to be banned from Florentine politics for twenty years, with the exception of two.

15th century

Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici (c. 1360–1429), son of Averardo de' Medici (1320–1363), increased the wealth of the family through his creation of the Medici Bank, and became one of the richest men in the city of Florence. Although he never held any political office, he gained strong popular support for the family through his support for the introduction of a proportional system of taxation. Giovanni's son Cosimo the Elder, Pater Patriae (father of the country), took over in 1434 as gran maestro (the unofficial head of the Florentine Republic). [18]

Cosimo Pater patriae, Uffizi Gallery, Florence Cosimo Pater Patriae.jpg
Cosimo Pater patriae, Uffizi Gallery, Florence

Three successive generations of the Medici—Cosimo, Piero, and Lorenzo—ruled over Florence through the greater part of the 15th century. They clearly dominated Florentine representative government without abolishing it altogether. [19] These three members of the Medici family had great skills in the management of so "restive and independent a city" as Florence. When Lorenzo died in 1492, however, his son Piero proved quite incapable of responding successfully to challenges caused by the French invasion of Italy in 1492, and within two years, he and his supporters were forced into exile and replaced with a republican government. [19]

Piero de' Medici (1416–1469), Cosimo's son, was only in power for five years (1464–1469). He was called "Piero the Gouty" because of the gout that pained his foot and led to his death. Unlike his father, Piero had little interest in the arts. Due to his illness, he mostly stayed at home bedridden, and therefore did little to further the Medici control of Florence while in power. As such, Medici rule stagnated until the next generation, when Piero's son Lorenzo took over. [20]

Lorenzo de' Medici (1449–1492), called "the Magnificent", was more capable of leading and ruling a city, but he neglected the family banking business, which led to its ultimate ruin. To ensure the continuance of his family's success, Lorenzo planned his children's future careers for them. He groomed the headstrong Piero II to follow as his successor in civil leadership; Giovanni [21] (future Pope Leo X) was placed in the church at an early age; and his daughter Maddalena was provided with a sumptuous dowry to make a politically advantageous marriage to a son of Pope Innocent VIII that cemented the alliance between the Medici and the Roman branches of the Cybo and Altoviti families. [22]

The Pazzi conspiracy of 1478 was an attempt to depose the Medici family by killing Lorenzo with his younger brother Giuliano during Easter services; the assassination attempt ended with the death of Giuliano and an injured Lorenzo. The conspiracy involved the Pazzi and Salviati families, both rival banking families seeking to end the influence of the Medici, as well as the priest presiding over the church services, the Archbishop of Pisa, and even Pope Sixtus IV to a degree. The conspirators approached Sixtus IV in the hopes of gaining his approval, as he and the Medici had a long rivalry themselves, but the pope gave no official sanction to the plan. Despite his refusal of official approval, the pope nonetheless allowed the plot to proceed without interfering, and, after the failed assassination of Lorenzo, also gave dispensation for crimes done in the service of the church. After this, Lorenzo adopted his brother's illegitimate son Giulio de' Medici (1478–1535), the future Pope Clement VII. Lorenzo's son Piero II took over as the head of Florence after Lorenzo's death. The Medici were expelled from Florence from 1494 to 1512 after Piero acceded to all of the demands of invader Charles VIII of France. [23]

The Medici additionally benefited from the discovery of vast deposits of alum in Tolfa in 1461. Alum is essential as a mordant in the dyeing of certain cloths and was used extensively in Florence, where the main industry was textile manufacturing. Before the Medici, the Turks were the only exporters of alum, so Europe was forced to buy from them until the discovery in Tolfa. Pius II granted the Medici family a monopoly on the mining there, making them the primary producers of alum in Europe. [24]

In the dangerous circumstances in which our city is placed, the time for deliberation is past. Action must be taken... I have decided, with your approval, to sail for Naples immediately, believing that as I am the person against whom the activities of our enemies are chiefly directed, I may, perhaps, by delivering myself into their hands, be the means of restoring peace to our fellow-citizens. As I have had more honour and responsibility among you than any private citizen has had in our day, I am more bound than any other person to serve our country, even at the risk of my life. With this intention I now go. Perhaps God wills that this war, which began in the blood of my brother and of myself, should be ended by any means. My desire is that by my life or my death, my misfortune or my prosperity, I may contribute to the welfare of our city... I go full of hope, praying to God to give me grace to perform what every citizen should at all times be ready to perform for his country.

Lorenzo de' Medici, 1479 [25]

16th century

The exile of the Medici lasted until 1512, after which the "senior" branch of the family—those descended from Cosimo the Elder—were able to rule until the assassination of Alessandro de' Medici, first Duke of Florence, in 1537. This century-long rule was interrupted only on two occasions (between 1494–1512 and 1527–1530), when anti-Medici factions took control of Florence. Following the assassination of Duke Alessandro, power passed to the "junior" Medici branch—those descended from Lorenzo the Elder, the youngest son of Giovanni di Bicci, starting with his great-great-grandson Cosimo I "the Great."

Cosimo the Elder and his father started the Medici foundations in banking and manufacturing—including a form of franchises. The family's influence grew with its patronage of wealth, art, and culture. Ultimately, it reached its zenith in the papacy and continued to flourish for centuries afterward as Dukes of Florence and Tuscany. At least half, probably more, of Florence's people were employed by the Medici and their foundational branches in business.

Medici popes

The Medici Wedding Tapestry of 1589 MEDICI TAPESTRY.jpg
The Medici Wedding Tapestry of 1589

The Medici briefly became leaders of Christendom through their two famous 16th century popes, Leo X and Clement VII. Both also served as de facto political rulers of Rome, Florence, and large swaths of Italy known as the Papal States. They were generous patrons of the arts who commissioned masterpieces such as Raphael's Transfiguration and Michelangelo's The Last Judgment ; however, their reigns coincided with troubles for the Vatican, including Martin Luther's Protestant Reformation and the infamous sack of Rome in 1527.

Leo X's fun-loving pontificate bankrupted Vatican coffers and accrued massive debts. From Leo's election as pope in 1513 to his death in 1521, Florence was overseen, in turn, by Giuliano de' Medici, Duke of Nemours, Lorenzo de' Medici, Duke of Urbino, and Giulio de' Medici, the latter of whom became Pope Clement VII.

Clement VII's tumultuous pontificate was dominated by a rapid succession of political crises—many long in the making—that resulted in the sack of Rome by the armies of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1527 and rise of the Salviati, Altoviti and Strozzi as the leading bankers of the Roman Curie. From the time of Clement's election as pope in 1523 until the sack of Rome, Florence was governed by the young Ippolito de' Medici (future cardinal and vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church), Alessandro de' Medici (future duke of Florence), and their guardians. In 1530, after allying himself with Charles V, Pope Clement VII succeeded in securing the engagement of Charles V's daughter Margeret of Austria to his illegitimate nephew (reputedly his son) Alessandro de' Medici. Clement also convinced Charles V to name Alessandro as Duke of Florence. Thus began the reign of Medici monarchs in Florence, which lasted two centuries.

Cosimo I, founder of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany Cosimo-GDuke-BR.jpg
Cosimo I, founder of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany

After securing Alessandro de' Medici's dukedom, Pope Clement VII married off his first cousin, twice removed, Catherine de' Medici, to the son of Emperor Charles V's arch-enemy, King Francis I of France—the future King Henry II. This led to the transfer of Medici blood, through Catherine's daughters, to the royal family of Spain through Elisabeth of Valois, and the House of Lorraine through Claude of Valois.

In 1534, following a lengthy illness, Pope Clement VII died—and with him the stability of the Medici's "senior" branch. In 1535, Ippolito Cardinal de' Medici died under mysterious circumstances. In 1536, Alessandro de' Medici married Charles V's daughter, Margaret of Austria; however, the following year he was assassinated by a resentful cousin, Lorenzino de' Medici. The deaths of Alessandro and Ippolito enabled the Medici's "junior" branch to lead Florence.[ citation needed ]

Medici Dukes

Another outstanding figure of the 16th-century Medici family was Cosimo I, who rose from relatively modest beginnings in the Mugello to attain supremacy over the whole of Tuscany. Against the opposition of Catherine de' Medici, Paul III and their allies, he prevailed in various battles to conquer Florence's hated rival Siena and found the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. Cosimo purchased a portion of the island of Elba from the Republic of Genoa and based the Tuscan navy there. He died in 1574, succeeded by his eldest surviving son Francesco, whose death without male heirs led to the succession of his younger brother, Ferdinando, in 1587. Francesco married Johanna of Austria, and with his consort produced Eleonora de' Medici, Duchess of Mantua, and Marie de' Medici, Queen of France and Navarre. Through Marie, all succeeding French monarchs (bar the Napoleons) were descended from Francesco.

Ferdinando eagerly assumed the government of Tuscany. He commanded the draining of the Tuscan marshlands, built a road network in southern Tuscany and cultivated trade in Livorno. [26] To augment the Tuscan silk industry, he oversaw the planting of mulberry trees along the major roads (silk worms feed on mulberry leaves). [27] In foreign affairs, he shifted Tuscany away from Habsburg [28] hegemony by marrying the first non-Habsburg marriage candidate since Alessandro, Christina of Lorraine, a granddaughter of Catherine de' Medici. The Spanish reaction was to construct a citadel on their portion of the island of Elba. [26] To strengthen the new Franco-Tuscan alliance, he married his niece, Marie, to Henry IV of France. Henry explicitly stated that he would defend Tuscany from Spanish aggression, but later reneged, after which Ferdinando was forced to marry his heir, Cosimo, to Maria Maddalena of Austria to assuage Spain (where Maria Maddalena's sister Margaret was the incumbent Queen consort). Ferdinando also sponsored a Tuscan expedition to the New World with the intention of establishing a Tuscan colony, an enterprise that brought no result for permanent colonial acquisitions.

Despite all of these incentives for economic growth and prosperity, the population of Florence at the dawn of the 17th century was a mere 75,000, far smaller than the other capitals of Italy: Rome, Milan, Venice, Palermo and Naples. [29] Francesco and Ferdinando, due to lax distinction between Medici and Tuscan state property, are thought to have been wealthier than their ancestor, Cosimo de' Medici, the founder of the dynasty. [30] The Grand Duke alone had the prerogative to exploit the state's mineral and salt resources, and the fortunes of the Medici were directly tied to the Tuscan economy. [30]

17th century

From left to right: The Grand Duchess Maria Maddalena, The Grand Duke Cosimo II, and their elder son, the future Ferdinando II Cosimo ii de' medici adn two.jpg
From left to right: The Grand Duchess Maria Maddalena, The Grand Duke Cosimo II, and their elder son, the future Ferdinando II

Ferdinando, although no longer a cardinal, exercised much influence at successive conclaves. In 1605, Ferdinando succeeded in getting his candidate, Alessandro de' Medici, elected Pope Leo XI. He died the same month, but his successor, Pope Paul V, was also pro-Medici. [31] Ferdinando's pro-papal foreign policy, however, had drawbacks. Tuscany was overrun with religious orders, not all of whom were obliged to pay taxes. Ferdinando died in 1609, leaving an affluent realm; his inaction in international affairs, however, would have long-reaching consequences down the line.

In France, Marie de' Medici was acting as regent for her son, Louis XIII. Louis repudiated her pro-Habsburg policy in 1617. She lived the rest of her life deprived of any political influence.

Ferdinando's successor, Cosimo II, reigned for less than 12 years. He married Maria Maddalena of Austria, with whom he had his eight children, including Margherita de' Medici, Ferdinando II de' Medici, and an Anna de' Medici. He is most remembered as the patron of astronomer Galileo Galilei, whose 1610 treatise, Sidereus Nuncius, was dedicated to him. [32] Cosimo died of consumption (tuberculosis) in 1621. [33]

Cosimo's elder son, Ferdinando, was not yet of legal maturity to succeed him, thus Maria Maddalena and his grandmother, Christina of Lorraine, acted as regents. Their collective regency is known as the Turtici. Maria Maddelana's temperament was analogous to Christina's, and together they aligned Tuscany with the papacy, re-doubled the Tuscan clergy, and allowed the heresy trial of Galileo Galilei to occur. [34] Upon the death of the last Duke of Urbino (Francesco Maria II), instead of claiming the duchy for Ferdinando, who was married to the Duke of Urbino's granddaughter and heiress, Vittoria della Rovere, they permitted it to be annexed by Pope Urban VIII. In 1626, they banned any Tuscan subject from being educated outside the Grand Duchy, a law later overturned, but resurrected by Maria Maddalena's grandson, Cosimo III. [35] Harold Acton, an Anglo-Italian historian, ascribed the decline of Tuscany to the Turtici regency. [35]

Grand Duke Ferdinado was obsessed with new technology, and had a variety of hygrometers, barometers, thermometers, and telescopes installed in the Palazzo Pitti. [36] In 1657, Leopoldo de' Medici, the Grand Duke's youngest brother, established the Accademia del Cimento, organized to attract scientists to Florence from all over Tuscany for mutual study. [37]

Tuscany participated in the Wars of Castro (the last time Medicean Tuscany proper was involved in a conflict) and inflicted a defeat on the forces of Pope Urban VIII in 1643. [38] The war effort was costly and the treasury so empty because of it that when the Castro mercenaries were paid for, the state could no longer afford to pay interest on government bonds, with the result that the interest rate was lowered by 0.75%. [39] At that time, the economy was so decrepit that barter trade became prevalent in rural market places. [38]

Ferdinando died on 23 May 1670 afflicted by apoplexy and dropsy. He was interred in the Basilica of San Lorenzo, the Medici's necropolis. [40] At the time of his death, the population of the grand duchy was 730,594; the streets were lined with grass and the buildings on the verge of collapse in Pisa. [41]

Ferdinando's marriage to Vittoria della Rovere produced two children: Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Francesco Maria de' Medici, Duke of Rovere and Montefeltro. Upon Vittoria's death in 1694, her allodial possessions, the Duchies of Rovere and Montefeltro, passed to her younger son.

18th century: the fall of the dynasty

Cosimo III, the Medicean grand duke, in Grand Ducal regalia Volterrano, Cosimo III de' Medici in grand ducal robes (Warsaw Royal Castle).jpg
Cosimo III, the Medicean grand duke, in Grand Ducal regalia
Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici, the last of the Grand Ducal line, in Minerva, Merkur und Plutus huldigen der Kurfurstin Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici (English: Minerva, Mercury and Pluto pay homage to the Electress Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici
) after Antonio Bellucci, 1706 Antonio Bellucci 001.jpg
Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici, the last of the Grand Ducal line, in Minerva, Merkur und Plutus huldigen der Kurfürstin Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici (English: Minerva, Mercury and Pluto pay homage to the Electress Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici) after Antonio Bellucci, 1706

Cosimo III married Marguerite Louise d'Orléans, a granddaughter of Henry IV of France and Marie de' Medici. An exceedingly discontented pairing, this union produced three children, notably Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici, Electress Palatine, and the last Medicean Grand Duke of Tuscany, Gian Gastone de' Medici.

Johann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine, Anna Maria Luisa's spouse, successfully requisitioned the dignity Royal Highness for the Grand Duke and his family in 1691, despite the fact that they had no claim to any kingdom. [42] Cosimo frequently paid the Holy Roman Emperor, his nominal feudal overlord, exorbitant dues, [43] and he sent munitions to the emperor during the Battle of Vienna.

The Medici lacked male heirs, and by 1705, the grand ducal treasury was virtually bankrupt. In comparison to the 17th century, the population of Florence declined by 50%, and the population of the grand duchy as a whole declined by an estimated 40%. [44] Cosimo desperately tried to reach a settlement with the European powers, but Tuscany's legal status was very complicated: the area of the grand duchy formerly comprising the Republic of Siena was technically a Spanish fief, while the territory of the old Republic of Florence was thought to be under imperial suzerainty. Upon the death of his first son, Cosimo contemplated restoring the Florentine republic, either upon Anna Maria Luisa's death, or on his own, if he predeceased her. The restoration of the republic would entail resigning Siena to the Holy Roman Empire, but, regardless, it was vehemently endorsed by his government. Europe largely ignored Cosimo's plan. Only Great Britain and the Dutch Republic gave any credence to it, and the plan ultimately died with Cosimo III in 1723. [45]

On 4 April 1718, Great Britain, France and the Dutch Republic (also later, Austria) selected Don Carlos of Spain, the elder child of Elisabeth Farnese and Philip V of Spain, as the Tuscan heir. By 1722, the electress was not even acknowledged as heiress, and Cosimo was reduced to spectator at the conferences for Tuscany's future. [46] On 25 October 1723, six days before his death, Grand Duke Cosimo disseminated a final proclamation commanding that Tuscany stay independent: Anna Maria Luisa would succeed uninhibited to Tuscany after Gian Gastone, and the grand duke reserved the right to choose his successor. However, these portions of his proclamation were completely ignored, and he died a few days later.

Gian Gastone despised the electress for engineering his catastrophic marriage to Anna Maria Franziska of Saxe-Lauenburg; while she abhorred her brother's liberal policies, he repealed all of his father's anti-Semitic statutes. Gian Gastone revelled in upsetting her. [47] On 25 October 1731, a Spanish detachment occupied Florence on behalf of Don Carlos, who disembarked in Tuscany in December of the same year. The Ruspanti, Gian Gastone's decrepit entourage, loathed the electress, and she them. Duchess Violante of Bavaria, Gian Gastone's sister-in-law, tried to withdraw the grand duke from the sphere of influence of the Ruspanti by organising banquets. His conduct at the banquets was less than regal; he often vomited repeatedly into his napkin, belched, and regaled those present with socially inappropriate jokes. [48] Following a sprained ankle in 1731, he remained confined to his bed for the rest of his life. The bed, often smelling of faeces, was occasionally cleaned by Violante.

In 1736, following the War of the Polish Succession, Don Carlos was disbarred from Tuscany, and Francis III of Lorraine was made heir in his stead. [49] In January 1737, the Spanish troops withdrew from Tuscany, and were replaced by Austrians.

Gian Gastone died on 9 July 1737, surrounded by prelates and his sister. Anna Maria Luisa was offered a nominal regency by the Prince de Craon until the new grand duke could peregrinate to Tuscany, but declined. [50] Upon her brother's death, she received all the House of Medici's allodial possessions.

Anna Maria Luisa signed the Patto di Famiglia ("family pact") on 31 October 1737. In collaboration with the Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke Francis of Lorraine, she willed all the personal property of the Medici to the Tuscan state, provided that nothing was ever removed from Florence. [51]

The "Lorrainers", as the occupying forces were called, were popularly loathed, but the regent, the Prince de Craon, allowed the electress to live unperturbed in the Palazzo Pitti. She occupied herself with financing and overseeing the construction of the Basilica of San Lorenzo, started in 1604 by Ferdinando I, at a cost to the state of 1,000 crowns per week. [52]

The electress donated much of her fortune to charity: £4,000 a month. [53] On 19 February 1743, she died, and the grand ducal line of the House of Medici died with her. The Florentines grieved her, [54] and she was interred in the crypt that she helped to complete, San Lorenzo.

The extinction of the main Medici dynasty and the accession in 1737 of Francis Stephen, Duke of Lorraine and husband of Maria Theresa of Austria, led to Tuscany's temporary inclusion in the territories of the Austrian crown. The line of the Princes of Ottajano, an extant branch of the House of Medici who were eligible to inherit the grand duchy of Tuscany when the last male of the senior branch died in 1737, could have carried on as Medici sovereigns but for the intervention of Europe's major powers, which allocated the sovereignty of Florence elsewhere.

As a consequence, the grand duchy expired and the territory became a secundogeniture of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. The first grand duke of the new dynasty, Francis I, was a great-great-great-grandson of Francesco I de' Medici, thus he continued the Medicean Dynasty on the throne of Tuscany through the female line. The Habsburgs were deposed in favor of the House of Bourbon-Parma in 1801 (themselves deposed in 1807), but were later restored at the Congress of Vienna. Tuscany became a province of the United Kingdom of Italy in 1861. However, several extant branches of the House of Medici survive, including the Princes of Ottajano, the Medici Tornaquinci, [55] and the Verona Medici Counts of Caprara and Gavardo. [56] (see Medici family tree)


The family of Piero de' Medici portrayed by Sandro Botticelli in the Madonna del Magnificat. Sandro Botticelli 056.jpg
The family of Piero de' Medici portrayed by Sandro Botticelli in the Madonna del Magnificat .

The greatest accomplishments of the Medici were in the sponsorship of art and architecture, mainly early and High Renaissance art and architecture. The Medici were responsible for a high proportion of the major Florentine works of art created during their period of rule. Their support was critical, since artists generally began work on their projects only after they had received commissions. Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici, the first patron of the arts in the family, aided Masaccio and commissioned Filippo Brunelleschi for the reconstruction of the Basilica of San Lorenzo, Florence in 1419. Cosimo the Elder's notable artistic associates were Donatello and Fra Angelico. In later years the most significant protégé of the Medici family was Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475–1564), who produced work for a number of family members, beginning with Lorenzo the Magnificent, who was said to be extremely fond of the young Michelangelo and invited him to study the family collection of antique sculpture. [57] Lorenzo also served as patron to Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) for seven years. Indeed, Lorenzo was an artist in his own right and an author of poetry and song; his support of the arts and letters is seen as a high point in Medici patronage.

Medici family members placed allegorically in the entourage of a king from the Three Wise Men in the Tuscan countryside in a Benozzo Gozzoli fresco, c. 1459. Gozzoli magi.jpg
Medici family members placed allegorically in the entourage of a king from the Three Wise Men in the Tuscan countryside in a Benozzo Gozzoli fresco, c. 1459.

After Lorenzo's death the puritanical Dominican friar Girolamo Savonarola rose to prominence, warning Florentines against excessive luxury. Under Savonarola's fanatical leadership many great works were "voluntarily" destroyed in the Bonfire of the Vanities (February 7, 1497). The following year, on 23 May 1498, Savonarola and two young supporters were burned at the stake in the Piazza della Signoria, the same location as his bonfire. In addition to commissions for art and architecture, the Medici were prolific collectors and today their acquisitions form the core of the Uffizi museum in Florence. In architecture, the Medici were responsible for some notable features of Florence, including the Uffizi Gallery, the Boboli Gardens, the Belvedere, the Medici Chapel and the Palazzo Medici. [58]

Later, in Rome, the Medici popes continued in the family tradition of patronizing artists in Rome. Pope Leo X would chiefly commission works from Raphael, whereas Pope Clement VII commissioned Michelangelo to paint the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel just before the pontiff's death in 1534. [59] Eleanor of Toledo, a princess of Spain and wife of Cosimo I the Great, purchased the Pitti Palace from Buonaccorso Pitti in 1550. Cosimo in turn patronized Vasari, who erected the Uffizi Gallery in 1560 and founded the Accademia delle Arti del Disegno – ("Academy of the Arts of Drawing") in 1563. [60] Marie de' Medici, widow of Henry IV of France and mother of Louis XIII, is the subject of a commissioned cycle of paintings known as the Marie de' Medici cycle, painted for the Luxembourg Palace by court painter Peter Paul Rubens in 1622–23.

Although none of the Medici themselves were scientists, the family is well known to have been the patrons of the famous Galileo Galilei, who tutored multiple generations of Medici children and was an important figurehead for his patron's quest for power. Galileo's patronage was eventually abandoned by Ferdinando II, when the Inquisition accused Galileo of heresy. However, the Medici family did afford the scientist a safe haven for many years. Galileo named the four largest moons of Jupiter after four Medici children he tutored, although the names Galileo used are not the names currently used.

Main genealogical table

The table below shows the origins of the Medici:

Medici Family Tree: Origins
Medico di Potrone
*1046 ? †1102
*1069 ? †1123
*1099 ? †1147
Giambuono de' Medici
*1131 ? †1192
*1167 ? †1210
*? †1226
*? †?
*? †?
*? †?
fl. 1253
*? †?
Averardo I
fl. 1280
fl. 1269
fl. 1269
Filippo [61]
*? †1290
*? †1301
*1260 †?
Averardo II [62]
*1270 †1319
*? †?
fl. 1278
Arrigo [63]
*? †1348
fl. 1312
Cambio [64]
*? †~1356
*? †1355
fl. 1322
Lippo [65]
fl. 1306
*? †1320
fl. 1330
*? †1346
*1298 †1315
Ardingo [66]
fl. 1343
di Filippo

*1323 †1395
Salvestro [67]
*1331 ? †1388
di Giambuono

*? †?
Giuliano I [68]
*? †1377
Conte di Averardo
Salvestro di Averardo
*? †?
Vieri di Cambio
Salvestro di Alemanno
Francesco di Giovenco
*? †?
Giuliano II [69]
*? †?
*? †1447
*1393 †1465?
*? †?
*? †?
*? †1475?
Castellina Tornaquinci
fl. 1426
*? †1464
*? †1464?
fl. 1493
*? †?
fl. 1513
*? †?
fl. 1490
*? †?
*? †?
*? †?
*? †?
*? †?
Bernardetto [70]
*? †?
*? †1528
*? †?
*1482 †1546
*1518 †1601
*? †?
Nicolò [71]
* †1562
* †1568
*1519 †1584
*1555 †1625
*? †?
* †1596
*? †?
*? †?
*? †1626
*? †1624
*? †?
*1585 †1664
*? †1650
*? †1685
*? †1614
*? †1749
*? †1722
fl. 1737
*? †1766
Nicolò Giuseppe
*? †?
fl. 1759
*? †1808
fl. 1775
*? †1821
*? †?
Anna Maria Luisa
*1756 †1797
Bindo Simone Peruzzi
*1729 †1794
*? †?
Peruzzi de' Medici

This extract shows the branch that gave rise to the celebrated branch of the Medici descending from Giovanni "di Bicci", who founded the Medici fortunes:

Medico di Potrone
Bono di Potrone
Bernardo di Potrone
Giambuono de' Medici
Chiarissimo de' Medici I
Filippo di Chiarissimo de' Medici
Averardo de' Medici I
(fl. 1280)
Averardo de' Medici II
Salvestro de Medici (il Chiarissimo III)
Giovenco de' Medici
(died 1320)
Averardo de' Medici III
m. Jacopa Spini
Giuliano de' Medici
(d. 1377)
Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici
m. Piccarda Bueri
Antonio de' Medici
Damian de' Medici
Cosimo de' Medici
(the Elder)
Contessina de' Bardi
Lorenzo de' Medici
(the Elder)
m. Ginevra Cavalcanti
Antonio de' Medici
Piero I de' Medici
(the Gouty)
Lord of Florence
Lucrezia Tornabuoni
Carlo de' Medici
Giovanni de' Medici
m. Ginevra degli Alessandrini
Francesco de' Medici
Pierfrancesco de' Medici (the Elder)
m. Laudomia Acciaioli
Giovanni de' Medici
(ante 14441478)
Maria de' Medici
m. Leonetto de' Rossi
Bianca de' Medici
m. Guglielmo de' Pazzi
Lucrezia de' Medici
m. Bernardo Rucellai
Lorenzo de' Medici
(the Magnificent)
Lord of Florence
m.(1) Clarice Orsini
Giuliano de' Medici
Cosimo de' Medici
Lorenzo the Popolano
Lord of Piombino
m. Semiramide Appiani
Giovanni the

m. Caterina
Bernardetto de' Medici
(died 1475)
Lucrezia de' Medici
m. Jacopo Salviati
Piero II de' Medici (the Unfortunate)
Lord of Florence
m. Alfonsina Orsini
Maddalena de' Medici
m. Franceschetto Cybo
Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici
Pope Leo X
Luisa de' Medici
Contessina de' Medici
m. Piero Ridolfi
Giuliano de' Medici
Duke of Nemours
Giulio de' Medici
Pope Clement VII
Averardo de'
Ginevra de'
m. Giovanni
degli Albizzi
Ippolito de' Medici
Pierfrancesco de' Medici
(the Younger)
m. Maria Soderini
Laudomia de'
m. Francesco
Vincenzo de'
Lorenzo de'
Giovanni Salviati
Lorenzo Salviati
Lorenzo II de' Medici
Duke of Urbino
Madeleine de La Tour
Clarissa de' Medici
m. Filippo Strozzi
Elena Salviati
m.(1) Pallavicino Pallavicino
m.(2) Iacopo V Appiani
Battista Salviati
Luisa Salviati
m. Sigismund de Luna
Bernardo Salviati
Maria Salviati
Lodovico de' Medici
(Giovanni dalle Bande Nere)
Francesca Salviati
m. Ottaviano de' Medici
Piero Salviati Piero Strozzi
Laudomia de' Medici
Alamanno Salviati
Lorenzino de' Medici
Giuliano de' Medici
Archbishop of Albi
Roberto Strozzi
Maddalena de' Medici
Ottaviano de' Medici
m. Francesca Salviati
Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici
Pope Leo XI
Alessandro de' Medici
(the Moor)
Duke of Florence
Caterina de' Medici
Henry II of France (1519r.15471559) Cosimo I de' Medici
Grand Duke of Tuscany
Bernadetto de' Medici Giulia de' Medici
Porzia de' Medici
Francis II of France
Charles IX of France
Henry III of France
Francis, Duke of Anjou
Francesco I de' Medici
Grand Duke of Tuscany
m. Charles III of Lorraine
Giulio de' Medici
Alessandro de' Medici
Philip II of Spain
Elisabeth of Valois
Margaret of Valois
Henry IV of France
Marie de' Medici
Christina of Lorraine
Ferdinando I de' Medici
Grand Duke of Tuscany
Caterina de' Medici
Cosimo de' Medici
Giuliano de' Medici Philip III of Spain
Christine Marie
m. Victor Amadeus I of Savoy
Nicolas Henri, Duke of Orléans
Gaston, Duke of Orléans
Henrietta Maria of France
m. Charles I of England
Angela/Angelica de' Medici
m. Pietro Altemps
Philip IV of Spain
Louis XIII of France
Anne of Austria
Charles II of England
Mary Henrietta Stuart
m. William II of Orange
James II of England
(1633r.1685-88 1701)

This is the branch of Cosimo's brother, Lorenzo, called the "Popolano" Branch, which gave rise to the Grand-Dukes of Tuscany:

Lodovico de' Medici
Maria Salviati
Eleanor of Toledo
Cosimo I
Grand Duke 156974
Camilla Martelli
Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor
Bia de' Medici
Maria de' Medici
Isabella de' Medici
m. Paolo Giordano I Orsini
Giovanni de' Medici
Bishop of Pisa, Cardinall
Lucrezia de' Medici
m. Alfonso II d'Este
Pietro de' Medici
Garzia de' Medici
Antonio de' Medici
(1548 1548)
Anna de' Medici
Pietro (Pedricco) de' Medici
(1546 1547)
Virginia de' Medici
(1568 1615)
m. Cesare d'Este
Johanna of Austria
Francesco I
Grand Duke 157487
Bianca Cappello
Christina of Lorraine
Ferdinando I
Grand Duke 15871609
Don Giovanni de' Medici
(Unnamed daughter)
Eleanor de' Medici
m. Vincenzo I Gonzaga
Anna de' Medici
Lucrezia de' Medici (15721574) Antonio de' Medici
Eleanor de' Medici
Francesco de' Medici
Filippino de' Medici
Maria Maddalena de' Medici
Charles II of Austria
Romola de' Medici
Isabella de' Medici
Marie de' Medici
m. Henry IV of France
Philip de' Medici
Caterina de' Medici
m. Ferdinando I Gonzaga
Carlo de' Medici
Cardinal Bishop of Ostia
Lorenzo de' Medici
Christine Marie of France
m. Victor Amadeus I of Savoy
Louis XIII of France
Gaston of Orléans
Cosimo II
Grand Duke 160921
Maria Magdalena of Austria
Federico della Rovere
Claudia de' Medici
Leopold V of Austria
Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor
Maria Cristina de' Medici
Ferdinando II
Grand Duke 162170
Vittoria della Rovere
Gian Carlo de' Medici
Margherita de' Medici
m. Odoardo Farnese
Matteo de' Medici (16131667) Francesco de' Medici
Anna de' Medici
Ferdinand Charles of Austria
Leopoldo de' Medici
Cosimo de' Medici
Cosimo III
Grand Duke 16701723
Marguerite Louise d'Orléans
Francesco Maria de' Medici
Philip William, Elector Palatine
Violante of Bavaria
Ferdinando (III) de' Medici
Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici
Johann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine
Philip William August, Count Palatine of Neuburg
Anna Maria Franziska of Saxe-Lauenburg
Gian Gastone
Grand Duke 172337


List of heads of the Medici

Signore in the Republic of Florence

PortraitNameFromUntilRelationship with predecessor
Cosimo di Medici (Bronzino).jpg Cosimo de' Medici
(Pater Patriae)
14341 August 1464Son of Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici who was not as prominently involved in Florentine politics, rather more involved in the financial area.
Piero di Cosimo de' Medici.jpg Piero I de' Medici
(Piero the Gouty)
1 August 14642 December 1469Eldest son of Cosimo de' Medici.
Lorenzo de Medici.jpg Lorenzo I de' Medici
(Lorenzo the Magnificent)
2 December 14699 April 1492Eldest son of Piero I de' Medici.
501 Piero de Medici 02.JPG Piero II de' Medici
(Piero the Unfortunate)
9 April 14928 November 1494Eldest son of Lorenzo the Magnificent. Overthrown when Charles VIII of France invaded as a full republic was restored, first under the theocracy of Girolamo Savonarola and then statesman Piero Soderini.
Cardinal Giovanni de' Medici.jpg Cardinal Giovanni de' Medici 31 August 15129 March 1513Brother of Piero the Unfortunate, second son of Lorenzo the Magnificent. Elected to the Papacy, becoming Pope Leo X.
Raffaello, giuliano de' medici.jpg Giuliano de' Medici, Duke of Nemours 9 March 151317 March 1516Brother of Cardinal Giovanni de' Medici, third son of Lorenzo the Magnificent.
Portrait of Lorenzo di Medici.jpg Lorenzo II de' Medici, Duke of Urbino 17 March 15164 May 1519Nephew of Giuliano de' Medici, Duke of Nemours, son of Piero the Unfortunate. Father of Catherine de' Medici, Queen consort of France.
Portrait of Giulio de Medici (1478 - 1534) Pope Clement VII.jpg Cardinal Giulio de' Medici 4 May 151919 November 1523Cousin of Lorenzo II de' Medici, Duke of Urbino, son of Giuliano de' Medici who was the brother of Lorenzo the Magnificent. Elected to the Papacy, becoming Pope Clement VII .
Ippolito de' Medici.jpg Cardinal Ippolito de' Medici 19 November 152324 October 1529Cousin of Cardinal Giulio de' Medici, illegitimate son of Giuliano de' Medici, Duke of Nemours.

Dukes of Florence

PortraitNameFromUntilRelationship with predecessor
Alessandro-the-moor.jpg Alessandro il Moro 24 October 15296 January 1537Cousin of Cardinal Ippolito de' Medici, illegitimate son of Lorenzo II de' Medici, Duke of Urbino or Pope Clement VII. Acting signore during imperial Siege of Florence, made Duke in 1531.
Cosimo Grand Duke.jpg Cosimo I 6 January 153721 April 1574Distant cousin of Alessandro de' Medici, Son of Giovanni dalle Bande Nere. dei Popolani line descended from Lorenzo the Elder, Brother of Cosimo de' Medici; also great-grandson of Lorenzo the Magnificent through his mother, Maria Salviati, and his grandmother, Lucrezia de' Medici. 1569, he was made Grand Duke of Tuscany.

Grand Dukes of Tuscany

PortraitNameFromUntilRelationship with predecessor
Cosimo Grand Duke.jpg Cosimo I 6 January 156921 April 1574
Francesco I De Medici (by Bronzino).jpg Francesco I 21 April 157417 October 1587Eldest son of Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany.
Ferdinando i de' medici 12.JPG Ferdinando I 17 October 158717 February 1609Brother of Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, son of Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany.
Cristofano Allori - Cosimo II (1608-1618).jpg Cosimo II 17 February 160928 February 1621Eldest son of Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany.
YoungferdinandoII.jpg Ferdinando II 28 February 162123 May 1670Eldest son of Cosimo II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany.
Grand Duke CosimoIII of Tuscany by van Douven.jpg Cosimo III 23 May 167031 October 1723Eldest son of Ferdinando II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany.
Giangastone de' Medici.jpg Gian Gastone 31 October 17239 July 1737Second son of Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany.

Coats of arms

The origin of the Medici coat of arms is not recorded. One unproven story traces their ancestry to a knight of Charlemagne's, Averardo, who defeated a giant, Mugello. In reward, Charlemagne is said to have rewarded Averardo with the shield mauled by the giant, with the dents in the shape of balls, and the giant's lands in Mugello.

Florentine Guild Arms with the Moneychangers in top row 3rd. Stemmi delle Arti fiorentine, sec. XVIII - san dl SAN IMG-00003045.jpg
Florentine Guild Arms with the Moneychangers in top row 3rd.

Here seen sliced in half, an art historian suggests that whole blood oranges could be the imagery in the Medici coats of arms Blood Orange 2.jpg
Here seen sliced in half, an art historian suggests that whole blood oranges could be the imagery in the Medici coats of arms

The simplest, though also unproven, theory suggests that the balls represented coins copied from the coat of arms of the Guild of Moneychangers (Arte del Cambio) to which the Medici belonged. That shield was red strewn with Byzantine coins (bezants). [72] [73] The number of balls also varied with time, as shown below. It has also been argued that these coins referenced the three coins or golden balls associated with St. Nicholas, particularly as the saint was invoked by Italian bankers as they took oaths. [74]

As an Italian vocabulary word, "medici" means "medical doctors" and identifications with the family members as physicians may be found among their names as early as the eleventh century. Fanciful stories depict the images as pills or cupping glasses, a late-medieval medical instrument used to draw blood. Pills did not exist until much later and bloodletting was not a common practice at the time of the first Medici coat of arms. Art historian Rocky Ruggiero suggests plausibly however, that the images may represent whole ripe blood oranges that typically are grown in Italy. Although knowledge of vitamins did not exist at the time, the benefit of oranges for certain diseases was recognized and their association with recommendations by medical doctors suggests to Ruggiero that this likely is the imagery intended in the coats of arms for the Medici family. [75]

Alternatively, it has been suggested that the Medici coat of arms was initially inspired by symbols drawn from Etruscan votive sculpture, examples of which feature an oval dome with balls (echoing the forms of the Medici shield), as well as six balls within a triangle (as found in the alternative, triangular version of the Medici emblem). [76] This particular influence offers an explanation for the red hue of the Medici balls, the colour of the terracotta sculpture. It would also have reflected the family's interest in Etruscan art and culture. [77] In addition, the notion of Etruscan votive sculpture would have chimed with the participation of the Medici in the religious custom of offering up votive statues, a practice that recalled the ancient Etruscan convention of donating sculptures in the hope of, or gratitude for, divine favour. [78] Such favours would have included the wish for a strong and healthy family, both for the supplicant and their descendants. [79]

See also


  1. 1 2 John Woodward, A Treatise on Ecclesiastical Heraldry, 1894, p. 162
  2. Litta, Pompeo (1827). Famiglie celebri italiane. Medici di Firenze.
  3. Luisa Greco (22 May 2015). "Cosimo de Medici e l'amore per le tartarughe con la vela". Toctoc.
  4. "Medici". . HarperCollins . Retrieved 12 February 2020.
  5. The family of Pius IV, the Medici of Milan, considered itself a branch of the House of Medici and was recognized as such by the Florentine Pope Clement VII and by Cosimo I 'de Medici in the early 16th century. Historians have found no proof of an actual connection between the Medici of Milan and the Medici of Florence, but this belief was widespread during the life of Pius IV and the Medici of Florence allowed the Medici of Milan to use their coat of arms.
  6. "Medici Family – – Encyclopædia Britannica". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 27 September 2009.
  7. POLLENS, STEWART (2013). "Bartolomeo Cristofori in Florence". The Galpin Society Journal. 66: 7–245. ISSN   0072-0127. JSTOR   44083109.
  8. "Music and the Medici – The Medici Archive Project" (in Italian). Retrieved 2022-04-20.
  9. Malaguzzi, Silvia (2004). Botticelli. Ediz. Inglese. Giunti Editore. ISBN   9788809036772 via Google Books.
  10. The Medieval World – Europe 1100–1350 by Friedrich Heer, 1998 Germany
  11. The name in Italian is pronounced with the stress on the first syllable /ˈmɛ .di.tʃi/ and not on the second vowel.How to say: Medici Archived 2020-06-25 at the Wayback Machine , BBC News Magazine MonitorMED-uh-chee in American English.
  12. Strathern, p 18
  13. Kenneth Bartlett, The Italian Renaissance, Chapter 7, p. 37, Volume II, 2005.
  14. "History of Florence". Retrieved 2015-01-26.
  15. Crum, Roger J. Severing the Neck of Pride: Donatello's "Judith and Holofernes" and the Recollection of Albizzi Shame in Medicean Florence . Artibus et Historiae, Volume 22, Edit 44, 2001. pp. 23–29.
  16. Padgett, John F.; Ansell, Christopher K. (May 1993). "Robust Action and the Rise of the Medici, 1400–1434" (PDF). The American Journal of Sociology. 98 (6): 1259–1319. doi:10.1086/230190. JSTOR   2781822. S2CID   56166159. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2020-03-03.. This has led to much more analysis Archived 2021-09-10 at the Wayback Machine .
  17. Machiavelli, Niccolò (1906). The Florentine history written by Niccolò Machiavelli, Volume 1. p. 221..
  18. Bradley, Richard (executive producer) (2003). The Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance (Part I) (DVD). PBS Home Video.
  19. 1 2 The Prince Niccolò Machiavelli. A Norton Critical Edition. Translated and edited by Rober M. Adams. New York. W.W. Norton and Company, 1977. p. viii (Historical Introduction).
  20. Ulwencreutz, Lars (2013). Ulwencreutz's The Royal Families in Europe V. ISBN   9781304581358 . Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  21. 15th century Italy.
  22. Hibbard, pp. 177, 202, 162.
  23. Hibbert, Christopher (1974). The House of Medici: Its rise and fall. New York: William Morrow and Company. ISBN   0-688-00339-7. OCLC   5613740.
  24. Halvorson, Michael (2014). The Renaissance: All That Matters. Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN   9781444192964.
  25. Hibbert, The House of Medici: Its Rise and Fall, 153.
  26. 1 2 Hale, p. 150.
  27. Hale, p. 151.
  28. Austria and Spain were ruled by the House of Habsburg; the two are interchangeable terms for the Habsburg domains in the time period in question.
  29. Hale, p. 158.
  30. 1 2 Hale, p. 160.
  31. Hale, p. 165.
  32. Strathen, p. 368.
  33. Hale, p. 187.
  34. Acton, p. 111.
  35. 1 2 Acton, p. 192.
  36. Acton, p. 27.
  37. Acton, p. 38.
  38. 1 2 Hale, p. 180.
  39. Hale, p. 181.
  40. Acton, p. 108.
  41. Acton, p. 112.
  42. Acton, p. 182.
  43. Acton, p. 243.
  44. Strathern, p. 392.
  45. Hale, p. 191.
  46. Acton, p. 175.
  47. Acton, p. 280.
  48. Acton, p. 188.
  49. Acton, p. 301.
  50. Acton, p. 304.
  51. "Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici – Electress Palatine" . Retrieved 3 September 2009.
  52. Acton, p. 209.
  53. Acton, p. 310.
  54. Acton, p. 309.
  55. Feuer, Alan (4 May 2004). "Florence Journal; Where the Bodies Are Buried, Modern-Day Medici Feud, Alan Feuer, New York Times, May 4, 2004". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 29, 2019. Retrieved February 19, 2017.
  56. Hibbert, p. 60.
  57. Howard Hibbard, Michelangelo (New York: Harper and Row, 1974), p. 21.
  58. Peter Barenboim, Sergey Shiyan, Michelangelo: Mysteries of Medici Chapel, SLOVO, Moscow, 2006 Archived 2017-07-04 at the Wayback Machine . ISBN   5-85050-825-2
  59. Hibbard, p. 240.
  60. Official site of the Accademia delle Arti del Disegno of Florence, Brief History (it. leng.) "Accademia delle Arti del Disegno". Archived from the original on 2009-06-03. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
  61. Two more sons: Arrigo (?-?), Giovanni (?-?)
  62. Three more sons: Talento (?-?), he had a son, Mario died in 1369, Mario had few unremarkable later generations; Jacopo (?-1340) who had a son, Averardo (fl. 1363); Francesco (?-?), who had a son, Malatesta died in 1367.
  63. Four sons: Guccio (from which descended a line extinct in 1670 with Ottaviano), Filippo (?-?), Betto (fl. 1348), Ardinghello (fl. 1345).
  64. One more son: Giovanni (fl. 1383). Giovanni had a son, Antonio (?-1396) and a nephew, Felice (?-?).
  65. One son, Coppo, (?-?). Cfr. Mecatti, Giuseppe Maria; Muratori, Lodovico Antonio (1755). Storia cronologica della città di Firenze (in Italian). Vol. Parte prima. Naples: Stamperia Simoniana. p. 157. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
  66. Two more brothers unknown.
  67. Two more brothers: Andrea (*? †?), Bartolomeo (*? †?).
  68. One more brother: Pietro (*? †?), line extinct.
  69. One more brother: Giovanni (*? †?)
  70. One more son: Francesco (†1552?)
  71. One more son Bernardo (†1592?)
  72. de Roover, Raymond (31 July 2017). The Medici Bank: Its Organization, Management, Operations, and Decline. Pickle Partners Publishing. pp. note 1.
  73. Mackworth-Young, Rose (29 March 2012). "The Medici balls: Origins of the family's coat of arms". The Florentine. Florence: B'Gruppo Srl (160). Retrieved 17 October 2017.
  74. Clare, Edward G. (1985). St. Nicholas: His Legends and Iconography. Florence: Leo S. Olschki. p. 76.
  75. Ruggiero, Rocky, Ph.D., Rebuilding The Renaissance, Episode 93 – Florence: The Medici Dynasty Archived 2021-08-29 at the Wayback Machine , Making Art and History Come to Life, October 28, 2020, an audio file
  76. Jelbert, Rebeca (2020). "The Medici Coat of Arms and Etruscan Votive Sculpture". The Coat of Arms: Journal for the Heraldry Society (UK). 3: 190–208.
  77. Gáldy, Andrea (2009). Cosimo I de' Medici as Collector: Antiquities and Archaeology in Sixteenth-century Florence. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 46–47, 58.
  78. Kent, Francis (2007). Lorenzo de'Medici and the Art of Magnificence. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 76.
  79. Scopacasa, Rafael (2015). "Moulding Cultural Change: A Contextual Approach to Anatomical Votive Terracottas in Central Italy, Fourth-Second Centuries BC". Papers of the British School at Rome. 83: 1–27, 343–344. doi:10.1017/S0068246215000021. S2CID   163129780.

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Cosimo I de' Medici was the second Duke of Florence from 1537 until 1569, when he became the first Grand Duke of Tuscany, a title he held until his death.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici</span> Wife of Johann Wilhelm Palatine Elector

Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici was an Italian noblewoman who was the last lineal descendant of the main branch of the House of Medici. A patron of the arts, she bequeathed the Medicis' large art collection, including the contents of the Uffizi, Palazzo Pitti and the Medicean villas, which she inherited upon her brother Gian Gastone's death in 1737, and her Palatine treasures to the Tuscan state, on the condition that no part of it could be removed from "the Capital of the grand ducal State....[and from] the succession of His Serene Grand Duke."

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gian Gastone de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany</span> Grand Duke of Tuscany

Gian Gastone de' Medici was the seventh and last Medicean Grand Duke of Tuscany.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Republic of Florence</span> City-state on the Apennine Peninsula between 1115 and 1569

The Republic of Florence, known officially as the Florentine Republic, was a medieval and early modern state that was centered on the Italian city of Florence in Tuscany, Italy. The republic originated in 1115, when the Florentine people rebelled against the Margraviate of Tuscany upon the death of Matilda of Tuscany, who controlled vast territories that included Florence. The Florentines formed a commune in her successors' place. The republic was ruled by a council known as the Signoria of Florence. The signoria was chosen by the gonfaloniere, who was elected every two months by Florentine guild members.

Tuscany is named after its pre-Roman inhabitants, the Etruscans. It was ruled by Rome for many centuries. In the Middle Ages, it saw many invasions, but in the Renaissance period it helped lead Europe back to civilization. Later, it settled down as a grand duchy. It was conquered by Napoleonic France in the late 18th century and became part of the Italian Republic in the 19th century.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Grand Duchy of Tuscany</span> Former Italian state (1569–1801; 1815–1859)

The Grand Duchy of Tuscany was an Italian monarchy that existed, with interruptions, from 1569 to 1859, replacing the Republic of Florence. The grand duchy's capital was Florence. In the 19th century the population of the Grand Duchy was about 1,815,000 inhabitants.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany</span> Grand Duke of Tuscany

Cosimo III de' Medici was Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1670 until his death in 1723, the sixth and penultimate from the House of Medici. He reigned from 1670 to 1723, and was the elder son of Grand Duke Ferdinando II. Cosimo's 53-year-long reign, the longest in Tuscan history, was marked by a series of laws that regulated prostitution and May celebrations. His reign also witnessed Tuscany's deterioration to previously unknown economic lows. In 1723, when Cosimo III died, he was succeeded by the younger of his two surviving children, Gian Gastone.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ferdinando II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany</span> Grand Duke of Tuscany

Ferdinando II de' Medici was grand duke of Tuscany from 1621 to 1670. He was the eldest son of Cosimo II de' Medici and Maria Maddalena of Austria. He was remembered by his contemporaries as a man of culture and science, actively participating in the Accademia del Cimento, the first scientific society in Italy, formed by his younger brother, Leopoldo de' Medici. His 49-year rule was punctuated by the beginning of Tuscany's long economic decline, which was further exacerbated by his successor, Cosimo III de' Medici. He married Vittoria della Rovere, a first cousin, with whom he had two children who reached adulthood: the aforementioned Cosimo III, and Francesco Maria de' Medici, Duke of Rovere and Montefeltro, a cardinal.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany</span> Grand Duke of Tuscany

Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany was Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1587 to 1609, having succeeded his older brother Francesco I.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Duke of the Florentine Republic</span>

The Duca della Repubblica Fiorentina, rendered in English as Duke of the Florentine Republic or Duke of the Republic of Florence, was a title created in 1532 by Pope Clement VII for the Medici family, which ruled the Republic of Florence. There were effectively only two dukes of the Republic of Florence, Alessandro de' Medici and Cosimo de' Medici, the second duke being elevated to Grand Duke of Tuscany, causing the Florentine title to become subordinate to the greater Tuscan title.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ferdinando de' Medici, Grand Prince of Tuscany</span> Grand Prince of Tuscany

Ferdinando de' Medici was the eldest son of Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Marguerite Louise d'Orléans. Ferdinando was heir to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, with the title Grand Prince, from his father's accession in 1670 until his death in 1713. He is remembered today primarily as a patron of music. An excellent musician himself, he attracted top musicians to Florence and thus made it an important musical center. Through his patronage of Bartolomeo Cristofori, Ferdinando made possible the invention of the piano.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Archduchess Maria Maddalena of Austria</span> Grand Duchess consort of Tuscany

Maria Maddalena of Austria was Grand Duchess of Tuscany by her marriage to Cosimo II in 1609 until his death in 1621. With him, she had eight children, including a duchess of Parma, a grand duke of Tuscany, and an archduchess of Further Austria. Born in Graz, Maria Magdalena was the youngest daughter of Charles II, Archduke of Inner Austria, and his wife Maria Anna of Bavaria. During the minority of her son, Grand Duke Ferdinando, she and her mother-in-law acted as regents from 1621 to 1628. She died on 1 November 1631 in Passau.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Duchy of Florence</span>

The Duchy of Florence was an Italian principality that was centred on the city of Florence, in Tuscany, Italy. The duchy was founded after Emperor Charles V restored Medici rule to Florence in 1530. Pope Clement VII, himself a Medici, appointed his relative Alessandro de' Medici as Duke of the Florentine Republic, thereby transforming the Republic of Florence into a hereditary monarchy.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Vittoria della Rovere</span> Grand Duchess consort of Tuscany

Vittoria della Rovere was Grand Duchess of Tuscany as the wife of Grand Duke Ferdinando II. She had four children with her husband, two of whom would survive infancy: the future Cosimo III, Tuscany's longest-reigning monarch, and Francesco Maria, a prince of the Church. At the death of her grandfather Francesco Maria della Rovere, she inherited the Duchies of Rovere and Montefeltro, which reverted to her second son, Francesco Maria, at her death. She was later entrusted with the care of her three grandchildren. Her marriage brought a wealth of treasures to the House of Medici, which can today be seen in the Palazzo Pitti and the Uffizi Gallery in Florence.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Francesco Maria de' Medici, Duke of Rovere and Montefeltro</span> Duke of Montefeltro

Francesco Maria de' Medici was a member of the House of Medici. He was successively a Governor of Siena, cardinal and later the heir of the duchy of Montefeltro by right of his mother.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Marguerite Louise d'Orléans</span> Grand Duchess consort of Tuscany

Marguerite Louise d'Orléans was a Princess of France who became Grand Duchess of Tuscany, as the wife of Grand Duke Cosimo III de' Medici.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Violante Beatrice of Bavaria</span> Grand Princess of Tuscany

Violante Beatrice of Bavaria was Grand Princess of Tuscany as the wife of Grand Prince Ferdinando of Tuscany and Governor of Siena from 1717 until her death. Born a Duchess of Bavaria, the youngest child of Elector Ferdinand Maria, she married the heir to the Tuscan throne, Ferdinando de' Medici, in 1689. Violante Beatrice loved him but Ferdinando did not return her affection, declaring her too ugly and too dull. Her brother-in-law, Prince Gian Gastone, befriended her out of sympathy, a friendship that lasted until Violante Beatrice's demise.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Giancarlo de' Medici</span> Italian cardinal

Giancarlo de' Medici was an Italian cardinal of the House of Medici. He was the second son of Grand Duke Cosimo II of Tuscany and his wife, Maria Maddalena of Austria, and the brother of Ferdinando II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Giuliano Dami</span>

Giuliano Dami was the favourite and valet of Gian Gastone de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany. He is known for the "magnetic influence" he exercised on the last Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany, and for his relationship with him.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Flag of Tuscany</span> Flag of Italian region

The flag of Tuscany is the official flag of the region of Tuscany, Italy. The flag depicts a silver Pegasus rampant on a white field between two horizontal red bands. The flag first appeared as a gonfalon on 20 May 1975 along with accompanying text Regione Toscana above the Pegasus. It was officially adopted as the flag of Tuscany on 3 February 1995.


Further reading

House of Medici
New title Ruling house of the Duchy of Florence
Elevated to Grand Dukes of Tuscany
New title
Elevated from Duchy of Florence
Ruling house of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Succeeded by