|Elevation||6,025 m (19,767 ft)|
|Volcanic arc/belt||Central Volcanic Zone|
Hualca Hualca(possibly from Aymara and Quechua wallqa collar) is an extinct volcano in Arequipa Region in the Andes of Peru. It has a height of 6,025 metres.
Hualca Hualca is part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, a volcanic belt which occurs where the Nazca Plate subducts beneath the South America Plate. Volcanoes in Peru that are part of the Central Volcanic Zone include Ampato, Casiri, Chachani, Coropuna, El Misti, Huaynaputina, Pichu Pichu, Sabancaya, Sara Sara, Solimana, Ticsani, Tutupaca, Ubinas and Yucamane.
Hualca Hualca forms a volcanic complex with the two southerly volcanoes Sabancaya and Ampato. It is older (Pliocene-Pleistocene) and more heavily eroded than these two volcanoes; they are all constructed on Neogene ignimbrites, one of which was dated to 2.2 ± 1.5 million years ago. 0.5 kilometres (0.31 mi). Volcanic rocks of Hualca Hualca contain phenocrysts of biotite, clinopyroxene, hornblende, orthopyroxene, plagioclase and sphene. The magma probably originated through mixing processes, similar to Sabancaya.The volcano has erupted andesitic lava flows; one series of such flows exceeds a thickness of
The northern flank of Hualca Hualca underwent a large sector collapse between 1.36 and 0.61 million years ago,opening up a collapse amphitheatre and forming a lake in the Colca valley which later catastrophically failed. This lake has left lacustrine deposits in the Colca Valley. Eruptions within the collapse amphitheatre generated lava flows which then formed volcanic dams in the Colca Valley. Lava domes and pyroclastic flows also originated within the collapse scar. Earthquakes and hydrothermal alteration probably caused the onset of the collapse event.
The volcano was glaciated during the last ice age, between 18,000 and 11,500 years ago.This glaciation has left moraines, rock glaciers and roches moutonees. The glaciers on Hualca Hualca have retreated since then, one was reported to have disappeared by 2000. Snowmelt and runoff from Hualca Hualca are sources of water for the Colca Canyon, supporting irrigated agriculture there; the mountain is worshipped by local inhabitants, who according to reports in 1586 believed that their ancestors come from it.
Hualca Hualca is considered to be an extinct volcano; 13–11 kilometres (8.1–6.8 mi) at a rate of 2 centimetres per year (0.79 in/year). This deformation may be associated with the neighbouring volcano Sabancaya which is active; magma chambers of volcanoes are sometimes distant from the actual volcano as was the case with Katmai. The inflation ceased after 1997. At Pinchollo in the collapse scar three geysers were active in the past; one is still active as of 2013 [update] and is named Infiernillo.however at least seven vents on its southwestern flank show evidence of Holocene activity. Satellite images in the early 21st century found that Hualca Hualca is inflating from a depth of
Parinacota, Parina Quta or Parinaquta is a dormant stratovolcano on the border of Chile and Bolivia. Together with Pomerape it forms the Nevados de Payachata volcanic chain. Part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, its summit reaches an elevation of 6,380 metres (20,930 ft) above sea level. The symmetrical cone is capped by a summit crater with widths of 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) or 500 metres (1,600 ft). Farther down on the southern slopes lie three parasitic centres known as the Ajata cones. These cones have generated lava flows. The volcano overlies a platform formed by lava domes and andesitic lava flows.
Pomerape is a stratovolcano lying on the border of northern Chile and Bolivia. It is part of the Payachata complex of volcanoes, together with Parinacota Volcano to the south. The name "Payachata" means "twins" and refers to their appearance. It hosts glaciers down to elevations of 5,300–5,800 metres (17,400–19,000 ft), lower on the northern slope.
Huaynaputina is a stratovolcano in a volcanic upland in southern Peru. Part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andean Volcanic Belt, it is the product of the subduction of the oceanic Nazca tectonic plate beneath the continental part of the South American tectonic plate at a rate of 10.3 centimetres per year (4.1 in/year). Huaynaputina is a large volcanic crater, lacking an identifiable mountain profile, with an outer stratovolcano and three younger volcanic vents. The vents of Huaynaputina form a north-northwest–south-southeast trend.
Cerro Galán is a caldera in the Catamarca Province of Argentina. It is one of the largest exposed calderas in the world. It is part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, one out of several volcanic belts found in South America. It is one of several major caldera systems in the Central Volcanic Zone, some of which are grouped into the Altiplano–Puna volcanic complex.
Ampato is a dormant 6,288-metre (20,630 ft) stratovolcano in the Andes of southern Peru. It lies about 70–75 kilometres (43–47 mi) northwest of Arequipa and is part of a north-south chain that includes the volcanoes Hualca Hualca and Sabancaya, the last of which has been active in historical time.
Aucanquilcha(pronounced: OW-kahn-KEEL-chuh) is a massive stratovolcano located in the Antofagasta Region of northern Chile, just west of the border with Bolivia and within the Alto Loa National Reserve. Part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, the stratovolcano has the form of a ridge with a maximum height of 6,176 metres (20,262 ft). The volcano is embedded in a larger cluster of volcanoes known as the Aucanquilcha cluster. This cluster of volcanoes was formed in stages over eleven million years of activity with varying magma output, including lava domes and lava flows. Aucanquilcha volcano proper is formed from four units that erupted between 1.04–0.23 million years ago. During the ice ages, both the principal Aucanquilcha complex and the other volcanoes of the cluster were subject to glaciation, resulting in the formation of moraines and cirques.
Ollagüe or Ullawi is a massive andesite stratovolcano in the Andes on the border between Bolivia and Chile, within the Antofagasta Region of Chile and the Potosi Department of Bolivia. Part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, its highest summit is 5,868 metres (19,252 ft) above sea level and features a summit crater that opens to the south. The western rim of the summit crater is formed by a compound of lava domes, the youngest of which features a vigorous fumarole that is visible from afar.
Sollipulli is an ice-filled volcanic caldera and volcanic complex, which lies southeast of the small town of Melipeuco in the La Araucanía Region, Chile. It is part of the Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes, one of the four volcanic belts in the Andes chain.
Pichu Pichu or Picchu Picchu is an inactive eroded volcano in the Andes of Peru. It is located in the Arequipa Region, Arequipa Province, on the border of Pocsi and Tarucani districts. Pichu Pichu reaches a height of 5,664 metres (18,583 ft) and is part of Salinas and Aguada Blanca National Reserve.
Yucamane, Yucamani or Yucumane is an andesitic stratovolcano in the Tacna Region of southern Peru. It is part of the Peruvian segment of the Central Volcanic Zone, one of the three volcanic belts of the Andes generated by the subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South America plate. Peru's active volcanoes Ubinas, Sabancaya and El Misti are also part of the Central Volcanic Zone.
Solimana is a volcanic massif in the Andes of Peru, South America, that is approximately 6,093 metres (19,990 ft) high. It is considered an extinct stratovolcano that is part of the Central Volcanic Zone, one of the volcanic belts of the Andes. It features a caldera as well as traces of a sector collapse and subsequent erosion. The volcano is glaciated.
The magma supply rate measures the production rate of magma at a volcano. Global magma production rates on Earth are about 20–25 cubic kilometres per year (4.8–6.0 cu mi/a).
Coropuna is a dormant stratovolcano in the southern Peruvian Andes that lies within the Central Volcanic Zone. It has several summits, the highest of which reaches an altitude of 6,377 metres above sea level. The volcano is located 150 kilometres from the city of Arequipa and is mostly made of ignimbrites and lava flows on a basement formed by earlier ignimbrites and lava flows, some of which may have been formed by Coropuna itself. Coropuna has been active for at least five million years, with the bulk of the current cone having formed during the Quaternary. Coropuna has had two or three Holocene eruptions 2,100 ± 200 and either 1,100 ± 100 or 700 ± 200 years ago which generated lava flows, plus an additional eruption which may have taken place some 6,000 years ago. Current activity occurs exclusively in the form of hot springs.
Huambo volcanic field is a volcanic field in Peru. Andahua-Orcopampa lies north-northeast and Sabancaya east of Huambo, east of the Rio Colca. The town of Huambo lies between the two fields.
Sabancaya is an active 5,976-metre-high (19,606 ft) stratovolcano in the Andes of southern Peru, about 70 kilometres (43 mi) northwest of Arequipa. It is considered part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, one of the three distinct volcanic belts of the Andes. The Central Volcanic Zone includes a number of volcanoes, some of which like Huaynaputina have had large eruptions and others such as Sabancaya and Ubinas have been active in historical time. Sabancaya forms a volcanic complex together with Hualca Hualca to the north and Ampato to the south and has erupted andesite and dacite. It is covered by a small ice cap which leads to a risk of lahars during eruptions.
Tata Sabaya is a 5,430-metre (17,810 ft) high volcano in Bolivia. It is part of the Central Volcanic Zone, one of several volcanic belts in the Andes which are separated by gaps without volcanic activity. This section of the Andes was volcanically active since the Jurassic, with an episode of strong ignimbritic volcanism occurring during the Miocene. Tata Sabaya lies in a thinly populated region north of the Salar de Coipasa salt pan.
Tutupaca is a volcano in the region of Tacna in Peru. It is part of the Peruvian segment of the Central Volcanic Zone, one of several volcanic belts in the Andes. Tutupaca consists of three overlapping volcanoes formed by lava flows and lava domes made out of andesite and dacite, which grew on top of older volcanic rocks. The highest of these is usually reported to be 5,815 metres (19,078 ft) tall and was glaciated in the past.
Ticsani is a volcano in Peru. It consists of two volcanoes that form a complex: "old Ticsani", which is a compound volcano that underwent a large collapse in the past and shed 15–30 cubic kilometres (3.6–7.2 cu mi) of mass down the Rio Tambo valley; the other is a complex of three lava domes which were emplaced during the Holocene. The last eruption occurred after the 1600 eruption of neighbouring Huaynaputina.
Ubinas is a stratovolcano in the Moquegua Region of southern Peru, 60 kilometres (37 mi) east of the city of Arequipa. Part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, it is 5,672 metres (18,609 ft) above sea level. The volcano's summit is cut by a 1.4-kilometre (0.87 mi) wide and 150-metre (490 ft) deep caldera, which itself contains a smaller crater. Below the summit, Ubinas has the shape of an upwards-steepening cone with a prominent notch on the southern side. The gently sloping lower part of the volcano is also known as Ubinas I and the steeper upper part as Ubinas II; they represent different stages in the geologic history of Ubinas.
Chachani is a volcanic complex in southern Peru, 22 kilometres (14 mi) northwest of the city of Arequipa. Part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, it is 6,057 metres (19,872 ft) above sea level. It consists of several lava domes and individual volcanoes such as Nocarane, along with lava shields such as the Airport Domes. Underneath Chachani lies a caldera.
as Nevado Hualca Hualca