Hualca Hualca

Last updated
Hualca Hualca
Hualca Hualca.jpg
Highest point
Elevation 6,025 m (19,767 ft)
Coordinates 15°43′13″S71°51′38″W / 15.72028°S 71.86056°W / -15.72028; -71.86056 Coordinates: 15°43′13″S71°51′38″W / 15.72028°S 71.86056°W / -15.72028; -71.86056 [1]
Geography
Peru physical map.svg
Red triangle with thick white border.svg
Hualca Hualca
Location of Hualca Hualca in Peru.
Location Arequipa, Peru
Parent range Andes
Geology
Mountain type Stratovolcano
Volcanic arc/belt Central Volcanic Zone
Last eruption Unknown

Hualca Hualca [2] [3] (possibly from Aymara and Quechua wallqa collar) [4] [5] is an extinct volcano [2] in Arequipa Region in the Andes of Peru. It has a height of 6,025 metres. [3]

Hualca Hualca is part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, a volcanic belt which occurs where the Nazca Plate subducts beneath the South America Plate. Volcanoes in Peru that are part of the Central Volcanic Zone include Ampato, Casiri, Chachani, Coropuna, El Misti, Huaynaputina, Pichu Pichu, Sabancaya, Sara Sara, Solimana, Ticsani, Tutupaca, Ubinas and Yucamane. [6]

Hualca Hualca forms a volcanic complex with the two southerly volcanoes Sabancaya and Ampato. It is older (Pliocene-Pleistocene) and more heavily eroded than these two volcanoes; they are all constructed on Neogene ignimbrites, one of which was dated to 2.2 ± 1.5 million years ago. [7] The volcano has erupted andesitic lava flows; one series of such flows exceeds a thickness of 0.5 kilometres (0.31 mi). [8] Volcanic rocks of Hualca Hualca contain phenocrysts of biotite, clinopyroxene, hornblende, orthopyroxene, plagioclase and sphene. The magma probably originated through mixing processes, similar to Sabancaya. [2]

The northern flank of Hualca Hualca underwent a large sector collapse between 1.36 and 0.61 million years ago, [8] opening up a collapse amphitheatre [9] and forming a lake in the Colca valley which later catastrophically failed. [8] This lake has left lacustrine deposits in the Colca Valley. [10] Eruptions within the collapse amphitheatre generated lava flows which then formed volcanic dams in the Colca Valley. [11] Lava domes and pyroclastic flows also originated within the collapse scar. [2] Earthquakes and hydrothermal alteration probably caused the onset of the collapse event. [10]

The volcano was glaciated during the last ice age, between 18,000 and 11,500 years ago. [12] This glaciation has left moraines, rock glaciers and roches moutonees. [10] The glaciers on Hualca Hualca have retreated since then, one was reported to have disappeared by 2000. [13] Snowmelt and runoff from Hualca Hualca are sources of water for the Colca Canyon, supporting irrigated agriculture there; the mountain is worshipped by local inhabitants, who according to reports in 1586 believed that their ancestors come from it. [14]

Hualca Hualca is considered to be an extinct volcano; [6] however at least seven vents on its southwestern flank show evidence of Holocene activity. [10] Satellite images in the early 21st century found that Hualca Hualca is inflating from a depth of 13–11 kilometres (8.1–6.8 mi) at a rate of 2 centimetres per year (0.79 in/year). This deformation may be associated with the neighbouring volcano Sabancaya which is active; magma chambers of volcanoes are sometimes distant from the actual volcano as was the case with Katmai. [15] The inflation ceased after 1997. [16] At Pinchollo in the collapse scar three geysers were active in the past; one is still active as of 2013 and is named Infiernillo. [9]

See also

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Yucamane volcano in Peru

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Sabancaya Peruvian stratovolcano

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Tata Sabaya mountain

Tata Sabaya is a 5,430-metre (17,810 ft) high volcano in Bolivia. It is part of the Central Volcanic Zone, one of several volcanic belts in the Andes which are separated by gaps without volcanic activity. This section of the Andes was volcanically active since the Jurassic, with an episode of strong ignimbritic volcanism occurring during the Miocene. Tata Sabaya lies in a thinly populated region north of the Salar de Coipasa salt pan.

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Ticsani volcano in Peru

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Ubinas volcano in Peru

Ubinas is a stratovolcano in the Moquegua Region of southern Peru, 60 kilometres (37 mi) east of the city of Arequipa. Part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, it is 5,672 metres (18,609 ft) above sea level. The volcano's summit is cut by a 1.4-kilometre (0.87 mi) wide and 150-metre (490 ft) deep caldera, which itself contains a smaller crater. Below the summit, Ubinas has the shape of an upwards-steepening cone with a prominent notch on the southern side. The gently sloping lower part of the volcano is also known as Ubinas I and the steeper upper part as Ubinas II; they represent different stages in the geologic history of Ubinas.

Chachani volcano in Peru

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References

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  4. Radio San Gabriel, "Instituto Radiofonico de Promoción Aymara" (IRPA) 1993, Republicado por Instituto de las Lenguas y Literaturas Andinas-Amazónicas (ILLLA-A) 2011, Transcripción del Vocabulario de la Lengua Aymara, P. Ludovico Bertonio 1612 (Spanish-Aymara-Aymara-Spanish dictionary)
  5. Teofilo Laime Ajacopa, Diccionario Bilingüe Iskay simipi yuyayk'ancha, La Paz, 2007 (Quechua-Spanish dictionary)
  6. 1 2 Thouret, Jean-Claude; Rivera, Marco; Wörner, Gerhard; Gerbe, Marie-Christine; Finizola, Anthony; Fornari, Michel; Gonzales, Katherine (2005-07-01). "Ubinas: the evolution of the historically most active volcano in southern Peru" (PDF). Bulletin of Volcanology. 67 (6): 557–589. Bibcode:2005BVol...67..557T. doi:10.1007/s00445-004-0396-0. ISSN   0258-8900.
  7. Gerbe, Marie-Christine; Thouret, Jean-Claude (2004-08-01). "Role of magma mixing in the petrogenesis of tephra erupted during the 1990–98 explosive activity of Nevado Sabancaya, southern Peru". Bulletin of Volcanology. 66 (6): 541–561. doi:10.1007/s00445-004-0340-3. ISSN   0258-8900.
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