Huang Baitao

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Huang Baitao
Native name
黄百韬
Nickname(s)Huang the Bald
Born(1900-09-09)September 9, 1900
Tianjin, Hebei, Qing Empire
DiedNovember 22, 1948(1948-11-22) (aged 48)
Nianzhuang, Jiangsu, Republic of China
AllegianceFlag of the Republic of China.svg  China ( Emblem of the Kuomintang.svg Kuomintang)
Years of service1927–1948
Rank General First and Second Class rank insignia (ROC, NRA).jpg General
UnitJiangxi Provincial Army
Commands held25th Corps, 7th Army
Battles/wars New Fourth Army Incident, Battle of Zhejiang-Jiangxi, Huaihai Campaign
Awards Order of Blue Sky and White Sun

Huang Baitao (Chinese :黄百韬; 9 September 1900 – 22 November 1948) was a Chinese Nationalist general active in the Second Sino-Japanese War and Chinese Civil War, for which he was twice awarded the Order of Blue Sky and White Sun, the second highest military award in the Nationalist and then Republic of China military honors system.

Simplified Chinese characters Standardized Chinese characters developed in mainland China

Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are officially used in the People's Republic of China ,Malaysia and Singapore.

Kuomintang Political party in the Republic of China

The Kuomintang of China, also spelled as Guomindang and often alternatively translated as the Nationalist Party of China (NPC) or the Chinese Nationalist Party (CNP), is a major political party in the Republic of China based in Taipei that was founded in 1911. The KMT is currently an opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.

Second Sino-Japanese War military conflict between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from 1937 to 1945

The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945. It began with the Marco Polo Bridge Incident in 1937 in which a dispute between Japanese and Chinese troops escalated into a battle. Some sources in the modern People's Republic of China date the beginning of the war to the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931. It is known as the War of Resistance in China.

Contents

Early years and career

Huang's family was from Meixian, Guangdong but he was born in Tianjin. After a stint of serving in the units of various northern warlords, he joined to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek's forces during the Northern Expedition. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, he was promoted from a staff officer to command positions in regiment, brigade and division levels solely based on merit and attended the Chinese Army War College, and assigned as chief of staff of the third, six and ninth war zones, and he helped to plan the New Fourth Army Incident and wiped out a large numbers of communist troops. In 1946, when the Chinese Civil War restarted he was promoted to command the 25th corps.

Guangdong Most populous province of the Peoples Republic of China

Guangdong is a coastal province in South China on the north shore of South China Sea. Its capital of the province is Guangzhou. With a population of 113.46 million across a total area of about 179,800 km2 (69,400 sq mi), Guangdong is the most populous province of China and the 15th-largest by area. Its economy is larger than that of any other province in the nation and the 6th largest sub-national economy in the world with a GDP size of 1.47 trillion US dollars in 2018. The Pearl River Delta Economic Zone, a Chinese megalopolis, is a core for high technology, manufacturing and foreign trade. Located in this zone, are two of the four top Chinese cities, and the top two Chinese prefecture-level cities by GDP; Guangzhou, the capital of the province, and Shenzhen, the first special economic zone in the country. These two are among the most populous and important cities in China, and have now become two of the world's most populous megacities.

Tianjin Municipality in Peoples Republic of China

Tianjin, alternatively romanized as Tientsin, is a municipality and a coastal metropolis in Northern China on the shore of Bohai Sea, it is one of the nine national central cities in Mainland China, with a total population of 15,621,200 as of 2016 estimation. Its built-up area, made up of 12 central districts, was home to 12,491,300 inhabitants in 2016 and is also the world's 29th-largest agglomeration and 11th-most populous city proper.

Chiang Kai-shek Chinese politician and military leader

Chiang Kai-shek, also known as Generalissimo Chiang or Chiang Chungcheng and romanized as Chiang Chieh-shih or Jiang Jieshi, was a Chinese nationalist politician, revolutionary and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975, first in mainland China until 1949 and then in Taiwan until his death.

Rise to fame

In December 1947, Huang helped the nationalist army to evacuate from the Shandong province, and stopped the Communist advances led by Su Yu at Central China in the Eastern Henan Campaign around the summer of 1948. His actions helped to save two KMT units from destruction. President Chiang Kai-shek decorated him with the Order of Blue Sky and White Sun and promoted him to command the 7th army. However, his promotion did not suit well with other nationalist commanders, notably Lieutenant General Qiu Qingquan, commander of 5th corps, and Communist moles in the KMT army spread rumors so their working relationship were very tense.

Su Yu Chinese general

Su Yu was a Chinese military commander, general of the People's Liberation Army. He was considered by Mao Zedong to be among the best commanders of the PLA, only next to Lin Biao and Liu Bocheng. Su Yu fought in the Second Sino-Japanese War and in the Chinese Civil War. He commanded the East China Field Army during the Chinese Civil War; notably, he captured Shanghai.

Qiu Qingquan Chinese general

Qiu Qinquan was a ROC Army general who excelled himself in Northern Expedition, anti-communist Encirclement Campaigns, Second Sino-Japanese War, and Chinese Civil War. In the Huaihai Campaign, which was determining battle of the Chinese Civil War, he failed to save General Huang Baitao's 7th corps and later committed suicide on the battlefield.

Huaihai Campaign and death

On November 8, 1948, the Huaihai Campaign was about to start, so the nationalist department of defense decided to withdrew the 7th army and the 6th army from northern Jiangsu province to the nationalist military headquarters in Xuzhou. Huang was ordered to wait for another KMT corps (44th corps) to arrive from the 9th pacification zone in Haizhou (海州) before he can travel across the Grand Canal, precious time of 2 days were wasted. He also made the crucial mistake of not securing a bridgehead on the grand canal, and the 320,000 communist soldiers of the Eastern China Field Army under Su Yu caught up with him, and the 63rd corps under his command were wiped out of the 7th army's order of battle while trying route to cross the grand canal at Yaowan (窑湾) after finishing the rearguard duties. On the same day (November 8, 1948), as Huang continued to retreat toward Xuzhou, Communist underground members of the 3rd pacification zone suddenly revolted on the battlefield, surrendering 23,000 troops to the communist forces. The nationalist headquarters in Xuzhou under Liu Zhi panicked and ordered the 13th army under Lieutenant General Li Mi, which was defending the east side of Xuzhou, to retreat to back to Xuzhou. Those developments allowed the communist forces to completely cut off Huang's 7th army from the rest of the nationalist forces by taking Caobaji (曹八集) and Daxujia (大许家) vacated by Li Mi's 13th army. Chiang Kai-shek ordered the KMT 2nd army and 13th army to relieve the 7th army; But Lieutenant General Qiu Qingquan, commander of the 2nd army, was not eager to save his beleaguered colleague because of their previous feuds and feared the Communists might encircle his unit as well. Li Mi did try but his relieve efforts were beaten back by the communist forces despite the support of the planes and tanks thus equally unsuccessful in saving the 7th Army. After 15 days of brutal fighting, the 7th army was destroyed in Nianzhuang (碾庄) village, only 20 miles from Xuzhou. On the night of November 22, 1948, Huang Baitao committed suicide after he successfully broke out from his army headquarters with his deputy commander of the 25th corps, who smuggled his body and personal belongings through the communist security checkpoints. Since Huang Baitao was one of the few KMT army commanders who chose death rather than being taken prisoner by the Communists, President Chiang Kai-shek personally arranged a state funeral for him. The Nationalist Government posthumously promoted him to four-star general and awarded him with second Order of Blue Sky and White Sun. When the People's Liberation Army approached on Nanjing in the summer of 1949, the survivors of the 7th army transferred his remains to Taiwan.

New 6th Army was a Chinese combat command involved in the Burma Campaign of World War II, and later, the Chinese Civil War.

Grand Canal (China) longest canal or artificial river in the world

The Grand Canal, known to the Chinese as the Jing–Hang Grand Canal, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the longest as well as the oldest canal or artificial river in the world. Starting at Beijing, it passes through Tianjin and the provinces of Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu and Zhejiang to the city of Hangzhou, linking the Yellow River and Yangtze River. The oldest parts of the canal date back to the 5th century BC, but the various sections were first connected during the Sui dynasty. Dynasties in 1271–1633 significantly rebuilt the canal and altered its route to supply their capital Beijing.

In modern use, the order of battle of an armed force participating in a military operation or campaign shows the hierarchical organization, command structure, strength, disposition of personnel, and equipment of units and formations of the armed force. Various abbreviations are in use, including OOB, O/B, or OB, while ORBAT remains the most common in the United Kingdom. An order of battle should be distinguished from a table of organisation, which is the intended composition of a given unit or formation according to the military doctrine of its armed force. As combat operations develop during a campaign, orders of battle may be revised and altered in response to the military needs and challenges. Also the known details of an order of battle may change during the course of executing the commanders' after action reports and/or other accounting methods as combat assessment is conducted.

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