Hudson Bay

Last updated

Hudson Bay
Hudson bay large.svg
Hudson Bay, Canada
Hudson Bay 2008-07-21 by Aqua.jpg
Location North America
Coordinates 60°N85°W / 60°N 85°W / 60; -85 (Hudson Bay) Coordinates: 60°N85°W / 60°N 85°W / 60; -85 (Hudson Bay)
Ocean/sea sources Arctic Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean
Catchment area 3,861,400 km2 (1,490,900 sq mi)
Basin  countriesCanada, United States
Max. length1,370 km (851.28 mi)
Max. width1,050 km (652.44 mi)
Surface area1,230,000 km2 (470,000 sq mi)
Average depth100 m (330 ft)
Max. depth270 m (890 ft) [1]
Frozenmid-December to mid-June
Islands Islands of Hudson Bay
Settlements Rankin Inlet, Arviat, Puvirnituq

Hudson Bay (Inuktitut: Kangiqsualuk ilua, [2] French : baie d'Hudson) (sometimes called Hudson's Bay, usually historically) is a large body of saltwater in northeastern Canada with a surface area of 1,230,000 km2 (470,000 sq mi). Although not geographically apparent, it is for climatic reasons considered to be a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean. It drains a very large area, about 3,861,400 km2 (1,490,900 sq mi), [3] that includes parts of southeastern Nunavut, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Ontario, Quebec, all of Manitoba and indirectly through smaller passages of water parts of North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, and Montana. Hudson Bay's southern arm is called James Bay.

Inuktitut name of some Inuit languages spoken in Canada

Inuktitut, also Eastern Canadian Inuktitut, is one of the principal Inuit languages of Canada. It is spoken in all areas north of the tree line, including parts of the provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador, Quebec, to some extent in northeastern Manitoba as well as the Northwest Territories and Nunavut. It is one of the aboriginal languages written with Canadian Aboriginal syllabics.

French language Romance language

French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.

Arctic Ocean The smallest and shallowest of the worlds five major oceans, located in the north polar regions

The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans. It is also known as the coldest of all the oceans. The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) recognizes it as an ocean, although some oceanographers call it the Arctic Sea. It is classified as an estuary of the Atlantic Ocean, and it is also seen as the northernmost part of the all-encompassing World Ocean.

Contents

The Eastern Cree name for Hudson and James Bay is Wînipekw (Southern dialect) or Wînipâkw (Northern dialect), meaning muddy or brackish water. Lake Winnipeg is similarly named by the local Cree, as is the location for the city of Winnipeg.

Cree language Algonquian language spoken by people across Canada, from the Northwest Territories and Alberta to Labrador, making it the aboriginal language with the highest number of speakers in Canada

Cree is a dialect continuum of Algonquian languages spoken by approximately 117,000 people across Canada, from the Northwest Territories to Alberta to Labrador. If classified as one language, it is the aboriginal language with the highest number of speakers in Canada. The only region where Cree has any official status is in the Northwest Territories, alongside eight other aboriginal languages. There, Cree is spoken mainly in Fort Smith and Hay River.

Lake Winnipeg lake in central North America

Lake Winnipeg is a very large, but relatively shallow 24,514-square-kilometre (9,465 sq mi) lake in North America, in the province of Manitoba, Canada. Its southern end is about 55 kilometres (34 mi) north of the city of Winnipeg. It is the largest lake within southern Canada's borders, and is part of the most undeveloped large watershed of southern Canada.

Winnipeg Provincial capital city in Manitoba, Canada

Winnipeg is the capital and largest city of the province of Manitoba in Canada. It is centred on the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine rivers, near the longitudinal centre of North America.

Description

Hudson Bay drainage basin Hudson-bassin.PNG
Hudson Bay drainage basin

The bay is named after Henry Hudson, an Englishman sailing for the Dutch East India Company, and after whom the river that he explored in 1609 is also named. Hudson Bay encompasses 1,230,000 km2 (470,000 sq mi), making it the second-largest water body using the term "bay" in the world (after the Bay of Bengal). The bay is relatively shallow and is considered an epicontinental sea, with an average depth of about 100 m (330 ft) (compared to 2,600 m (8,500 ft) in the Bay of Bengal). It is about 1,370 km (850 mi) long and 1,050 km (650 mi) wide. [4] On the east it is connected with the Atlantic Ocean by Hudson Strait; on the north, with the Arctic Ocean by Foxe Basin (which is not considered part of the bay), and Fury and Hecla Strait.

Henry Hudson English explorer

Henry Hudson was an English sea explorer and navigator during the early 17th century, best known for his explorations of present-day Canada and parts of the northeastern United States.

Dutch East India Company 17th-century Dutch trading company

The Dutch East India Company, officially the United East India Company was a megacorporation founded by a government-directed amalgamation of several rival Dutch trading companies (voorcompagnieën) in the early 17th century. It was established on March 20, 1602, as a chartered company to trade with Mughal India during the period of proto-industrialization, from which 50% of textiles and 80% of silks were imported, chiefly from its most developed region known as Bengal Subah. In addition, the company traded with Indianised Southeast Asian countries when the Dutch government granted it a 21-year monopoly on the Dutch spice trade. It has been often labelled a trading company or sometimes a shipping company. However, VOC was in fact a proto-conglomerate company, diversifying into multiple commercial and industrial activities such as international trade, shipbuilding, and both production and trade of East Indian spices, Formosan sugarcane, and South African wine. The Company was a transcontinental employer and an early pioneer of outward foreign direct investment. In the early 1600s, by widely issuing bonds and shares of stock to the general public, VOC became the world's first formally listed public company. In other words, it was the first corporation to be listed on an official stock exchange. It was influential in the rise of corporate-led globalisation in the early modern period.

Hudson River river in New York State

The Hudson River is a 315-mile (507 km) river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States. The river originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York, flows southward through the Hudson Valley to the Upper New York Bay between New York City and Jersey City. It eventually drains into the Atlantic Ocean at New York Harbor. The river serves as a political boundary between the states of New Jersey and New York at its southern end. Further north, it marks local boundaries between several New York counties. The lower half of the river is a tidal estuary, deeper than the body of water into which it flows, occupying the Hudson Fjord, an inlet which formed during the most recent period of North American glaciation, estimated at 26,000 to 13,300 years ago. Tidal waters influence the Hudson's flow from as far north as the city of Troy.

Hudson Bay is often considered part of the Arctic Ocean; the International Hydrographic Organization, in its 2002 working draft [5] of Limits of Oceans and Seas) defined the Hudson Bay, with its outlet extending from 62.5 to 66.5 degrees north (just a few miles south of the Arctic Circle) as being part of the Arctic Ocean, specifically "Arctic Ocean Subdivision 9.11." Other authorities include it in the Atlantic, in part because of its greater water budget connection with that ocean. [6] [7] [8] [9] [10]

International Hydrographic Organization Intergovernmental organization

The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is an intergovernmental organization representing hydrography. In October 2019 the IHO comprised 93 Member States.

Arctic Circle Boundary of the Arctic

The Arctic Circle is one of the two polar circles and the most northerly of the five major circles of latitude as shown on maps of Earth. It marks the northernmost point at which the centre of the noon sun is just visible on the December solstice and the southernmost point at which the centre of the midnight sun is just visible on the June solstice. The region north of this circle is known as the Arctic, and the zone just to the south is called the Northern Temperate Zone.

Some sources describe Hudson Bay as a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, [11] or the Arctic Ocean. [12]

Canada treats the bay as an internal body of water and has claimed it as such on historic grounds. This claim is disputed by the United States but no action to resolve it has been taken.[ citation needed ]

Internal waters waters on the landward side of the baseline of a nations territorial waters, except in archipelagic states

According to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, a nation's internal waters include waters on the side of the baseline of a nation's territorial waters that is facing toward the land, except in archipelagic states. It includes waterways such as rivers and canals, and sometimes the water within small bays.

History

Canada, routes of explorers, 1497 to 1905 Hudson bay explorer.png
Canada, routes of explorers, 1497 to 1905

English explorers and colonists named Hudson Bay after Sir Henry Hudson who explored the bay beginning August 2, 1610 on his ship Discovery . [13] :170 On his fourth voyage to North America, Hudson worked his way around Greenland's west coast and into the bay, mapping much of its eastern coast. Discovery became trapped in the ice over the winter, and the crew survived onshore at the southern tip of James Bay. When the ice cleared in the spring, Hudson wanted to explore the rest of the area, but the crew mutinied on June 22, 1611. They left Hudson and others adrift in a small boat. No one knows the fate of Hudson or the crew members stranded with him, but historians see no evidence that they survived for long afterwards. [13] :185

In 1668, Nonsuch reached the bay and traded for beaver pelts, leading to the creation of the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) which still bears the historic name. [14] The HBC negotiated a trading monopoly from the English crown for the Hudson Bay watershed, called Rupert's Land. [15] :4 France contested this grant by sending several military expeditions to the region, but abandoned its claim in the Treaty of Utrecht (April 1713). [16]

During this period, the Hudson's Bay Company built several factories (forts and trading posts) along the coast at the mouth of the major rivers (such as Fort Severn, Ontario; York Factory, Churchill, Manitoba and the Prince of Wales Fort). The strategic locations were bases for inland exploration. More importantly, they were trading posts with the indigenous peoples who came to them with furs from their trapping season. The HBC shipped the furs to Europe and continued to use some of these posts well into the 20th century. The Port of Churchill was an important shipping link for trade with Europe and Russia until its closure in 2016 by owner OmniTRAX. [17]

HBC's trade monopoly was abolished in 1870, and it ceded Rupert's Land to Canada, an area of approximately 3,900,000 km2 (1,500,000 sq mi), as part of the Northwest Territories. [15] :427 Starting in 1913, the Bay was extensively charted by the Canadian Government's CSS Acadia to develop it for navigation. [18] This mapping progress led to the establishment of Churchill, Manitoba as a deep-sea port for wheat exports in 1929, after unsuccessful attempts at Port Nelson.

Geography

Extent

The International Hydrographic Organization defines the northern limit of Hudson Bay as follows: [19]

A line from Nuvuk Point ( 62°21′N78°06′W / 62.350°N 78.100°W / 62.350; -78.100 ) to Leyson Point, the Southeastern extreme of Southampton Island, through the Southern and Western shores of Southampton Island to its Northern extremity, thence a line to Beach Point ( 66°03′N86°06′W / 66.050°N 86.100°W / 66.050; -86.100 ) on the Mainland.

Climate

Polar bear walks on newly formed ice in early November at Hudson Bay. Ursus maritimus walks over ice.jpg
Polar bear walks on newly formed ice in early November at Hudson Bay.

Northern Hudson Bay has a polar climate (Köppen: ET) being one of the few places in the world where this type of climate is found south of 60 °N, going further south towards Quebec, where Inukjuak is still dominated by the tundra. From Arviat, Nunavut to the west to the south and southeast prevails the subarctic climate (Köppen: Dfc). This is because in the central summer months, heat waves can advance and leave the weather cool, where the average temperature of the month is above 10 °C. At the southern end in the extension known as James Bay arises the humid continental climate with a more pronounced and hot summer. (Köppen: Dfb) [20] The average annual temperature in almost the entire bay is around 0 °C (32 °F) or below. Except for the James Bay area the average water temperature is only 7 °C (45 °F) to the south in January. Although the difference is small in summer in the extreme northeast, wintery temperatures are four to five degrees colder coming near −27 °C (−17 °F). [21]

The Hudson Bay region has very low year-round average temperatures. The average annual temperature for Churchill at 59°N is −5 °C (23 °F) and Inukjuak facing cool westerlies in summer at 58°N an even colder −7 °C (19 °F); by comparison Arkhangelsk at 64°N with a similar subarctic climate in northern Russia has an average of 2 °C (36 °F). [22] ) and the mild continental coastline of Stockholm at 59°N at near 8 °C (46 °F) on the seashore of a similar inlet major body of water; the Baltic Sea. [23] Water temperature peaks at 8–9 °C (46–48 °F) on the western side of the bay in late summer. It is largely frozen over from mid-December to mid-June when it usually clears from its eastern end westwards and southwards. A steady increase in regional temperatures over the last 100 years has been reflected in a lengthening of the ice-free period which was as short as four months in the late 17th century. [24]

Waters

In late spring (May), large chunks of ice float near the eastern shore of the bay, while the center of the bay remains frozen to the west. Between 1971 and 2007, the length of the ice-free season increased by about seven days in the southwestern part of the Hudson Bay, historically the last area to thaw. HudsonBay.MODIS.2005may21.jpg
In late spring (May), large chunks of ice float near the eastern shore of the bay, while the center of the bay remains frozen to the west. Between 1971 and 2007, the length of the ice-free season increased by about seven days in the southwestern part of the Hudson Bay, historically the last area to thaw.

Hudson Bay has a lower average salinity level than that of ocean water. The main causes are the low rate of evaporation (the bay is ice-covered for much of the year), the large volume of terrestrial runoff entering the bay (about 700 km3 (170 cu mi) annually, the Hudson Bay watershed covering much of Canada, many rivers and streams discharging into the bay), and the limited connection with the Atlantic Ocean and its higher salinity. Sea ice is about three times the annual river flow into the bay, and its annual freezing and thawing significantly alters the salinity of the surface layer.

One consequence of the lower salinity of the bay is that the freezing point of the water is higher than in the rest of the world's oceans, thus decreasing the time that the bay remains ice-free.

Shores

The western shores of the bay are a lowland known as the Hudson Bay Lowlands which covers 324,000 km2 (125,000 sq mi). The area is drained by a large number of rivers and has formed a characteristic vegetation known as muskeg. Much of the landform has been shaped by the actions of glaciers and the shrinkage of the bay over long periods of time. Signs of numerous former beachfronts can be seen far inland from the current shore. A large portion of the lowlands in the province of Ontario is part of the Polar Bear Provincial Park, and a similar portion of the lowlands in Manitoba is contained in Wapusk National Park, the latter location being a significant polar bear maternity denning area. [34]

In contrast, most of the eastern shores (the Quebec portion) form the western edge of the Canadian Shield in Quebec. The area is rocky and hilly. Its vegetation is typically boreal forest, and to the north, tundra.

Measured by shoreline, Hudson Bay is the largest bay in the world (the largest in area being the Bay of Bengal).

Islands

There are many islands in Hudson Bay, mostly near the eastern coast. All, as are the islands in James Bay, are part of Nunavut and lie in the Arctic Archipelago. Several are disputed by the Cree. [35] One group of islands is the Belcher Islands. Another group includes the Ottawa Islands.

Geology

Hudson Bay occupies a large structural basin, known as the Hudson Bay basin, that lies within the Canadian Shield. The collection and interpretation of outcrop, seismic and drillhole data for exploration for oil and gas reservoirs within the Hudson Bay basin found that it is filled by, at most, 2,500 m (8,200 ft) of Ordovician to Devonian limestone, dolomites, evaporites, black shales, and various clastic sedimentary rocks that overlie less than 60 m (200 ft) of Cambrian strata that consist of unfossiliferous quartz sandstones and conglomerates, overlain by sandy and stromatolitic dolomites. In addition, a minor amount of terrestrial Cretaceous fluvial sands and gravels are preserved in the fills of a ring of sinkholes created by the dissolution of Silurian evaporites during the Cretaceous Period. [36] [37] [38] [39]

From the large quantity of published geologic data that has been collected as the result of hydrocarbon exploration, academic research, and related geologic mapping, a detailed history of the Hudson Bay basin has been reconstructed. [37] During the majority of the Cambrian Period, this basin did not exist. Rather, this part of the Canadian Shield area was still topographically high and emergent. It was only during the later part of the Cambrian that the rising sea level of the Sauk marine transgression slowly submerged it. During the Ordovician, this part of the Canadian Shield continued to be submerged by rising sea levels except for a brief middle Ordovician marine regression. Only starting in the Late Ordovician and continuing into the Silurian did the gradual regional subsidence of this part of the Canadian Shield form the Hudson Bay basin. The formation of this basin resulted in the accumulation of black bituminous oil shale and evaporite deposits within its centre, thick basin-margin limestone and dolomite, and the development of extensive reefs that ringed the basin margins that were tectonically uplifted as the basin subsided. During Middle Silurian times, subsidence ceased and this basin was uplifted. It generated an emergent arch, on which reefs grew, that divided the basin into eastern and western sub-basins. During the Devonian Period, this basin filled with terrestrial red beds that interfinger with marine limestone and dolomites. Before deposition was terminated by marine regression, Upper Devonian black bituminous shale accumulated in the south-east of the basin. [36] [37] [38] [39]

The remaining history of the Hudson Bay basin is largely unknown as a major unconformity separates Upper Devonian strata from glacial deposits of the Pleistocene. Except for poorly known terrestrial Cretaceous fluvial sands and gravels that are preserved as the fills of a ring of sinkholes around the centre of this basin, strata representing this period of time are absent from the Hudson Bay basin and the surrounding Canadian Shield. [36] [39]

The Precambrian Shield underlying Hudson Bay and in which Hudson Bay basin formed is composed of two Archean proto-continents, the Western Churchill and Superior cratons. These cratons are separated by a tectonic collage that forms a suture zone between these cratons and the Trans-Hudson Orogen. The Western Churchill and Superior cratons collided at about 1.9–1.8 Ga in the Trans-Hudson orogeny. Because of the irregular shapes of the colliding cratons, this collision trapped between them large fragments of juvenile crust, a sizable microcontinent, and island arc terranes, beneath what is now the centre of modern Hudson Bay as part of the Trans-Hudson Orogen. The Belcher Islands are the eroded surface of the Belcher Fold Belt, which formed as a result of the tectonic compression and folding of sediments that accumulated along the margin of the Superior Craton before its collision with the Western Churchill Craton. [40] [41]

Map of post-glacial rebound. Hudson Bay is in the region of the most rapid uplift. PGR Paulson2007 Rate of Lithospheric Uplift due to PGR.png
Map of post-glacial rebound. Hudson Bay is in the region of the most rapid uplift.

Hudson Bay and the associated structural basin lies within the centre of a large free-air gravity anomaly that lies within the Canadian Shield. The similarity in areal extent of the free-air gravity anomaly with the perimeter of the former Laurentide Ice Sheet that covered this part of Laurentia led to a long-held conclusion that this perturbation in the Earth’s gravity reflected still ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment to the melting and disappearance of this ice sheet. Data collected over Canada by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission allowed geophysicists to isolate the gravity signal associated with glacial isostatic adjustment from longer–time scale process of mantle convection occurring beneath the Canadian Shield. Based upon this data, geophysicists and other Earth scientists concluded that the Laurentide Ice Sheet was composed of two large domes to the west and east of Hudson Bay. Modeling glacial isostatic adjustment using the GRACE data, they concluded that ~25 to ~45% of the observed free-air gravity anomaly was due to ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment, and the remainder likely represents longer time-scale effects of mantle convection. [42]

Earth scientists have disagreed about what created the semicircular feature known as the Nastapoka arc that forms a section of the shoreline of southeastern Hudson Bay. Noting the paucity of impact structures on Earth in relation to the Moon and Mars, Carlyle Smith Beals [43] proposed that it is possibly part of a Precambrian extraterrestrial impact structure that is comparable in size to the Mare Crisium on the Moon. In the same volume, John Tuzo Wilson [44] commented on Beals' interpretation and alternately proposed that the Nastapoka arc may have formed as part of an extensive Precambrian continental collisional orogen, linked to the closure of an ancient ocean basin. The current general consensus is that it is an arcuate boundary of tectonic origin between the Belcher Fold Belt and undeformed basement of the Superior Craton created during the Trans-Hudson orogeny. This is because no credible evidence for such an impact structure has been found by regional magnetic, Bouguer gravity, and other geologic studies. [40] [41] However, other Earth scientists have proposed that the evidence of an Archean impact might have been masked by deformation accompanying the later formation of the Trans-Hudson orogen and regard an impact origin as a plausible possibility. [45] [46]

Economy

The Arctic Bridge shipping route (blue line) is hoped to link North America to markets in Europe and Asia using ice-free routes across the Arctic Ocean Arctic Routes (RUS).svg
The Arctic Bridge shipping route (blue line) is hoped to link North America to markets in Europe and Asia using ice-free routes across the Arctic Ocean

Arctic Bridge

The longer periods of ice-free navigation and the reduction of Arctic Ocean ice coverage have led to Russian and Canadian interest in the potential for commercial trade routes across the Arctic and into Hudson Bay. The so-called Arctic Bridge would link Churchill, Manitoba, and the Russian port of Murmansk. [47]

Coastal communities

The coast of Hudson Bay is extremely sparsely populated; there are only about a dozen communities. Some of these were founded as trading posts in the 17th and 18th centuries by the Hudson's Bay Company, making them some of the oldest settlements in Western Canada. With the closure of the HBC posts and stores, although many are now run by The North West Company, [48] in the second half of the 20th century, many coastal villages are now almost exclusively populated by Cree and Inuit people. Two main historic sites along the coast were York Factory and Prince of Wales Fort.

Communities along the Hudson Bay coast or on islands in the bay are (all populations are as of 2016):

Military development

The Hudson's Bay Company built forts as fur trade strongholds against the French or other possible invaders. One example is York Factory with angled walls to help defend the fort. In the 1950s, during the Cold War, a few sites along the coast became part of the Mid-Canada Line, watching for a potential Soviet bomber attack over the North Pole. The only Arctic deep-water port in Canada is the Port of Churchill, located at Churchill, Manitoba.

See also

Related Research Articles

Geography of Canada geographic features of Canada

Canada has a vast geography that occupies much of the continent of North America, sharing land borders with the contiguous United States to the south, and the U.S. state of Alaska to the northwest. Canada stretches from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west; to the north lies the Arctic Ocean. Greenland is to the northeast and to the southeast Canada shares a maritime boundary with the Republic of France's overseas collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, the last vestige of New France. By total area, Canada is the second-largest country in the world, after Russia. By land area alone, however, Canada ranks fourth, the difference being due to it having the world's largest proportion of fresh water lakes. Of Canada's thirteen provinces and territories, only two are landlocked while the other eleven all directly border one of three oceans.

Canadian Shield Geographic and geologic area of Canada

The Canadian Shield, also called the Laurentian Plateau, or Bouclier canadien (French), is a large area of exposed Precambrian igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks that forms the ancient geological core of the North American continent. Composed of igneous rock resulting from its long volcanic history, the area is covered by a thin layer of soil. With a deep, common, joined bedrock region in eastern and central Canada, it stretches north from the Great Lakes to the Arctic Ocean, covering over half of Canada; it also extends south into the northern reaches of the United States. Human population is sparse, and industrial development is minimal, while mining is prevalent.

Northern Canada Region in Canada

Northern Canada, colloquially the North, is the vast northernmost region of Canada variously defined by geography and politics. Politically, the term refers to three territories of Canada: Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut. Similarly, the Far North may refer to the Canadian Arctic: the portion of Canada that lies north of the Arctic Circle, east of Alaska and west of Greenland. This area covers about 39% of Canada's total land area, but has less than 1% of Canada's population.

Churchill, Manitoba Town in Manitoba, Canada

Churchill is a town in northern Manitoba, Canada, on the west shore of Hudson Bay, roughly 110 kilometres from the Manitoba–Nunavut border. It is most famous for the many polar bears that move toward the shore from inland in the autumn, leading to the nickname "Polar Bear Capital of the World" that has helped its growing tourism industry.

Rankin Inlet Place in Nunavut, Canada

Rankin Inlet is an Inuit hamlet on Kudlulik Peninsula in Nunavut, Canada. Located on the northwestern Hudson Bay, between Chesterfield Inlet and Arviat, it is the regional centre for the Kivalliq Region.

Qikiqtaaluk Region Region of Nunavut, Canada

The Qikiqtaaluk Region, Qikiqtani Region or Baffin Region is the easternmost administrative region of Nunavut, Canada. Qikiqtaaluk is the traditional Inuktitut name for Baffin Island. Although the Qikiqtaaluk Region is the most commonly used name in official contexts, several notable public organizations, including Statistics Canada prefer the older term Baffin Region.

Arviat Hamlet in Nunavut, Canada

Arviat is a predominantly Inuit hamlet located within Inuit Nunangat on the western shore of Hudson Bay in the Kivalliq Region of Nunavut, Canada. Arviat is derived from the Inuktitut word arviq meaning "Bowhead whale". Earlier in history, its name was Tikirajualaaq, and Ittaliurvik,.

Kuujjuaq Northern village municipality in Quebec, Canada

Kuujjuaq, formerly known as Fort Chimo and by other names, is a former Hudson's Bay Company outpost at the mouth of the Koksoak River on Ungava Bay that has become the largest northern village in the Nunavik region of Quebec, Canada. It is the administrative capital of the Kativik Regional Government. Its population was 2,754 as of the 2016 census.

Churchill River (Hudson Bay) river and tributary of Hudson Bay in Canada

The Churchill River is a major river in Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, Canada. From the head of the Churchill Lake it is 1,609 kilometres (1,000 mi) long. It was named after John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough and governor of the Hudson's Bay Company from 1685 to 1691.

Baker Lake, Nunavut Hamlet in Nunavut, Canada

Baker Lake is a hamlet in the Kivalliq Region, in Nunavut on mainland Canada within Inuit Nunangat. Located 320 km (200 mi) inland from Hudson Bay, it is near the nation's geographical centre, and is notable for being the Canadian Arctic's sole inland community. The hamlet is located at the mouth of the Thelon River on the shore of Baker Lake. The community was given its English name in 1761 from Captain William Christopher who named it after Sir William Baker, the 11th Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company.

Kuujjuarapik Northern village municipality in Quebec, Canada

Kuujjuarapik is the southernmost northern village at the mouth of the Great Whale River on the coast of Hudson Bay in Nunavik, Quebec, Canada. Almost 1000 people, mostly Cree, live in the adjacent village of Whapmagoostui. The community is only accessible by air, Kuujjuarapik Airport and, in late summer, by boat. The nearest Inuit village is Umiujaq, about 160 km (99 mi) north-northwest of Kuujjuarapik. The police services in Kuujjuaraapik are provided by the Kativik Regional Police Force.

Whale Cove, Nunavut Place in Nunavut, Canada

Whale Cove, is a hamlet located 74 km (46 mi) south southwest of Rankin Inlet, 145 km (90 mi) northeast of Arviat, in Kivalliq Region, Nunavut, Canada, on the western shore of Hudson Bay.

Superior Craton An Archean craton which forms the core of the Canadian Shield north of Lake Superior

The Superior Craton or Superior Province is an Archean craton which forms the core of the Canadian Shield, lying north of Lake Superior for which it is named.

Geography of North America

North America is the third largest continent, and is also a portion of the second largest supercontinent if North and South America are combined into the Americas and Africa, Europe, and Asia are considered to be part of one supercontinent called Afro-Eurasia.

The Canadian territory of Nunavut covers about 1.9 million square kilometres of land and water including part of the mainland, most of the Arctic Islands, and all of the islands in Hudson Bay, James Bay, and Ungava Bay which belonged to the Northwest Territories. This makes it the fifth largest country subdivision in the world. If Nunavut were a country, it would rank 13th in area, after the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Nunavut has land borders with Manitoba, the Northwest Territories on several islands as well as the mainland, and a tiny land border with Newfoundland and Labrador on Killiniq Island. Nunavut also has small land borders with Ontario and Quebec.

Hudson Bay Lowlands

Hudson Bay Lowlands are a vast wetland located between the Canadian Shield and southern shores of Hudson Bay and James Bay. Most of the area lies within the province of Ontario, with smaller portions reaching into Manitoba and Quebec. Many wide and slow-moving rivers flow through this area toward the salt water of Hudson Bay: these include the Churchill, Nelson and Hayes in Manitoba, Severn, Fawn, Winisk, Asheweig, Ekwan, Attawapiskat, and Albany in Ontario, and the Harricana, Rupert and Eastmain in Quebec. This is the largest wetland in Canada, and one of the largest in the world. The region can be subdivided into three bands running roughly northwest to southeast: the Coastal Hudson Bay Lowland, Hudson Bay Lowland, and James Bay Lowland.

Trans-Hudson orogeny mountain-building event in North America

The Trans-Hudson orogeny or Trans-Hudsonian orogeny was the major mountain building event (orogeny) that formed the Precambrian Canadian Shield, the North American Craton, and the forging of the initial North American continent. It gave rise to the Trans-Hudson orogen (THO), or Trans-Hudson Orogen Transect (THOT), which is the largest Paleoproterozoic orogenic belt in the world. It consists of a network of belts that were formed by Proterozoic crustal accretion and the collision of pre-existing Archean continents. The event occurred 2.0-1.8 billion years ago.

The Arctic Archipelago Marine Ecozone, as defined by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), is a marine ecozone in the Canadian Arctic, encompassing Hudson Bay, James Bay, the internal waters and some shores of the islands in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, and the shores of the territories, northern Ontario and western Quebec. Early exploration of these waters by Europeans were conducted to find a passage to the Orient, now referred to as the Northwest Passage.

The Hudson Plains Ecozone, as defined by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), is a sparsely populated Canadian subarctic ecozone extending from the western coast of Quebec to the coast of Manitoba, encompassing all coastal areas of James Bay and those of southern Hudson Bay, stretching to about 50°N latitude. It includes the largest continuous wetland in the world. It covers nearly a quarter of Ontario's landmass, and 3.6% of Canada's total area, totalling approximately 369,000 square kilometres of land and 11,800 square kilometres of water. Its historical prominence is due to the harshness endured by pioneer explorers who established fortifications for Hudson's Bay Company, and as a result of regional wars between France and Britain. Today, it is primarily noted for the well-known Polar Bear Provincial Park, and to a lesser extent Wapusk National Park, as well as its vast wetlands which are used by migratory birds.

References

  1. "Hudson Bay | sea, Canada". Encyclopedia Britannica.
  2. "Wissenladen – Willkommen". www.posterwissen.de.
  3. "Canada Drainage Basins". The National Atlas of Canada, 5th edition. Natural Resources Canada. 1985. Retrieved 24 November 2010.
  4. Private Tutor. Infoplease.com. Retrieved on 2014-04-12.
  5. "IHO Publication S-23 Limits of Oceans and Seas; Chapter 9: Arctic Ocean". International Hydrographic Organization. 2002. Retrieved 2017-07-01.
  6. Lewis, Edward Lyn; Jones, E. Peter; et al., eds. (2000). The Freshwater Budget of the Arctic Ocean. Springer. pp. 101, 282–283. ISBN   978-0-7923-6439-9 . Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  7. McColl, R.W. (2005). Encyclopedia of World Geography. Infobase Publishing. p. 57. ISBN   978-0-8160-5786-3 . Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  8. Earle, Sylvia A.; Glover, Linda K. (2008). Ocean: An Illustrated Atlas. National Geographic Books. p. 112. ISBN   978-1-4262-0319-0 . Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  9. Reddy, M. P. M. (2001). Descriptive Physical Oceanography. Taylor & Francis. p. 8. ISBN   978-90-5410-706-4 . Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  10. Day, Trevor; Garratt, Richard (2006). Oceans. Infobase Publishing. p. 21. ISBN   978-0-8160-5327-8 . Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  11. Calow, Peter (12 July 1999). Blackwell's concise encyclopedia of environmental management. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 7. ISBN   978-0-632-04951-6 . Retrieved 29 November 2010.
  12. Wright, John (30 November 2001). The New York Times Almanac 2002. Psychology Press. p. 459. ISBN   978-1-57958-348-4 . Retrieved 29 November 2010.
  13. 1 2 Butts, Edward (2009-12-31). Henry Hudson: New World voyager. Dundurn Press Ltd. p. 170. ISBN   978-1-55488-455-1 . Retrieved 1 August 2011.
  14. "Nonsuch Gallery". Manitoba Museum. Retrieved 1 August 2011.
  15. 1 2 Galbraith, John S. (1957). The Hudson's Bay Company. University of California Press.
  16. Tyrrell, Joseph (1931). Documents Relating to the Early History of Hudson Bay: The Publications of the Champlain Society. Toronto: Champlain Society. doi:10.3138/9781442618336.
  17. "Port of Churchill shut down after being refused bailout, premier suggests | The Star". thestar.com.
  18. "CSS Acadia". Maritime Museum of the Atlantic. Archived from the original on 7 August 2011. Retrieved 1 August 2011.
  19. "Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition" (PDF). International Hydrographic Organization. 1953. Retrieved 6 February 2010.
  20. "Interactive Canada Koppen-Geiger Climate Classification Map". www.plantmaps.com. Retrieved 2018-11-23.
  21. s.r.o., © Solargis. "Solargis :: iMaps". solargis.info. Retrieved 2018-11-23.
  22. GHCN climatic monthly data, GISS, using 1995–2007 annual averages
  23. "Climate normals for Sweden 1981-2010". Météo Climat. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  24. General Survey of World Climatology, Landsberg ed., (1984), Elsevier.
  25. "Arviat A". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. Climate ID: 2300MKF. Retrieved 2019-10-13.
  26. "Arviat Climate". Canadian Climate Data. Environment Canada . Retrieved 26 May 2017.
  27. "Churchill A". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada . Retrieved 2019-10-13.
  28. "Churchill Marine". Canadian Climate Data. Environment Canada . Retrieved 17 February 2017.
  29. "Churchill Climate". Canadian Climate Data. Environment Canada . Retrieved 17 February 2017.
  30. "Coral Harbour A". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. Climate ID: 2301000. Retrieved 2019-01-24.
  31. "Canadian Climate Normals 1971–2000". Environment Canada . Retrieved 2019-10-12.
  32. "Kuujjuarapik Airport". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada . Retrieved 2019-10-12.
  33. "Rankin Inlet A". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. Climate ID: 2303401. Retrieved 2019-10-13.
  34. C. Michael Hogan (2008) Polar Bear: Ursus maritimus, globalTwitcher.com, ed. Nicklas Stromberg Archived 2008-12-24 at the Wayback Machine
  35. "Cree ask court to defend traditional rights on James Bay islands". Archived from the original on 2017-11-07. Retrieved 2017-06-11.
  36. 1 2 3 Burgess, P.M., 2008, Phanerozoic evolution of the sedimentary cover of the North American craton., in Miall, A.D., ed., Sedimentary Basins of the United States and Canada, Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, pp. 31–63.
  37. 1 2 3 Lavoie, D., Pinet, N., Dietrich, J. and Chen, Z., 2015. The Paleozoic Hudson Bay Basin in northern Canada: New insights into hydrocarbon potential of a frontier intracratonic basin.American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 99(5), pp. 859–888.
  38. 1 2 Roksandic, M.M., 1987, The tectonics and evolution of the Hudson Bay region, in C. Beaumont and A. J. Tankard, eds., Sedimentary basins and basin-forming mechanisms. Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 12, p. 507–518.
  39. 1 2 3 Sanford, B.V. and Grant, A.C., 1998. Paleozoic and Mesozoic geology of the Hudson and southeast Arctic platforms.Geological Survey of Canada Open File 3595, scale 1:2 500 000.
  40. 1 2 Darbyshire, F.A., and Eaton, D.W., 2010. The lithospheric root beneath Hudson Bay, Canada from Rayleigh wave dispersion: No clear seismological distinction between Archean and Proterozoic mantle, Lithos. 120(1-2), 144–159, doi:10.1016/j.lithos.2010.04.010.
  41. 1 2 Eaton, D.W., and Darbyshire, F., 2010. Lithospheric architecture and tectonic evolution of the Hudson Bay region, Tectonophysics. 480(1-4), 1–22, doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2009.09.006.
  42. Tamisiea, M.E., Mitrovica, J.X. and Davis, J.L., 2007. GRACE gravity data constrain ancient ice geometries and continental dynamics over Laurentia. Science, 316(5826), pp. 881–883.
  43. Beals, C.S., 1968. On the possibility of a catastrophic origin for the great arc of eastern Hudson Bay. In: Beals, C.S. (Ed.), pp. 985–999. Science, History and Hudson Bay, Vol. 2, Department of Energy Mines and Resources, Ottawa.
  44. Wilson, J.T., 1968. Comparison of the Hudson Bay arc with some other features. In: Beals, C.S. (Ed.), pp. 1015–1033. Science, History and Hudson Bay, Vol. 2. Department of Energy Mines and Resources, Ottawa.
  45. Goodings, C.R. & Brookfield, M.E., 1992. Proterozoic transcurrent movements along the Kapuskasing lineament (Superior Province, Canada) and their relationship to surrounding structures.Earth-Science Reviews, 32: 147–185.
  46. Bleeker, W., and Pilkington, M., 2004. The 450-km-diameter Nastapoka Arc: Earth's oldest and largest preserved impact scar?Program with Abstracts – Geological Association of Canada; Mineralogical Association of Canada: Joint Annual Meeting, 2004, Vol. 29, pp. 344.
  47. "Russian ship crosses 'Arctic bridge' to Manitoba". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. 18 October 2007. Archived from the original on 20 February 2009.
  48. "Operations | The North West Company". www.northwest.ca.
  49. "Census Profile, 2016 Census Arviat". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 18 February 2017.
  50. "Statistics Canada: 2016 Census Profile Chesterfield Inlet". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 18 February 2017.
  51. "2016 Coral Harbour Census". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 18 February 2017.
  52. "Census Profile, 2016 Census Rankin Inlet". Statistics Canada. Retrieved February 18, 2017.
  53. "Census Profile, 2016 Census Sanikiluaq". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2017-03-03.
  54. "Statistics Canada: 2016 Census Profile Whale Cove". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 18 February 2017.
  55. "Census Profile, 2016 Census Churchill, Town [Census subdivision], Manitoba and Division No. 23, Census division [Census division], Manitoba". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  56. "Census Profile, 2016 Census Fort Severn 89, Indian reserve [Census subdivision], Ontario and Kenora, District [Census division], Ontario". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  57. "(Code 2499125) Census Profile". 2016 census . Statistics Canada. 2017.
  58. "(Code 2499085) Census Profile". 2016 census . Statistics Canada. 2017.
  59. "Census Profile, 2016 Census Kuujjuarapik, Village nordique [Census subdivision], Quebec and Nord-du-Québec, Census division [Census division], Quebec". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  60. "Census Profile, 2016 Census Puvirnituq, Village nordique [Census subdivision], Quebec and Quebec [Province]". 2016 Census . Statistics Canada.
  61. "Census Profile, 2016 Census Umiujaq, Village nordique [Census subdivision], Quebec and Nord-du-Québec, Census division [Census division], Quebec". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  62. "Census Profile". Canada 2016 Census . Statistics Canada.

Notes