Panorama of the city
"Villa Rica de Oropesa"
|Founded||5 August 1572|
|Founded by||Francisco de Toledo|
|• Mayor||Rómulo Cayllahua Paytán|
|• Total||514.10 km2 (198.50 sq mi)|
|Elevation||3,676 m (12,060 ft)|
|• Density||96/km2 (250/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC-5 (PET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC-5 (PET)|
Huancavelica (Spanish pronunciation: [waŋkaβeˈlika] ( listen )) or Wankawilka in Quechua is a city in Peru. It is the capital of the department of Huancavelica and according to the 2017 census had a population of 49,570 people. The city was established on August 5, 1572 by the Viceroy of Peru Francisco de Toledo. Indigenous peoples represent a major percentage of the population. It has an approximate altitude of 3,676 meters; the climate is cold and dry between the months of February and August with a rainy season between September and January. It is considered one of the poorest cities in Peru.
The Huancavelica area features a rough geography with highly varied elevation, from 1,950 metres in the valleys to more than 5,000 metres on its snow-covered summits. These mountains contain metallic deposits. They consist of the western chain of the Andes, which includes the Chunta mountain range, formed by a series of hills, the most prominent of which are: Sitaq (5,328m), Wamanrasu (5,298m) and Altar (5,268m).
Among the rivers of the region there are the Mantaro, the Pampas, the Huarpa and the Churcampa. The Mantaro River penetrates Huancavelica, forming Tayacaja's Peninsula. Another river that shapes the relief is the Pampas River which is born in the lakes of the high mountains of Huancavelica, Chuqlluqucha and Urququcha.
At the time of Spanish conquest, Huancavelica was known as the Wankawillka region or "sacred stone". The city itself was established on August 5, 1572. The community has expanded throughout the region.
The deposits of Huancavelica were disclosed in 1564, or 1566, by the Indian Nahuincopa to his master Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera. The Spanish Crown appropriated them in 1570 and operated them until Peruvian independence in 1821. Considered the "greatest jewel in the crown", they eliminated the need to ship mercury from Almadén. A miners guild, Gremio de Mineros, administered the mines from 1577 until 1782. Production stopped from 1813 through 1835. In 1915 E.E. Fernandini took over ownership.
The area was the most prolific source of mercury in Spanish America, and as such was vital to the mining operations of the Spanish colonial era.Mercury was necessary to extract silver from the ores produced in the silver mines of Peru, as well as those of Potosí in Alto Perú ("Upper Perú," now Bolivia), using amalgamation processes such as the patio process or pan amalgamation. Mercury was so essential that mercury consumption was the basis upon which the tax on precious metals, known as the quinto real ("royal fifth"), was levied.
The extraction of the quicksilver in the socavones (tunnels) was extremely difficult. Every day before the miners came down, a mass for the dead was celebrated. Due to the need of numerous hand-workers and the high rate of mortality, the Viceroy of Peru Francisco de Toledo resumed and improved the pre-Columbian mandatory service of the mita. The allotted concession were rectangular, about 67x33m. Miners were divided in carreteros and barreteros.
Due to the discovery and then the extraction of the azogue (mercury) in a hill close to the actual location of the city, the Santa Barbara mine became famous in the new worldand its activity led to the Viceroy of Peru, Francisco de Toledo, to establish the city in 1572 with the name of Villa Rica de Oropesa.
In 1648 the Viceroy of Peru, declared that Potosí and Huancavelica were "the two pillars that support this kingdom and that of Spain." Moreover, the viceroy thought that Spain could, if necessary, dispense with the silver from Potosí, but it could not dispense with the mercury from Huancavelica.
In the modern times, due to different political and economical events, the city went through a period of decades of lack of progress from the rest of the country. Now, this situation appears to change due to the attention of the recent government administrations.[ citation needed ]
A 1977 recording of a wedding song sung by a young girl from this region was included on the Golden Record carried on board the Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 probes.
The principal ore mineral is cinnabar, which occurs within the Cretaceous Gran Farallón sandstones, and fractures found in the Jurassic Pucara and Cretaceous Machay limestones and igneous rocks. Other sulfide minerals occurring with these deposits include pyrite, arsenopyrite and realgar.
Caving became top to bottom in 1806 in order to avoid several disasters in previous years. The most infamous one being the Marroquin caving in 1786, which took the lives of over two hundred Indians.
Most of the quicksilver was produced from 1571 until 1790, amounting to more than 1,400,000 flasks.
Buses run from Huancavelica to Huancayo and Lima by a paved road. There is another road that connects it with the city of Pisco in the coast. Buses depart from the bus station on the west side of the city.
Huancavelica is serviced by a train which runs between it and Huancayo known as "el Tren Macho". According to popular saying, this train “leaves when it wants and arrives when it can...”.
In 2009, the line between the break-of-gauge at Huancayo to Huancavelica was being converted from 914 mm (3 ft) gauge to 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) gauge. By October 2010 it was finished and it is now in service.
Huancavelica is home of the local university, the National University of Huancavelica, which has branches in other cities in the region.The region is also home to the University for Andean Development (Universidad para el Desarrollo Andino) located in Lircay, which is a city one hour from Huancavelica. There are other technical institutes like the Technological High Institute (Instituto Superior Tecnologico) and the Instituto Superior Pedagogico.
The city has one hospital; the Hospital General, that serves the city and the nearby towns. Close to the hospital there is a clinic; the Policlinico EsSalud.
The city has monuments from the colonial era, most of them are churches in a number of eight, located in different parts of the city, of which the most important is the cathedral located at the main square. Another important site is the former Santa Barbara mine, located about three km. from the city on an ancient road that was famous during colonial times for the extraction of mercury.
The main sporting stadium is the IPD Stadium of Huancavelica. At 3,676 meters above sea level, it is one of the highest sporting stadiums in the world and has a capacity of 2,500 spectators.
This article describes the transport in Peru.
Antonio de Ulloa y de la Torre-Giralt, FRS, FRSA, KOS was a Spanish naval officer, scientist, and administrator. At the age of nineteen, he joined the French Geodesic Mission to what is now the country of Ecuador. That mission took more than eight years to complete its work, during which time Ulloa made many astronomical, natural, and social observations in South America. The reports of Ulloa's findings earned him an international reputation as a leading savant. Those reports include the first published observations of the metal platinum, later identified as a new chemical element. Ulloa was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1746, and as a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1751.
The Viceroyalty of Peru was a Spanish imperial provincial administrative district, created in 1542, that originally contained modern-day Peru and most of the Spanish Empire in South America, governed from the capital of Lima. Peru was one of the two Spanish Viceroyalties in the Americas from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries.
Almadén is a town and municipality in the Spanish province of Ciudad Real, within the autonomous community of Castile-La Mancha. The town is located at 4° 49' W and 38° 46' N and is 589 meters above sea level. Almadén is approximately 300 km south of Madrid in the Sierra Morena. The name Almadén is from the Arabic word المعدن al-maʻdin, meaning 'the metal.'
Huacho is a city in Peru, capital of the Huaura Province and capital of the Lima Region. Also is the most populated city of the Lima Region and Norte Chico. It is located 223 feet above sea level and 148 km north of the city of Lima. The city is located on the Pan-American Highway and it is close to the Lachay National Reserve, so it has extensive vegetation and wildlife.
Huancavelica is a department and region in Peru with an area of 22,131.47 km2 (8,545.01 sq mi) and a population of 347,639. The capital is the city Huancavelica. The region is bordered by the departments of Lima and Ica in the west, Junín in the north, and Ayacucho in the east.
Junín is a department and region in the central highlands and westernmost Peruvian Amazon. Its capital is Huancayo.
Almaden Valley, commonly known simply as Almaden, is a valley and neighborhood of San Jose, California, located in South San Jose. It is nestled between the Santa Teresa Hills to the east and the Santa Cruz Mountains to the west.
Huancayo is the capital of Junín Region, in the central highlands of Peru.
Jauja is a city and capital of Jauja Province in Peru. It is situated in the fertile Mantaro Valley, 45 kilometres (28 mi) to the northwest of Huancayo, at an altitude of 3,400 metres (11,200 ft). Its population in 2015 was 15,432.
The patio process is a process for extracting silver from ore. The process, which uses mercury amalgamation to recover silver from ore, was reportedly invented by Bartolomé de Medina in Pachuca, Mexico, in 1554. It replaced smelting as the primary method of extracting silver from ore at Spanish colonies in the Americas. Although some knowledge of amalgamation techniques were likely known since the classical era, it was in the New World that it was first used on a large industrial scale. Other amalgamation processes were later developed, importantly the pan amalgamation process, and its variant, the Washoe process. The silver separation process generally differed from gold parting and gold extraction, although amalgamation with mercury is also sometimes used to extract gold. While gold was often found in the Americas as a native metal or alloy, silver was often found as a compound such as silver chloride and silver sulphide, and therefore required mercury amalgamation for refinement.
The quinto real or the quinto del rey, the "King's fifth", was a 20% tax established in 1504 that Spain levied on the mining of precious metals. The tax was a major source of revenue for the Spanish monarchy. In 1723 the tax was reduced to 10%.
Francisco Álvarez de Toledo, also known as The Viceroyal Solon, was an aristocrat and soldier of the Kingdom of Spain and the fifth Viceroy of Peru. Often considered the "best of Peru's viceroys," he brought stability to a tumultuous viceroyalty of Spain and enacted administrative reforms which changed the character of Spanish rule and the relationship between the indigenous Native Americans of the Andes and their Spanish overlords. With a policy called reductions, Toledo forcibly relocated much of the Indian population of Peru and Bolivia into new settlements to facilitate Christianization, to collect tribute and taxes, and to gather Inca labor to work in mines and other Spanish enterprises.
Ferrocarril Central Andino (FCCA) is the consortium which operates the Ferrovías Central railway in Peru linking the Pacific port of Callao and the capital Lima with Huancayo and Cerro de Pasco. As one of the Trans-Andean Railways it is the second highest in the world constructed by the Polish engineer Ernest Malinowski in 1871–1876.
Doctor Diego Ladrón de Guevara Orozco Calderón was a Roman Catholic bishop and Spanish colonial administrator. From August 30, 1710 to March 2, 1716, he was viceroy of Peru.
The Mantaro River is a long river running through the central region of Peru. Its Quechua name means "great river". The word "Mantaro" may be a word originally from the Ashaninka language, who live downstream along the Ene River. The Mantaro, along with the Apurimac River, are the sources of the Amazon River, depending on the criteria used for definition.
Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera was a Spanish conquistador, early colonial governor over much of what today is northwestern Argentina, and founder of the city of Córdoba.
Francisco Pizarro and his fellow conquistadors from the rapidly growing Spanish Empire first arrived in the New World in 1524. But even before the arrival of the Europeans, the Inca Empire was floundering. Pizarro enjoyed stunning successes in his military campaign against the Incas, who, despite some resistance, were defeated and in 1538 the Spaniards completely defeated Inca forces near Lake Titicaca, allowing Spanish penetration into central and southern Bolivia.
Heritage of Mercury. Almadén and Idrija is a joint UNESCO World Heritage site in Almadén, Castile-La Mancha, Spain, and Idrija, Slovenia. The property encompasses two mercury mining sites. In Almadén mercury has been extracted since Antiquity, while in Idrija it was first found in 1490.
The Huancayo-Huancavelica Railway, also known as Tren Macho is a state-owned, non-electrified, single-track, 128.7 km long, standard gauge railway connecting the cities of Huancayo and Huancavelica in the central highlands of Peru. The railway is operated by the Peruvian Ministry of Transport and Communications (MTC) but is expected to be operated as a concession from the end of 2019.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Huancavelica .|
Bruno COLLIN, « L’argent du Potosi (Pérou) et les émissions monétaires françaises », Histoire et mesure, XVII - N° 3/4 - Monnaie et espace, mis en ligne le 30 octobre 2006, référence du 24 septembre 2007, disponible sur : http://histoiremesure.revues.org/document894.html.
Raul GUERRERO (Pau University, UA 911), La cartographie minière américaine. http://www.mgm.fr/PUB/Mappemonde/M488/m41_43.pdf