Huang Baitao

Last updated

Huang Baitao
Native name
Nickname(s)Huang the Bald
Born(1900-09-09)September 9, 1900
Tianjin, Hebei, Qing Empire
DiedNovember 22, 1948(1948-11-22) (aged 48)
Nianzhuang, Jiangsu, Republic of China
AllegianceFlag of the Republic of China.svg  China ( Emblem of the Kuomintang.svg Kuomintang)
Years of service1927–1948
Rank General First and Second Class rank insignia (ROC, NRA).jpg General
UnitJiangxi Provincial Army
Commands held25th Corps, 7th Army
Battles/wars New Fourth Army Incident, Battle of Zhejiang-Jiangxi, Huaihai Campaign
Awards Order of Blue Sky and White Sun

Huang Baitao (Chinese :黄百韬; 9 September 1900 – 22 November 1948) was a Chinese Nationalist general active in the Second Sino-Japanese War and Chinese Civil War, for which he was twice awarded the Order of Blue Sky and White Sun, the second highest military award in the Nationalist and then Republic of China military honors system.

Simplified Chinese characters Standardized Chinese characters developed in mainland China

Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are officially used in the People's Republic of China ,Malaysia and Singapore.

Kuomintang Political party in the Republic of China

The Kuomintang of China, also spelled as Guomindang and often alternatively translated as the Nationalist Party of China (NPC) or the Chinese Nationalist Party (CNP), is a major political party in the Republic of China based in Taipei that was founded in 1911. The KMT is currently an opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.

Second Sino-Japanese War military conflict between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from 1937 to 1945

The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945. It began with the Marco Polo Bridge Incident in 1937 in which a dispute between Japanese and Chinese troops escalated into a battle. Some sources in the modern People's Republic of China date the beginning of the war to the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931. It is known as the War of Resistance in China.


Early years and career

Huang's family was from Meixian, Guangdong but he was born in Tianjin. After a stint of serving in the units of various northern warlords, he joined to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek's forces during the Northern Expedition. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, he was promoted from a staff officer to command positions in regiment, brigade and division levels solely based on merit and attended the Chinese Army War College, and assigned as chief of staff of the third, six and ninth war zones, and he helped to plan the New Fourth Army Incident and wiped out a large numbers of communist troops. In 1946, when the Chinese Civil War restarted he was promoted to command the 25th corps.

Guangdong Most populous province of the Peoples Republic of China

Guangdong is a coastal province in South China on the north shore of South China Sea. Its capital of the province is Guangzhou. With a population of 113.46 million across a total area of about 179,800 km2 (69,400 sq mi), Guangdong is the most populous province of China and the 15th-largest by area. Its economy is larger than that of any other province in the nation and the 6th largest sub-national economy in the world with a GDP size of 1.47 trillion US dollars in 2018. The Pearl River Delta Economic Zone, a Chinese megalopolis, is a core for high technology, manufacturing and foreign trade. Located in this zone, are two of the four top Chinese cities, and the top two Chinese prefecture-level cities by GDP; Guangzhou, the capital of the province, and Shenzhen, the first special economic zone in the country. These two are among the most populous and important cities in China, and have now become two of the world's most populous megacities.

Tianjin Municipality in Peoples Republic of China

Tianjin, alternatively romanized as Tientsin, is a municipality and a coastal metropolis in Northern China on the shore of Bohai Sea, it is one of the nine national central cities in Mainland China, with a total population of 15,621,200 as of 2016 estimation. Its built-up area, made up of 12 central districts, was home to 12,491,300 inhabitants in 2016 and is also the world's 29th-largest agglomeration and 11th-most populous city proper.

Chiang Kai-shek Chinese politician and military leader

Chiang Kai-shek, also known as Generalissimo Chiang or Chiang Chungcheng and romanized as Chiang Chieh-shih or Jiang Jieshi, was a Chinese nationalist politician, revolutionary and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975, first in mainland China until 1949 and then in Taiwan until his death.

Rise to fame

In December 1947, Huang helped the nationalist army to evacuate from the Shandong province, and stopped the Communist advances led by Su Yu at Central China in the Eastern Henan Campaign around the summer of 1948. His actions helped to save two KMT units from destruction. President Chiang Kai-shek decorated him with the Order of Blue Sky and White Sun and promoted him to command the 7th army. However, his promotion did not suit well with other nationalist commanders, notably Lieutenant General Qiu Qingquan, commander of 5th corps, and Communist moles in the KMT army spread rumors so their working relationship were very tense.

Su Yu Chinese general

Su Yu was a Chinese military commander, general of the People's Liberation Army. He was considered by Mao Zedong to be among the best commanders of the PLA, only next to Lin Biao and Liu Bocheng. Su Yu fought in the Second Sino-Japanese War and in the Chinese Civil War. He commanded the East China Field Army during the Chinese Civil War; notably, he captured Shanghai.

Qiu Qingquan Chinese general

Qiu Qinquan was a ROC Army general who excelled himself in Northern Expedition, anti-communist Encirclement Campaigns, Second Sino-Japanese War, and Chinese Civil War. In the Huaihai Campaign, which was determining battle of the Chinese Civil War, he failed to save General Huang Baitao's 7th corps and later committed suicide on the battlefield.

Huaihai Campaign and death

On November 8, 1948, the Huaihai Campaign was about to start, so the nationalist department of defense decided to withdrew the 7th army and the 6th army from northern Jiangsu province to the nationalist military headquarters in Xuzhou. Huang was ordered to wait for another KMT corps (44th corps) to arrive from the 9th pacification zone in Haizhou (海州) before he can travel across the Grand Canal, precious time of 2 days were wasted. He also made the crucial mistake of not securing a bridgehead on the grand canal, and the 320,000 communist soldiers of the Eastern China Field Army under Su Yu caught up with him, and the 63rd corps under his command were wiped out of the 7th army's order of battle while trying route to cross the grand canal at Yaowan (窑湾) after finishing the rearguard duties. On the same day (November 8, 1948), as Huang continued to retreat toward Xuzhou, Communist underground members of the 3rd pacification zone suddenly revolted on the battlefield, surrendering 23,000 troops to the communist forces. The nationalist headquarters in Xuzhou under Liu Zhi panicked and ordered the 13th army under Lieutenant General Li Mi, which was defending the east side of Xuzhou, to retreat to back to Xuzhou. Those developments allowed the communist forces to completely cut off Huang's 7th army from the rest of the nationalist forces by taking Caobaji (曹八集) and Daxujia (大许家) vacated by Li Mi's 13th army. Chiang Kai-shek ordered the KMT 2nd army and 13th army to relieve the 7th army; But Lieutenant General Qiu Qingquan, commander of the 2nd army, was not eager to save his beleaguered colleague because of their previous feuds and feared the Communists might encircle his unit as well. Li Mi did try but his relieve efforts were beaten back by the communist forces despite the support of the planes and tanks thus equally unsuccessful in saving the 7th Army. After 15 days of brutal fighting, the 7th army was destroyed in Nianzhuang (碾庄) village, only 20 miles from Xuzhou. On the night of November 22, 1948, Huang Baitao committed suicide after he successfully broke out from his army headquarters with his deputy commander of the 25th corps, who smuggled his body and personal belongings through the communist security checkpoints. Since Huang Baitao was one of the few KMT army commanders who chose death rather than being taken prisoner by the Communists, President Chiang Kai-shek personally arranged a state funeral for him. The Nationalist Government posthumously promoted him to four-star general and awarded him with second Order of Blue Sky and White Sun. When the People's Liberation Army approached on Nanjing in the summer of 1949, the survivors of the 7th army transferred his remains to Taiwan.

New 6th Army was a Chinese combat command involved in the Burma Campaign of World War II, and later, the Chinese Civil War.

Grand Canal (China) longest canal or artificial river in the world

The Grand Canal, known to the Chinese as the Jing–Hang Grand Canal, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the longest as well as the oldest canal or artificial river in the world. Starting at Beijing, it passes through Tianjin and the provinces of Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu and Zhejiang to the city of Hangzhou, linking the Yellow River and Yangtze River. The oldest parts of the canal date back to the 5th century BC, but the various sections were first connected during the Sui dynasty. Dynasties in 1271–1633 significantly rebuilt the canal and altered its route to supply their capital Beijing.

In modern use, the order of battle of an armed force participating in a military operation or campaign shows the hierarchical organization, command structure, strength, disposition of personnel, and equipment of units and formations of the armed force. Various abbreviations are in use, including OOB, O/B, or OB, while ORBAT remains the most common in the United Kingdom. An order of battle should be distinguished from a table of organisation, which is the intended composition of a given unit or formation according to the military doctrine of its armed force. As combat operations develop during a campaign, orders of battle may be revised and altered in response to the military needs and challenges. Also the known details of an order of battle may change during the course of executing the commanders' after action reports and/or other accounting methods as combat assessment is conducted.

Related Research Articles

Li Zongren Chinese military commander, former vice-president and acting president of ROC

Li Zongren or Li Tsung-jen, courtesy name Delin, was a prominent Guangxi warlord and Kuomintang (KMT) military commander during the Northern Expedition, Second Sino-Japanese War and Chinese Civil War. He served as vice-president and acting President of the Republic of China under the 1947 Constitution.

Liu Zhi (ROC) Republic of China general and politician

Liu Zhi was a prominent Kuomintang military and political leader in the Republic of China.

Du Yuming Chinese general

Du Yuming was a Kuomintang field commander. He was a graduate of the first class of Whampoa Academy, took part in Chiang's Northern Expedition, and was active in southern China and in the Burma theatre of the Sino-Japanese War. After the Japanese surrendered in 1945, he was an important commander in the Chinese Civil War.

New 1st Army Chinese Military Formation

New 1st Army was reputed as the most elite Chinese military unit of the Kuomintang. Nicknamed the "1st [Best] Army Under the Heaven" during the Chinese Civil War, it caused the most Japanese Army casualties during the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945).

Xue Yue Chinese general

Xue Yue was a Chinese Nationalist military general, nicknamed by Claire Lee Chennault of the Flying Tigers as the "Patton of Asia" and called the "God of War" (戰神) by the Chinese.

Gu Zhutong Chinese general, administrator

Gu Zhutong, courtesy name Moshan (墨山), was a military general and administrator of the Republic of China.

Huaihai campaign military campaign

The Huaihai campaign, or Battle of Hsupeng, was one of the military conflicts in the late stage of the Chinese Civil War between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party of China. The campaign started when the People's Liberation Army (PLA) launched a major offensive against the Kuomintang headquarter in Xuzhou on 6 November 1948, and ended on 10 January 1949 when the PLA reached the north of the Yangtze.

Wei Lihuang Chinese military officer

Wei Lihuang was a Chinese general who served the Nationalist government throughout the Chinese Civil War and Second Sino-Japanese War as one of China's most successful military commanders.

Zhang Fakui Chinese general

Zhang FakuiCBE was a Chinese Nationalist general who fought against northern warlords, the Imperial Japanese Army and Chinese Communist forces in his military career. He served as commander-in-chief of the 8th Army Group and commander-in-chief of NRA ground force before retiring in Hong Kong in 1949.

Pang Bingxun Chinese general

Pang Bingxun was a high-ranking nationalist military commander who fought against the Imperial Japanese Army and Chinese Communist Army. He stopped the IJA 5th Division led by General Seishirō Itagaki, one of the principal architects of the 1931 Manchurian incident, from capturing Linyi and converging with General Rensuke Isogai's IJA 10th Division at Tai'erzhuang District, foiling their plan to assault Xuzhou.

Second United Front united front

The Second United Front was the alliance between the Chinese Nationalist Party and Communist Party of China (CPC) to resist the Japanese invasion during the Second Sino-Japanese War, which suspended the Chinese Civil War from 1937 to 1941.

Shuangduiji campaign

The Battle of Shuangduiji (双堆集战役) was a major campaign fought between the nationalists and the communists during the Chinese Civil War in the post-World War II era, resulting in a communist victory. The campaign was part of the Huaihai campaign.

Wang Yaowu Chinese general

Wang Yaowu was a high-ranking KMT general and the Governor of Shandong Province who successfully fought against both the Imperial Japanese Army and the Chinese Communists. In September 1948 Communist forces launched the Battle of Jinan and Wang was captured and held as a prisoner of war until his pardon in 1959. During the Cultural Revolution he came under attack by the Red Guards for being a former nationalist commander and died of a heart attack in 1968.

Liu Yuzhang Chinese general

Liu Yuzhang, nicknamed the bald general, was a well-known Chinese (Kuomintang) general. He was one of the very few KMT commanders who could defeat both the Imperial Japanese Army and Communist PLA in the Second Sino-Japanese War and Chinese Civil War, respectively.

Huang Wei was a Chinese Nationalist military general who fought in the Encirclement Campaigns, Second Sino-Japanese War and Chinese Civil War.

Li Mi (Republic of China general) Chinese general

Li Mi was a high-ranking Nationalist general who participated in the anti-Communist Encirclement Campaigns, Second Sino-Japanese War and Chinese Civil War. He was one of the few Kuomintang commanders to achieve notable victories against both Chinese Communist forces and the Imperial Japanese Army. Following the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, he withdrew his forces to Burma and Thailand, where he continued to carry out guerrilla raids into Communist-held territory.

On June 29, 1948, the Xuzhou Command Headquarters of Republic of China Army reorganized as General Suppression Headquarters of Xuzhou Garrison. Liu Zhi headed as the commander in chief, Du Yuming, Li Yannian, Feng Zhi'an, Liu Ruming, Han Deqin, Sun Zhen as Deputy Commanders in Chief, and Li Su-Cheng served as the Chief of Staff. In the beginning of Hsuchow-Bengbu Campaign, GHQ Xuzhou Garrison commanded, with six armies and three pacification zones under its operational jurisdiction, a total of about 800,000 ground troops. Xuzhou Garrison also owned a considerable number of elements of ROC Air Forces stationed in Nanjing, Xuzhou, Bengbu: either under the direct command of GHQ Xuzhou Garrison, or controlled straight through the mobilization of the Air Force Command authority.

Zhang Lingfu Chinese general

Zhang Lingfu was a high-ranking general of the Chinese National Revolutionary Army. He successfully fought against the Communists and the Imperial Japanese Army. In 1947, his unit was surrounded by Chinese communist forces commanded by Field Marshal Chen Yi and General Su Yu. Zhang was unable to breakout from the communist encirclement because the relief efforts headed by his nationalist colleagues did not arrive on time, and he was killed in action in the Menglianggu Campaign on May 16, 1947.

Liao Yaoxiang National Revolutionary Army general

Liao Yiaoxiang, was a high-ranking Kuomintang commander who successful fought against both the Imperial Japanese Army and Chinese Communist forces. Apart from General Sun Liren, he was one of the few Nationalist commanders who graduated from a military academy in the West. After the end of the Second Sino-Japanese War, he served as a field commander in Manchuria until his capture by Marshal Lin Biao's Manchurian Field Army in the Liaoshen Campaign. General Liao was held for 12 years as a prisoner of war until 1961 and died seven years later during the Cultural Revolution.