Huludao

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Huludao

葫芦岛市

Hulutao
Huludao City.jpg
The new district of Huludao
Location of Huludao Prefecture within Liaoning (China).png
Location of Huludao City jurisdiction in Liaoning
China Liaoning location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Huludao
Location of the city centre in Liaoning
Coordinates(Huludao municipal government): 40°42′40″N120°50′13″E / 40.711°N 120.837°E / 40.711; 120.837 Coordinates: 40°42′40″N120°50′13″E / 40.711°N 120.837°E / 40.711; 120.837
Country People's Republic of China
Province Liaoning
Municipal seat Longgang District
Districts and Counties
Government
  CPC Party SecretaryChen Xiaokun
  MayorLiu Tengfei
Area
[1]
   Prefecture-level city 10,415 km2 (4,021 sq mi)
  Urban
 (2017) [2]
443.77 km2 (171.34 sq mi)
Population
 (2007) [3]
   Prefecture-level city 2,787,032
   Urban
 (2017) [2]
724,800
Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
125000
Area code(s) 429
ISO 3166 code CN-LN-14
Licence plates 辽P
Administrative division code 211400
Website www.hld.gov.cn

Huludao (simplified Chinese :葫芦岛; traditional Chinese :葫蘆島; pinyin :Húludǎo), formerly known as Jinxi (锦西) until 1994, is a coastal prefecture-level city in southwestern Liaoning province, People's Republic of China. Its name literally means "Gourd Island", referring to the fiddle-shaped contour of the peninsula ("half-island" in Chinese), which resembles a bottle gourd, at the city's Longgang District. It has a total area of 10,415 km2 (4,021 sq mi) and a population of 2.87 million, of whom some 531,000 live in the city proper. [3]

Contents

Located on the northwestern shore of the Liaodong Bay, Huludao is one of the three principal cities (along with Jinzhou and Hebei province's Qinhuangdao) in the Liaoxi Corridor, and is Northeast China's gateway through the Shanhai Pass into North China. It borders Jinzhou to the northeast, Chaoyang to the north, and Qinhuangdao]] to the southwest, as well as sharing maritime boundaries with Yingkou and Dalian to the east and southeast across the bay.

History

The area occupied by Huludao city has been settled by mankind since ancient times. Archeological evidence indicates that during the Shang and Zhou dynasties, the region enjoyed advanced Bronze Age technology, while urban civilization first developed during the Warring States era.

The Ming dynasty saw the construction of the Liaoning section of the Great Wall through Huludao. During this time the town of Xingcheng was fortified with a defensive wall which still stands today. [4]

In 1906, the county of Jinxi was established. It became an important center for resistance during the Japanese occupation. During 1945–1948, it was a battleground between the Kuomintang and Chinese Communist forces, and over one million Japanese prisoners of war were repatriated from its port.

Jinxi county was granted city status in 1982 under the jurisdiction of Jinzhou, before becoming a prefecture-level city in 1989. [5] The city was renamed Huludao, originally the name of the peninsula and port in the city area, in 1994.

Geography

Huludao is a coastal city on the Bohai Sea at 120°38' east longitude and 40°56' north latitude. It lies in the southwest of Liaoning, at the border with Hebei, forming the Bohai Sea economic rim with such cities as Dalian, Yingkou, Qinhuangdao, and Qingdao. As the first city outside the Shanhai Pass, it serves as the gateway into the Northeast.

Climate

Huludao is in the north temperate zone with a continental monsoon climate that brings cold dry winters and hot humid summers. Annual precipitation averages between 550 to 650 millimetres (22 to 26 in) while the year round mean temperature is 8.5 to 9.5 °C (47.3 to 49.1 °F). [6]

Climate data for Huludao (Lianshan District), 1981–2010 normals
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)−1.5
(29.3)
2.1
(35.8)
8.3
(46.9)
16.6
(61.9)
22.7
(72.9)
26.2
(79.2)
28.4
(83.1)
28.7
(83.7)
25.1
(77.2)
18.0
(64.4)
8.2
(46.8)
1.1
(34.0)
15.3
(59.6)
Daily mean °C (°F)−7.7
(18.1)
−3.9
(25.0)
2.6
(36.7)
10.8
(51.4)
17.3
(63.1)
21.6
(70.9)
24.5
(76.1)
24.2
(75.6)
19.3
(66.7)
11.9
(53.4)
2.3
(36.1)
−4.8
(23.4)
9.8
(49.7)
Average low °C (°F)−12.8
(9.0)
−9.1
(15.6)
−2.6
(27.3)
5.4
(41.7)
12.1
(53.8)
17.2
(63.0)
20.9
(69.6)
19.9
(67.8)
13.6
(56.5)
6.1
(43.0)
−2.7
(27.1)
−9.7
(14.5)
4.9
(40.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches)3.1
(0.12)
2.8
(0.11)
9.7
(0.38)
28.1
(1.11)
48.7
(1.92)
82.2
(3.24)
151.0
(5.94)
144.4
(5.69)
59.8
(2.35)
32.0
(1.26)
12.3
(0.48)
3.5
(0.14)
577.6
(22.74)
Average relative humidity (%)51504853587181796960545361
Source: China Meteorological Administration [7]

Administrative divisions

Huludao has six immediate sub-municipal divisions:

Map
#Name Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Population (2003 est.)Area (km2)Density (/km2)
1 Longgang District 龙港区Lónggǎng Qū170,0001381,232
2 Lianshan District 连山区Liánshān Qū620,0001,653375
3 Nanpiao District 南票区Nánpiào Qū150,000512293
4 Xingcheng City 兴城市Xīngchéng Shì560,0002,147261
5 Suizhong County 绥中县Suízhōng Xiàn620,0002,764224
6 Jianchang County 建昌县Jiànchāng Xiàn610,0003,161193

Economy

More than 40 mineral resources have been discovered in the Huludao region, including gold, zinc, molybdenum, lime and manganese. West of the city center, the town of Yangjiazhangzi is an important global center for molybdenum mining. [8]

Huludao boasts a long coastline of 237 km, and the surrounding waters are rich in fish, shrimp and shellfish, with plentiful reserves of natural gas and oil. With a climate suitable for the cultivation of fruit trees, Suizhong county is home to the Qiansuo orchard, Asia's largest, which grows a wide variety of fruits including apples, pears, nectarines and jujubes.

Huludao's economy is dominated by some of China's most important industrial enterprises, providing employment for a large proportion of the population. These include Asia's biggest zinc manufacturing operation, the Huludao Zinc Smelter, the Jinxi oil refinery and Jinhua chemical engineering, as well as Huludao's massive shipyard, the building site of China's nuclear submarines. The oilfield off the coast of Suizhong county produces 5 million tons of crude oil annually. Electricity generation is set to increase annual capacity to 3.6 million kilowatts. [8]

In the city itself are special development areas designed to attract foreign investment to the region, including the Huludao Economic Development Zone and the Huludao Hi-tech Development zone, which is the location for a Siemens turbomachinery plant.

Transport

Huludao Railway Station Huludao city center train station.jpg
Huludao Railway Station

Huludao is an important link in rail and road networks between Beijing and northern cities such as Shenyang and Harbin. The newly renovated North Station (葫芦岛北站) serves high-speed passenger trains that cover the 300 km (190 mi)to Beijing in about three hours.

Public transportation in the city is provided by over 25 bus services and innumerable taxis. Traditional cycle rickshaw and auto rickshaws were banned from the city in 2010 but can be seen in smaller cities and towns in the region. Long-distance buses and trains link the centers in the greater Huludao region.

Tourism

Huludao is endowed with scenic areas and sites of historical interest. It attracts many domestic tourists in summer with its picturesque sandy beaches, including Longwan Beach near the city center and Xingcheng Beach, a traditional resort known as the 'second Beidaihe'. [9]

The old town in Xingcheng is a beautifully preserved Ming Dynasty city, with its original walls intact and an interior studded with temples and historical architecture. The hot springs in the Xingcheng region and its uncrowded beaches have contributed to its fame as a health destination for Party cadres across the country, while the stunning Juhua island is a significant tourist attraction.

The Great Wall passes through Huludao in spectacular fashion at Jiumenkou on the Hebei border, where the wall spans the Daqing river in nine gates. It is the only section of the Great Wall to be built over water and was listed as a World Heritage site in 2002. [10]

Other attractions in the area include the remains of Jieshi palace, built by the first emperor of the Qin Dynasty over 2,000 years ago.

Education

Tertiary institutions of importance in Huludao include:

Sister cities

Related Research Articles

Liaoning Province of China

Liaoning, is a coastal province in Northeast China that is the smallest, southernmost, and most populous province in the region. Located on the northern shore of the Yellow Sea, it is the northernmost coastal province of the People's Republic of China.

Qinhuangdao Prefecture-level city in Hebei, Peoples Republic of China

Qinhuangdao is a port city on the coast of China in northern Hebei province. It is administratively a prefecture-level city, about 300 km (190 mi) east of Beijing, on the Bohai Sea, the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea. Its population during the 2010 national census was 2,987,605, with approximately one million people living in the built-up area made up of three urban districts.

Jinzhou Prefecture-level city in Liaoning, Peoples Republic of China

Jinzhou, formerly Chinchow, is a coastal prefecture-level city in central-west Liaoning province, China. It is a geographically strategic city located in the Liaoxi Corridor, which connects most of the land transports between North China and Northeast China, and is the economic center of western Liaoning. Located on the northern shore of Liaodong Bay, Jinzhou encompasses a coastline of 97.7 km (60.7 mi), with the Port of Jinzhou being China's northernmost seaport.

Shanhai Pass

Shanhai Pass or Shanhaiguan is one of the major passes in the Great Wall of China, being the easternmost stronghold along the Ming Great Wall, and commands the narrowest choke point in the Liaoxi Corridor. It is located in Shanhaiguan District, Qinhuangdao, Hebei province, on the east bank of the Shi River between the Yan Mountains and the Liaodong Bay coast.

Yingkou Prefecture-level city in Liaoning, Peoples Republic of China

Yingkou is a coastal prefecture-level city of central southern Liaoning province, People's Republic of China, on the northeastern shore of Liaodong Bay. It is the third-smallest city in Liaoning with a total area of 4,970 square kilometres (1,920 sq mi), and the ninth most populous with a population of 2,428,534, of whom 1,340,993 live in the built-up area made of three urban districts and one county-level city (Dashiqiao). It borders the sub-provincial city of Dalian to the south, the prefectural cities of Anshan to the north and east and Panjin to the northwest, and also shares maritime boundaries with Jinzhou and Huludao across the Liaodong Bay to its west.

Liaodong Bay

Liaodong Bay is largest and longest of the three main bays of the Bohai Sea, the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea.

Liaoshen campaign

The Liaoshen campaign, an abbreviation of Liaoning–Shenyang campaign after the province of Liaoning and its Yuan directly administered capital city Shenyang, was the first of the three major military campaigns launched by the Communist People's Liberation Army (PLA) against the Kuomintang Nationalist government during the late stage of the Chinese Civil War. This engagement is also known to the Kuomintang as the Battle of Liaoshi, took place between September and November 1948 and lasted a total of 52 days. The campaign ended after the Nationalist forces suffered sweeping defeats across Manchuria, losing major cities of Jinzhou, Changchun and eventually Shenyang in the process, eventually leading to the capture of the whole of Manchuria by the Communist forces. The victory of the campaign resulted in the Communists achieving strategic numerical advantage over the Nationalists for the first time in its history.

Suizhong County County in Liaoning, Peoples Republic of China

Suizhong County is a county of southwestern Liaoning, People's Republic of China. It is located on the northern coast of the Bohai Sea and is the southernmost county of Huludao City, bordering Hebei to the southwest. The county has an area of 2,765 square kilometres (1,068 sq mi), a population of 640,000, and is an economically important region within Huludao. Suizhong is the home of the first Chinese citizen to travel in space, Yang Liwei.

Xingcheng County-level city in Liaoning, Peoples Republic of China

Xingcheng, former name Ningyuan (宁远), is a county-level city of southwest Liaoning province, China, with a population of approximately 140,000 urban inhabitants, and is located on the Liaodong Bay, i.e. the northern coast of the Bohai Sea. Currently under the administration of Huludao City, the area is steeped in history, and contains one of the best preserved Ming Dynasty towns in China, as well as functioning as a laidback summer resort.

Jinzhou District District in Liaoning, Peoples Republic of China

Jinzhou District is one of the seven districts of Dalian, Liaoning province, People's Republic of China. It is located about 20 kilometres (12 mi) northeast of the city centre and facing the Bohai Sea to the west as well as the Korea Bay to the east and has a longer history than Dalian itself, and used to be a thriving walled city where the officials of this area were dispatched from the central government. Recently, it is again a thriving town, having Dalian Development Area within its area as well as becoming a bedroom community to downtown Dalian. Its area is 1,352.54 square kilometres (522.22 sq mi) and its permanent population as of 2010 is 1,102,773.

Japanese repatriation from Huludao

The Japanese repatriation from Huludao refers to sending back to Japan the Japanese people who were left in Northeast China after the end of World War II in 1945. In this operation, done by the American forces' ships under the auspices of the Republic of China government, over one million Japanese were carried back to their homeland, from 1946 to 1948.

The Bohai Economic Rim (BER) or Bohai Bay Economic Rim (BBER) is the economic region surrounding Tianjin (Tientsin). It also includes areas in Hebei, Liaoning and Shandong surrounding the Bohai Sea. This region has undergone major economic and infrastructural changes and is an emerging economic powerhouse of North China, rivaling both the Pearl River Delta in southern China and the Yangtze River Delta in eastern China.

Bohai Sea The innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea and Korea Bay on the coast of Northeastern and North China

The Bohai Sea or Bo Sea, also known as Bohai Gulf, Bo Gulf or Pohai Bay, is a marginal sea approximately 78,000 km2 (30,000 sq mi) in area on the east coast of mainland China. It is the northwestern and innermost extension of the Yellow Sea, to which it connects to the east via the Bohai Strait.

Longgang District, Huludao District in Liaoning, Peoples Republic of China

Longgang District is a district of Huludao, Liaoning, People's Republic of China. It is by far the smallest division of Huludao City with an area of just 138 square kilometres (53 sq mi), and along with Lianshan District is one of the two districts within which Huludao city itself is situated.

Lianshan District District in Liaoning, Peoples Republic of China

Lianshan District is a district under the administration of the city of Huludao, Liaoning, People's Republic of China. It is located in the northeastern corner of Huludao prefecture, bordering Jinzhou. It has a total area of 1,651 square kilometres (637 sq mi), and along with Longgang District is one of the two districts within which Huludao city itself is situated.

Nanpiao District District in Liaoning, Peoples Republic of China

Nanpiao District is a district under the administration of the city of Huludao, Liaoning province, People's Republic of China. It is a mostly rural district containing no large urban centres, and comprises an area of 512 square kilometres (198 sq mi), in the northernmost part of Huludao City.

2013 National Games of China

The 12th National Games of China were held in the northeastern province of Liaoning from 31 August to 12 September 2013. Liaoning was the sixth provincial level host of the games, following Beijing, Shanghai, Guangdong, Jiangsu and Shandong. A total of 350 events in 31 sports were held at the games.

The Liaoning Coastal Economic Belt is a group of prefectures in Liaoning province in Northeast China. The region was defined for the purpose of a national economic development strategy of China, aiming to strengthen the region as access point of Northeast China to the sea and a vital economic gateway to Northeast Asia and other regions in the world. Specifically, the six port cities with Dalian as the center are to be built as an international shipping center for northeast Asia. Infrastructure conditions including navigation capacity and logistics systems will be particularly improved for better service.

Port of Huludao

The Port of Huludao is an artificial deep-water international seaport on the coast of Huludao, Liaoning, People's Republic of China, on the Liaodong Bay. It is one of several smaller ports being rapidly expanded in Liaoning Province in order to service the Northeast.

Bohai may refer to:

References

  1. "Introduction to Huludao". Huludao Government. Archived from the original on 2012-02-19. Retrieved 2009-12-30.
  2. 1 2 Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, ed. (2019). China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2017. Beijing: China Statistics Press. p. 50. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  3. 1 2 人口. Huludao Government. Archived from the original on 2009-10-05. Retrieved 2009-12-30.
  4. "History of Huludao". Huludao Government. Archived from the original on 2011-07-07. Retrieved 2009-12-30.
  5. 历史沿岸. Archived from the original on 2009-10-05. Retrieved 2009-12-30.
  6. 气候. Huludao Government. Archived from the original on 2009-10-05. Retrieved 2009-12-30.
  7. 中国气象数据网 - WeatherBk Data. China Meteorological Administration . Retrieved 2018-11-09.
  8. 1 2 "Investment Guide of Huludao City". Liaoning Provincial Bureau of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation. Retrieved 2009-12-30.[ permanent dead link ]
  9. "Huludao - First City out of Shanhai Pass". Shenyang Guide. Archived from the original on 2011-07-08. Retrieved 2009-12-30.
  10. "Huludao - Corridor of Western Liaoning". CRIENGLISH.com. Retrieved 2009-12-31.