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|Successor||Kan Shi Huen|
|Issue||Kan Shi Huen|
Hu Weiyong (Chinese :胡惟庸; pinyin :Hú Wéiyōng; Wade–Giles :Hu Wei-yung; ? - 1380) was the first chancellor of the Ming dynasty, from 1373 to 1380. Hu was a main member of Huaixi meritorious group. He was well known as the central character of the case which named after himself, it caused about thirty thousand of deaths. Besides, his biography topped the Biographies of the Treacherous Courtiers, History of Ming.
Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau, and in the Kangxi Dictionary. The modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, and have been more or less stable since the 5th century.
Hanyu Pinyin, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.
Wade–Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a romanization system for Mandarin Chinese. It developed from a system produced by Thomas Wade, during the mid-19th century, and was given completed form with Herbert A. Giles's Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892.
Hu was born in Dingyuan, Haozhou (濠州; now a part of Chuzhou, Anhui province). In 1363 Hu contributed a large number of warships to Zhu Yuanzhang to use for battle with Chen Youliang. Li Shanchang, chief of warship production, was pleased with Hu and recommended Hu to Zhu Yuanzhang.
Dingyuan County is a county of Anhui Province, China. It is under the administration of Chuzhou city.
Chuzhou is a prefecture-level city in eastern Anhui Province, China. It borders the provincial capital of Hefei to the south and southwest, Huainan to the west, Bengbu to the northwest, and the province of Jiangsu to the east. According to the 2010 Census, the city of Chuzhou has a registered population of 3,937,868 inhabitants, whom 994,342 lived in the built-up area made of 2 urban districts and now Lai'an county largely being urbanized. Nevertheless, 7,260,240 persons declared to be permanent residents.. Its proximity to Nanjing and the building of a 54.4 km Metro line till Nanjing North station is transforming the city in a new Nanjing outer suburb.
Anhui is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the eastern region of the country. The province is located across the basins of the Yangtze River and the Huai River, bordering Jiangsu to the east, Zhejiang to the southeast, Jiangxi to the south, Hubei to the southwest, Henan to the northwest, and Shandong for a short section in the north.
In the Hongwu Emperor's elimination of the traditional offices of grand councilor, the primary impetus was Hu Weiyong's alleged attempt to usurp the throne. Hu was the Senior Grand Councilor and a capable administrator; however, over the years, the magnitude of his powers as well as involvement in several political scandals eroded the paranoid emperor's trust in him. Finally, in 1380, the Hongwu Emperor had Hu and his entire family arrested and executed on charges of treason. Using this as an opportunity to purge his government, the Hongwu Emperor also ordered the execution of countless other officials, as well as their families, for associating with Hu. The purge lasted over a decade and resulted in more than 30,000 executions.
Some accounts narrate the dubious legends about Hu. It was said that some stalagmites emerged from the water of well, which located at the yard of his former residence. Moreover, the tombs of his ancestors were glowed in the night. While he seemed to preened himself on that and conspired to coups.
Chancellor Hu Weiyong arrogated all authority to himself and accepted bribes, which stirred the wrath of other officers and the people. In 1380, a subordinate of Hu Weiyong reported to the Hongwu Emperor (Zhu Yuanzhang) that Hu Weiyong met with the envoy of another country secretly, attempting to rebel. Four days later Zhu executed Hu Weiyong. The emperor soon abolished the Chancellery of China, taking over direct responsibility of the Three Departments and Six Ministries. The Grand Secretariat later assumed responsibility for aiding the emperor in managing the state.
Together with the other members of his clique, their offences were compiled a book tilted Zhaoshi Jiandang Lu (昭示奸黨錄; [The Record to Proclaim the Treacherous Clique]), at the behest of the emperor.
Year 1380 (MCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.
The Hongwu Emperor, personal name Zhu Yuanzhang, was the founding emperor of the Ming dynasty.
The Jianwen Emperor was the second emperor of the Ming dynasty in China. His personal name was Zhu Yunwen (朱允炆). The era name of his reign, Jianwen, means "establishing civility" and represented a sharp change in tone from Hongwu, the era name of the reign of his grandfather and predecessor, the Hongwu Emperor. His reign did not last long: an attempt to restrain his uncles led to the Jingnan rebellion. The Jianwen Emperor was eventually overthrown by one of his uncles, Zhu Di, who was then enthroned as the Yongle Emperor. Although the Yongle Emperor presented a charred body as Zhu Yunwen's, rumours circulated for decades that the Jianwen Emperor had disguised himself as a Buddhist monk and escaped from the palace when it was set on fire by Zhu Di's forces. Some people speculated that one of the reasons behind why the Yongle Emperor sponsored the admiral Zheng He on his treasure voyages in the early 15th century, was for Zheng He to search for the Jianwen Emperor, who was believed to have survived and fled to Southeast Asia. Some historians believe that the Jianwen Emperor had indeed survived and escaped from Nanjing, but the official histories of the Ming dynasty were modified later during the Qing dynasty to please the Manchu rulers.
The grand chancellor, also translated as counselor-in-chief, chancellor, chief councillor, chief minister, imperial chancellor, lieutenant chancellor and prime minister, was the highest-ranking executive official in the imperial Chinese government. The term was known by many different names throughout Chinese history, and the exact extent of the powers associated with the position fluctuated greatly, even during a particular dynasty.
Zhu Yujian, the Prince of Tang, reigned as the Longwu Emperor of the Southern Ming dynasty from 18 August 1645, when he was enthroned in Fuzhou, to 6 October 1646, when he was captured and executed by a contingent of the Qing army. He was an eighth generation descendant Zhu Jing, Prince Ding of Tang, who was 23rd son of Ming founder Zhu Yuanzhang.
Liu Ji, courtesy name Bowen, better known as Liu Bowen, was a Chinese military strategist, philosopher, statesman and poet who lived in the late Yuan and early Ming dynasties. He was born in Qingtian County. He served as a key advisor to Zhu Yuanzhang, the founder of the Ming dynasty, in the latter's struggle to overthrow the Yuan dynasty and unify China under his rule. Liu is also known for his prophecies and has been described as the "Divine Chinese Nostradamus". He and Jiao Yu co-edited the military treatise known as the Huolongjing.
The Embroidered Uniform Guard was the imperial secret police that served the emperors of the Ming dynasty in China. The guard was founded by the Hongwu Emperor in 1368 to serve as his personal bodyguards. In 1369 it became an imperial military body. They were given the authority to overrule judicial proceedings in prosecutions with full autonomy in arresting, interrogating and punishing anyone, including nobles and the emperor's relatives.
Hu Dahai, courtesy name Tongfu (通甫), was a Chinese military general who lived in the 14th century. He is best known for helping Zhu Yuanzhang establish the Ming dynasty in China.
Zhongshu Sheng, commonly translated as the Secretariat, Central Secretariat or Imperial Secretariat, was one department in the Three Departments and Six Ministries government structure officially established beginning in the Sui dynasty in the history of China. As one of the three departments, it was the main policy-formulating agency that was responsible for proposing and drafting all imperial decrees. The Song dynasty modified that tripartite division of executive agencies in the central government. Under the Song, as also under the Liao and Jin dynasties, those organs exercised much of the executive authority for the emperor.
The Three Departments and Six Ministries system was the main central government structure in imperial China from the Sui dynasty (581–618) to the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368). It was also used by Balhae (698–926) and Goryeo (918–1392) in Manchuria and Korea, and very likely the Lý dynasty (1009–1225) and the Trần dynasty (1225–1400) in Vietnam as well.
The Grand Secretariat was nominally a coordinating agency but de facto the highest institution in the imperial government of the Chinese Ming dynasty. It first took shape after the Hongwu Emperor abolished the office of Chancellor in 1380 and gradually evolved into an effective coordinating organ superimposed on the Six Ministries. There were altogether six Grand Secretaries, though the posts were not always filled. The most senior one was popularly called Senior Grand Secretary. The Grand Secretaries were nominally mid-level officials, ranked much lower than the Ministers, heads of the Ministries. However, since they screened documents submitted to the emperor from all governmental agencies, and had the power of drafting suggested rescripts for the emperor, generally known as piàonǐ (票擬) or tiáozhǐ (條旨), some senior Grand Secretaries were able to dominate the whole government, acting as de facto Chancellor. The word nèigé itself also became to refer modern cabinet in Chinese.
Yang Xian was a Chinese official who lived in the early Ming dynasty. He served as the Governor of Yangzhou from 1368–70 and later became the Chief of the Central Secretariat in 1370 during the reign of the Hongwu Emperor.
Founding Emperor of Ming Dynasty is a Chinese television series based on the life of Zhu Yuanzhang, the founding emperor of the Ming dynasty. Directed by Feng Xiaoning and starring Hu Jun as the emperor, the series was first aired on CCTV in China in 2006.
Chuanqi Huangdi Zhu Yuanzhang is a Chinese television series based on the life of Zhu Yuanzhang, the founding emperor of the Ming dynasty. Starring Chen Baoguo as the emperor, the series was first broadcast on CCTV in mainland China in 2006.
House of Zhu, also known as House of Chu, was the imperial family of the Ming dynasty of China. Zhu was the family name of the emperors of the Ming dynasty. The House of Zhu ruled China from 1368 until the fall of the Ming dynasty in 1644, followed by the rule as the Southern Ming dynasty until 1662, and the last Ming princes, the Prince of Ningjing Zhu Shugui and Prince Zhu Honghuan (朱弘桓) held out until the annexation of the Kingdom of Tungning in 1683.
King or Prince of Wu was an ancient and medieval Chinese title referring to ruler of the area originally controlled by the Gou Wu tribes around Wuxi on the lower Yangtze, generally known as the Wu region. The title wang is written identically in Chinese, but it is common in English to distinguish between the scions of the imperial dynasties and the dynasties of independent lords.
Fu Youde was a Chinese general and a highly competent commander in the Ming navy.
Li Shanchang was the founding chancellor of the Ming dynasty. Deemed the recognized leader of the West Huai (Huaixi) faction, and given first rank among the six dukes in 1370, it is said that Li was the Emperor Hongwu's closest comrade during the war, and greatest contributor to his ultimate victory and thus establishment of the Ming Dynasty. Deeply trusted by the Emperor, Hongwu consulted Li on institutional matters, but became "bored with Li's arrogance" in old age.
The Four Major Cases of the early Ming dynasty refers to the Hu Weiyong case, the Lan Yu case, the prestamped documents case together with the Guo Huan case. Occurring during Hongwu Emperor's reign, they were also called the Four Major Cases of the Hongwu era.
| Left Chancellor of Ming Dynasty |
1377 - 1380
None, title abolished
| Right Chancellor of Ming Dynasty |
1373 - 1377