Hugh L. Scott
|Birth name||Hugh Lenox Scott|
|Born||September 22, 1853|
near Danville, Kentucky, United States
|Died||April 30, 1934 80) (aged|
Washington, D.C., United States
|Service/||United States Army|
|Years of service||1876–1919|
|Commands held|| 78th Division |
Chief of Staff of the United States Army
2nd Cavalry Brigade
3rd Cavalry Regiment
Superintendent of the United States Military Academy
|Battles/wars|| American Indian Wars World War I |
Russian Civil War
|Awards|| Army Distinguished Service Medal |
Silver Star (2)
Major General Hugh Lenox Scott (September 22, 1853 – April 30, 1934) was a United States Army officer. A West Point graduate of 1876, he served as superintendent of West Point from 1906 to 1910 and as Chief of Staff of the United States Army from 1914 to 1917, which included the first few months of American involvement in World War I.
Scott was born in Danville, Kentucky on September 22, 1853, the son of Reverend William McKendry Scott and Mary Elizabeth (Hodges) Scott.He grew up in Danville and in Princeton, New Jersey, where he was educated at The Lawrenceville School. He attended Princeton University, before being accepted into the United States Military Academy at West Point.
Scott graduated from West Point in 1876 (his Cullum number was 2628), and was commissioned in the Cavalry.For some twenty years thereafter he served on the Western frontier, chiefly with the 7th United States Cavalry. He was assigned to the quarters only recently vacated by the widow of George Armstrong Custer. In fact, Scott was sent out to the Little Big Horn battle site to mark gravesites for Custer's men killed in the battle. He also had the opportunity to interview many of the Native Americans who fought on both sides of the battle on June 25, 1876. He saw action in campaigns against the Sioux, Nez Perce, Cheyenne and other tribes of the Great Plains and became an expert in their languages and ways of life. He was promoted to first lieutenant in June 1878.
About 1889, while stationed with the 7th Cavalry at Fort Sill in Oklahoma, Scott made the acquaintance of an Indian scout name I-See-O (Plenty Fires) of the Kiowa tribe. I-See-O enlisted in the Indian Scouts in 1889 and taught Scott Native American sign language and techniques of frontier warfare. Scott was placed in command of Troop L of the 7th Cavalry on March 29, 1891 and of a detachment of Indian Scouts on September 18, 1891.
When Scott was given command of Troop L of the regiment in 1891, he had I-See-O serve as his first sergeant. (Infantry regiments designated Company I for their Native American scouts, and cavalry regiments did the same with Troop L.) During the ghost dance phenomenon of the early 1890s, I-See-O helped in persuading the Apache and Kiowa tribes not to go to war. This action, while serving the interest of white settlers and speculators, undoubtedly also saved the lives of many Native Americans. Scott's gratitude to I-See-O was such that, when he was Chief of Staff of the Army, he allowed for Sergeant I-See-O to remain on active duty for life.
In 1890–91, he was given the responsibility for suppressing the "Ghost Dance" religious movement that swept the Indian Reservations and received official commendation for that work. In 1892, he organized Troop L of the 7th Cavalry, composed of Kiowa, Comanche and Apache Indians, and commanded it until it was mustered out, the last Indian unit in the United States Army, in 1897. In 1894–97, he had charge of Geronimo's band of Chiricahua Apache Indian prisoners at Fort Sill, Oklahoma.He was promoted to captain in January 1895, having served as a first lieutenant for 16 and a half years.
In November 1897, he was attached to the Bureau of American Ethnology of the Smithsonian Institution, where he began preparing a work on Indian sign languages. In May 1898, after the outbreak of the Spanish–American War, he was appointed major of Volunteers and Assistant Adjutant General of the 2nd and 3rd Divisions, I Corps. He saw no action in that war, but in March 1899 went to Cuba as Adjutant General of the Department of Havana, with the rank of lieutenant colonel of Volunteers.
In May 1900, he became adjutant general of the Department of Cuba and remained in that post until May 1902.During that time, he served for a time as acting governor and took an active part in the transfer of government into Cuban hands. He was promoted to major in the Regular Army in February 1903 and served as Military Governor of the Sulu Archipelago, Philippines, in 1903–06 and also commanded troops there, taking part in various skirmishes, reorganized the civil government and institutions. During this assignment he received two Silver Star citations for gallantry in action.
In August 1906, he was named Superintendent of the United States Military Academy, a post he held for four years with the temporary rank of colonel. He was promoted to permanent lieutenant colonel in March 1911 and to colonel in August of the same year. He then commanded the 3rd United States Cavalry Regiment in Texas, engaged in settling various Indian troubles.
In March 1913, Scott was promoted to brigadier general in command of the 2nd Cavalry Brigade, still posted to the Southwest. He won a special commendation for his skillful handling of Navajo disturbances at Beautiful Mountain, Arizona, in November 1913. He was named Assistant Chief of Staff in April 1914 and Chief of Staff of the United States Army from 1914 to 1917, including the first few months of American involvement in World War I. He was promoted to major general in April 1915. He continued to act in a diplomatic role with Indians and Mexican border officials in the Southwest, settling problems with the Paiutes of Utah in March 1915 and recovering property "confiscated" by Pancho Villa in August.
From February to March 1916, Scott served as ad-interim Secretary of War but his energies were directed more toward preparation for possible U.S. entry into World War I. He was very influential in winning early acceptance among civil officials of the notion of conscription.
From May−August 1917, after the official American entry into World War I, he was sent to Russia as a member of the Root Mission, led by Elihu Root, with the intention of keeping Russia in the war.
He retired at the statutory age of 64 on 22 September 1917. He was succeeded as Chief of Staff by Tasker H. Bliss. Despite being retired, Scott was immediately recalled to active duty. He served stateside and became commander of the 78th Division at Camp Dix, New Jersey, in December and of Camp Dix again in March 1918.
Scott retired finally in May 1919 and served on the Board of Indian Commissioners from 1919 to 1929 and was Chairman of the New Jersey State Highway Commission from 1923 to 1933. In 1928, he published an autobiography, Some Memories of a Soldier.
Scott died in Washington, D.C. on April 30, 1934 and was buried among many other family members in Section 2 of Arlington National Cemetery.
There is a large bas relief memorial plaque in his honor in the Washington National Cathedral. His papers are held by the Library of Congress,and Princeton University.
United States Military Academy Cadet – class of 1876
No pin insignia in 1876
|Second Lieutenant||Regular Army||15 June 1876|
|First Lieutenant||Regular Army||28 June 1878|
|Captain||Regular Army||24 January 1895|
|Major||Volunteers||12 May 1898|
|Lieutenant Colonel||Volunteers||17 August 1899|
|Major||Regular Army||25 February 1903|
|Colonel (temporary)||Regular Army||31 August 1906|
|Lieutenant Colonel||Regular Army||3 March 1911|
|Colonel||Regular Army||18 August 1911|
|Brigadier General||Regular Army||23 March 1913|
|Major General||Regular Army||30 April 1915|
|Major General||Retired List||22 September 1917|
General Scott appears as a character in The Friends of Pancho Villa (1996), a historical novel by James Carlos Blake.
George Grunert was a United States Army cavalry officer who worked his way up through the ranks from private to retirement as a lieutenant general. His 47-year career extended from the Spanish–American War to the end of World War II.
Samuel Baldwin Marks Young was a United States Army general. He also served as the first president of Army War College between 1902 and 1903. He then served from 1903 until 1904 as the first Chief of Staff of the United States Army.
James Henry Binford "Binnie" Peay III is a retired four-star general of the United States Army. He served as the 14th superintendent of the Virginia Military Institute from 2003-2020, and as chairman of the Allied Defense Group from 2001-03. He has also served on various corporate and nonprofit boards.
James Franklin Bell was an officer in the United States Army who served as Chief of Staff of the United States Army from 1906 to 1910.
Bruce Palmer Jr. was a general in the United States Army. He commanded the XVIII Airborne Corps during Operation Power Pack, the II Field Force, Vietnam during the Vietnam War, and was acting Chief of Staff of the United States Army from July to October 1972.
The Battle of Palo Duro Canyon was a military confrontation and a significant United States victory during the Red River War. The battle occurred on September 28, 1874, when several U.S. Army regiments under Ranald S. Mackenzie attacked a large encampment of Plains Indians in Palo Duro Canyon in the Texas Panhandle.
James William Forsyth was a U.S. Army officer and general. He was primarily a Union staff officer during the American Civil War and cavalry regimental commander during the Indian Wars. Forsyth is best known for having commanded the 7th Cavalry at the Wounded Knee Massacre on December 29, 1890 during which more than 250 men, women, and children of the Lakota were killed and more than 50 were wounded.
The 9th Cavalry Regiment is a parent cavalry regiment of the United States Army. It is not related to the 9th Kansas Cavalry Regiment of the Union Army. Historically, it was one of the Army's four segregated African-American regiments and was part of what was known as the Buffalo Soldiers. The regiment saw combat during the Indian and Spanish–American Wars. During Westward Expansion, the regiment provided escort for the early western settlers and maintained peace on the American frontier.
The 10th Cavalry Regiment is a unit of the United States Army. Formed as a segregated African-American unit, the 10th Cavalry was one of the original "Buffalo Soldier" regiments in the post–Civil War Regular Army. It served in combat during the Indian Wars in the western United States, the Spanish–American War in Cuba and in the Philippine–American War. The regiment was trained as a combat unit but later relegated to non-combat duty and served in that capacity in World War II until its deactivation in 1944.
Native Americans have made up an integral part of U.S. military conflicts since America's beginning. Colonists recruited Indian allies during such instances as the Pequot War from 1634–1638, the Revolutionary War, as well as in War of 1812. Native Americans also fought on both sides during the American Civil War, as well as military missions abroad including the most notable, the Codetalkers who served in World War II. The Scouts were active in the American West in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Including those who accompanied General John J. Pershing in 1916 on his expedition to Mexico in pursuit of Pancho Villa. Indian Scouts were officially deactivated in 1947 when their last member retired from the Army at Fort Huachuca, Arizona. For many Indians it was an important form of interaction with White American culture and their first major encounter with the Whites' way of thinking and doing things.
Matthias W. Day was a career American army officer who received the Medal of Honor, the United States' highest military decoration, for his actions during the American Indian Wars in the latter half of the 19th century. Day was a longtime officer with the African-American 9th Cavalry Regiment, seeing action during the Apache Wars against the Apache leaders Victorio and Geronimo.
William Giles Harding Carter was a US Cavalry officer who served during the American Civil War, Spanish–American War and World War I. He also took part in the Indian Wars seeing extensive service against the Apache and Comanche in Arizona being awarded the Medal of Honor against the Apache during the Comanche Campaign on August 30, 1881.
Lieutenant General Clovis Ethelbert Byers was a United States Army officer who served in the first half of the 20th century. He is best known for his role as Chief of Staff of the Eighth Army in the South West Pacific Area during World War II and in the occupation of Japan. He was wounded while leading American troops from the front at the Battle of Buna-Gona, and also played an important part in the fighting at Lone Tree Hill, Biak, and the Philippines campaign (1944–45).
John Brown Kerr was a United States Army Brigadier General who was a recipient of the Medal of Honor for actions in fighting Indians along the White River, South Dakota.
Louis Henry Carpenter was a United States Army brigadier general and a recipient of the Medal of Honor for his actions in the American Indian Wars.
Nicholas Merritt Nolan was a United States Army major. An Irish immigrant, he began his military career in New York on December 9, 1852 with the 4th Artillery, and subsequently served in New York's 2nd Dragoons. He enlisted as a private and rose through the ranks becoming a first sergeant. He was commissioned an officer in late 1862 in the Regular Army, while serving with the 6th U.S. Cavalry Regiment during the American Civil War. He participated in 16 campaigns with the 6th and most of its battles. He was slightly wounded at the Battle of Fairfield and seriously wounded at the Battle of Dinwiddie Court House. He was brevetted twice and noted at least twice for gallantry during combat. He was slightly wounded when captured at the end of March 1865, and was later paroled. After the Civil War, he served with the 10th U.S. Cavalry, known as the Buffalo Soldiers, for 14 years. Nolan is also noted for his pluses and minuses during the Buffalo Soldier tragedy of 1877 that made headlines in the Eastern United States. He was the commanding officer of Henry O. Flipper in 1878, the first African American to graduate from the United States Military Academy at West Point. He commanded several frontier forts before his untimely death in 1883.
Herbert Jay Brees was a lieutenant general in the United States Army.
I-See-O, also known as Tahbonemah, was a Kiowa-American soldier who served as an officer in the United States Army for nearly fifty years in the Seventh Cavalry and was the last active duty U.S. Army Indian Scout upon his death in 1927.
Guy Carleton was a career officer in the United States Army. He attained the rank of major general, and is best known for his World War I command of Camp Wadsworth and the 96th Division.
Brigadier General James Denver Glennan was a senior United States Army officer in the Medical Corps. Beginning his career in 1888 on the frontier during the Indian Wars, Glennan served in the military until his death in 1927. By then he held command of various hospitals and posts in Cuba, the Philippines, France, and the continental United States.