Hubert Robert

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Hubert Robert
Elisabeth-Louise Vigee-Le Brun - Hubert Robert (1788).jpg
Hubert Robert by Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun (Louvre)
Born22 May 1733
Died15 April 1808(1808-04-15) (aged 74)

Hubert Robert (22 May 1733 – 15 April 1808) was a French painter, noted for his landscape paintings and capricci, or semi-fictitious picturesque depictions of ruins in Italy and of France. [1]

Painting Practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a surface

Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface. The medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush, but other implements, such as knives, sponges, and airbrushes, can be used. The final work is also called a painting.

Capriccio (art) architectural fantasy in painting

In painting, a capriccio means an architectural fantasy, placing together buildings, archaeological ruins and other architectural elements in fictional and often fantastical combinations. These painting may also include staffage (figures). Capriccio falls under the more general term of landscape painting. The term is also used for other artworks with an element of fantasy. This style of painting was introduced in the Renaissance and continued into the Baroque.



Early years

The Artist's Studio, 1760, Stadelsches Kunstinstitut 1760 Robert Das Atelier des Kunstlers anagoria.JPG
The Artist's Studio, 1760, Städelsches Kunstinstitut

Hubert Robert was born in Paris in 1733. His father, Nicolas Robert, was in the service of François-Joseph de Choiseul, marquis de Stainville a leading diplomat from Lorraine. Young Robert finished his studies with the Jesuits at the Collège de Navarre in 1751 and entered the atelier of the sculptor Michel-Ange Slodtz who taught him design and perspective but encouraged him to turn to painting. In 1754 he left for Rome in the train of Étienne-François de Choiseul, son of his father's employer, who had been named French ambassador and would become a Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs to Louis XV in 1758.

François Joseph de Choiseul, marquis de Stainville (1700–1770) was a diplomat and courtier in the service of the Dukes of Lorraine.

Diplomat person appointed by a state to conduct diplomacy with another state or international organization

A diplomat is a person appointed by a state to conduct diplomacy with one or more other states or international organizations. The main functions of diplomats are: representation and protection of the interests and nationals of the sending state; initiation and facilitation of strategic agreements; treaties and conventions; promotion of information; trade and commerce; technology; and friendly relations. Seasoned diplomats of international repute are used in international organizations as well as multinational companies for their experience in management and negotiating skills. Diplomats are members of foreign services and diplomatic corps of various nations of the world.

Duchy of Lorraine former state

The Duchy of Lorraine, originally Upper Lorraine, was a duchy now included in the larger present-day region of Lorraine in northeastern France. Its capital was Nancy.

In Rome

The Ponte Salario, c. 1775, National Gallery of Art Hubert Robert, The Ponte Salario, c. 1775, NGA 41665.jpg
The Ponte Salario, c. 1775, National Gallery of Art

He spent fully eleven years in Rome, a remarkable length of time; after the young artist's official residence at the French Academy in Rome ran out, he supported himself by works he produced for visiting connoisseurs like the abbé de Saint-Non, who took Robert to Naples in April 1760 to visit the ruins of Pompeii. The marquis de Marigny, director of the Bâtiments du Roi kept abreast of his development in correspondence with Natoire, director of the French Academy, who urged the pensionnaires to sketch out-of-doors, from nature: Robert needed no urging; drawings from his sketchbooks document his travels: Villa d'Este, Caprarola.

French Academy in Rome

The French Academy in Rome is an Academy located in the Villa Medici, within the Villa Borghese, on the Pincio in Rome, Italy.

Jean-Claude Richard French painter

Jean-Claude Richard de Saint-Non was a French painter and engraver. He was born and died in Paris. He is often rather misleadingly known as the "Abbé de Saint-Non"; although intended for the church by his family, he never took more than minor orders. He was a pioneer of the aquatint technique in printmaking.

Pompeii Ancient Roman city near modern Naples, Italy

Pompeii was an ancient Roman city near modern Naples in the Campania region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei. Pompeii, along with Herculaneum and many villas in the surrounding area, was buried under 4 to 6 m of volcanic ash and pumice in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79. Volcanic ash typically buried inhabitants who did not escape the lethal effects of the earthquake and eruption.

View of the Port of Rippeta in Rome, c. 1766, showing the Ancient Roman Pantheon next to an imaginary port Hubert Robert - View of Ripetta - WGA19603.jpg
View of the Port of Rippeta in Rome, c. 1766, showing the Ancient Roman Pantheon next to an imaginary port

The contrast between the ruins of ancient Rome and the life of his time excited his keenest interest. He worked for a time in the studio of Pannini, whose influence can be seen in the Vue imaginaire de la galerie du Louvre en ruine (illustration). Robert spent his time in the company of young artists in the circle of Piranesi, whose capricci of romantically overgrown ruins influenced him so greatly that he gained the nickname Robert des ruines. [2] The albums of sketches and drawings he assembled in Rome supplied him with motifs that he worked into paintings throughout his career. [3]

Ancient Rome History of Rome from the 8th-century BC to the 5th-century

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, conventionally founded in 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed. The Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants ) and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117.

Giovanni Battista Piranesi Italian painter

Giovanni BattistaPiranesi was an Italian artist famous for his etchings of Rome and of fictitious and atmospheric "prisons". He was the father of Francesco Piranesi and Laura Piranesi.

In Paris

His success on his return to Paris in 1765 was rapid: the following year he was received by the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture, with a Roman capriccio, The Port of Rome, ornamented with different Monuments of Architecture, Ancient and Modern. [4] Robert's first exhibition at the Salon of 1767, consisting of thirteen paintings and a number of drawings, prompted Denis Diderot to write: "The ideas which the ruins awake in me are grand." Robert subsequently showed work at every Salon until 1802. [5] He was successively appointed "Designer of the King's Gardens", "Keeper of the King's Pictures" and "Keeper of the Museum and Councilor to the Academy". [6]

Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture academy that sought to professionalize the artists working for the French court

The Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, Paris, was the premier art institution in France in the eighteenth century.

Denis Diderot French Enlightenment philosopher and encyclopædist

Denis Diderot was a French philosopher, art critic, and writer, best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor, and contributor to the Encyclopédie along with Jean le Rond d'Alembert. He was a prominent figure during the Enlightenment.

1796 painting by Robert showing a design for the Grand Gallery of the Louvre Museum in Paris Hubert Robert - Projet d'amenagement de la Grande Galerie du Louvre (1796).JPG
1796 painting by Robert showing a design for the Grand Gallery of the Louvre Museum in Paris

Robert was arrested in October 1793, during the French Revolution. [7] During the ten months of his detention at Sainte-Pélagie and Saint-Lazare he made many drawings, painted at least 53 canvases, and painted numerous vignettes of prison life on plates. [5] He was freed one week after the fall of Robespierre. [8] Robert narrowly escaped the guillotine when through error another prisoner died in his place.[ citation needed ]

French Revolution Revolution in France, 1789 to 1798

The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history.

Guillotine Apparatus designed for carrying out executions by beheading

A guillotine is an apparatus designed for efficiently carrying out executions by beheading. The device consists of a tall, upright frame in which a weighted and angled blade is raised to the top and suspended. The condemned person is secured with stocks at the bottom of the frame, positioning the neck directly below the blade. The blade is then released, to quickly fall and forcefully decapitate the victim with a single, clean pass so that the head falls into a basket below.

Subsequently, he was placed on the committee of five in charge of the new national museum at the Palais du Louvre.

The Revolution also resulted in the destruction of some of Robert's work. Robert had designed the decorations for a little theatre in the new wing at the location of the current staircase Gabriel in the Palace of Versailles. Designed to seat about 500, this theatre was built from the summer of 1785 and opened in early 1786. It was intended to serve as an ordinary court theatre, replacing the Theatre of the Princes Court which was too old and too small, but was destroyed during the time of Louis Philippe. A watercolour of Robert's design is in the National Archives in Paris. [9]

Robert died of a stroke on 15 April 1808.

Style and legacy

Imaginary view of the Gallery of the Louvre as a Ruin, Salon of 1796 (Louvre) Louvre-peinture-francaise-p1020324.jpg
Imaginary view of the Gallery of the Louvre as a Ruin, Salon of 1796 (Louvre)

The quantity of his work is immense, comprising perhaps one thousand paintings and ten thousand drawings. [5] The Louvre alone contains nine paintings by his hand and specimens are frequently to be met with in provincial museums and private collections. Robert's work has more or less of that scenic character which justified his selection by Voltaire to paint the decorations of his theatre at Ferney.

His work was much engraved by the abbé de Saint-Non, with whom he had visited Naples in the company of Fragonard during his early days; in Italy his work has also been frequently reproduced by Chatelain, Linard, Le Veau, and others.

He is noted for the liveliness and point with which he treated the subjects he painted. Along with this incessant activity as an artist, his daring character and many adventures attracted general admiration and sympathy. In the fourth canto of his L'Imagination Jacques Delille celebrated Robert's miraculous escape when lost in the catacombs.

Robert and picturesque gardens

Enterprising and prolific, Robert also acted in a role similar to that of a modern-day art director, conceptualizing fashionably dilapidated gardens for several aristocratic clients, summarized by his possible intervention at Ermenonville; there he would have been working with the architect Morel for the marquis de Girardin, who was the author of Compositions des paysages (1777) and had distinct views of his own. In 1786 he began his better documented [10] collaboration at Méréville, with his most significant patron, the financier Jean-Joseph de Laborde, who found François-Joseph Bélanger's plans too expensive and perhaps too formal.

A Hermit Praying in the Ruins of a Roman Temple Hubert Robert (French - A Hermit Praying in the Ruins of a Roman Temple - Google Art Project.jpg
A Hermit Praying in the Ruins of a Roman Temple

Though documents are again lacking, Hubert Robert's name is invariably invoked in connection with Marie Antoinette's 'premier architecte' Richard Mique through several phases of the creation of an informal landscape garden at the Petit Trianon, and the setting of the petit hameau . Robert's contribution to garden design was not in making practical ground plans for improvements but in providing atmospheric inspiration for the proposed effect. [11] At Ermenonville and at Méréville "Hubert Robert's paintings both recorded and inspired", according to W.H. Adams: [12] Robert's four large ruin fantasies, painted in 1787 for Méréville [13] may be searched in vain for direct connections with the garden. Hubert's paintings of the Moulin Joly of his friend Claude-Henri Watelet render the fully-grown atmosphere of a garden that had been under way since 1754. His set of six Italianate landscape panels painted for Bagatelle [14] were not the inspiration for the formal turfed parterre set in the thinned woodlands, designed by Bélanger; the later picturesque extensions of Bagatelle were carried out by its Scottish gardener, William Blaikie. [15] Robert's commissioned painting of the long-delayed rejuvenation of the park at Versailles, begun in 1774 with the cutting down of the trees for sale as firewood, is a record of the event, resonant with allegorical meaning. [16] Robert was more certainly responsible for the conception of the grotto and cascades of the 'Baths of Apollo,' tucked within a grove of the chateau's park and built to house François Girardon's celebrated sculpture group Apollo Attended by Nymphs.

References, notes and sources

References and notes
  1. Jean de Cayeux. "Robert, Hubert." Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Oxford University Press. Web. 13 Jan. 2017
  2. Robert possessed no fewer than twenty-five of Pannini's canvases. (Jean Cailleux, "Introduction to the Method of Hubert Robert"The Burlington Magazine109 No. 767 (February 1967), p. i.
  3. Sarah Catala, "La matérialité fonctionnelle, Quelques refléxions sur les pratiques de dessin d'Hubert Robert", in exh. cat. Hubert Robert, un peintre visionnaire, Paris, éditions du musée du Louvre / Somogy, p. 65-72.
  4. Le port de Rome, orné de différens Monumens d'Architecture ancien et moderne.
  5. 1 2 3 Colin B. Bailey, "Hubert Robert & the Joy of Ruins", The New York Review of Books63.15 (October 13, 2016), pp. 35–37.
  6. Dessinateur des Jardins du Roi, Garde des tableaux du Roi, and Garde du Museum et conseiller à l'Academie
  7. 18 brumaire An II
  8. He was released 18 thermidor 1794.
  9. A colour print of a detail of the design is mounted in Huisman, p88.
  10. Victor Carlson, "Hubert Robert in Rome: Some Pen-and-Wash Drawings" Master Drawings39.3 (Autumn 2001, pp. 288-299) p. 291.
  11. Compare the role of Louis Moreau at Bagatelle.
  12. Adams1979:104
  13. At the Art Institute of Chicago.
  14. At the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
  15. Joseph Baillio, "Hubert Robert's Decorations for the Château de Bagatelle" Metropolitan Museum Journal27 (1992), pp. 149–182.
  16. Paula Rea Radisich, "The King Prunes His Garden: Hubert Robert's Picture of the Versailles Gardens in 1775" Eighteenth-Century Studies21.4 (Summer 1988), pp. 454–471.
The Arc de Triomphe and the Theatre of Orange, 1787 (Louvre), part of the Principal Monuments of France series Hubert Robert - The Arc de Triomphe and the Theatre of Orange - WGA19600.jpg
The Arc de Triomphe and the Theatre of Orange, 1787 (Louvre), part of the Principal Monuments of France series

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