Humboldt University of Berlin

Last updated

Humboldt University of Berlin
Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
Seal of the Universitas Humboldtiana Berolinensis (Latin)
Universitas litterarum (Latin)
Motto in English
The Entity of Sciences
Type Public
Established15 October 1810;212 years ago (1810-10-15) [1]
Budget€483.3 million (2020) [2]
President Julia von Blumenthal
Academic staff
2,403 [3]
Administrative staff
1,516 [3]
Students32,553 [3]
Undergraduates 18,712 [4]
Postgraduates 10,881 [4]
2,951 [4]

52°31′05″N13°23′36″E / 52.51806°N 13.39333°E / 52.51806; 13.39333 Coordinates: 52°31′05″N13°23′36″E / 52.51806°N 13.39333°E / 52.51806; 13.39333
CampusUrban and Suburban
Nobel Laureates 57 (as of 2020) [5]
Colors Blue and White    [6]
Affiliations German Universities Excellence Initiative
Atomium Culture
Humbold Universitat Logo.png

The Humboldt University of Berlin (German: Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, abbreviated HU Berlin) is a public research university in the central borough of Mitte in Berlin, Germany


The university was established by Frederick William III on the initiative of Wilhelm von Humboldt, Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Ernst Daniel Schleiermacher as the University of Berlin (Universität zu Berlin) in 1809, and opened in 1810, [7] making it the oldest of Berlin's four universities. From 1828 until its closure in 1945, it was named Friedrich Wilhelm University (German: Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität). [8] [9] During the Cold War, the university found itself in East Berlin and was de facto split in two when the Free University of Berlin opened in West Berlin. The university received its current name in honour of Alexander and Wilhelm von Humboldt in 1949. [10]

The university is divided into nine faculties including its medical school shared with the Freie Universität Berlin. The university has a student enrollment of around 32,000 students, and offers degree programs in some 189 disciplines from undergraduate to post-doctorate level. [11] Its main campus is located on the Unter den Linden boulevard in central Berlin. The university is known worldwide for pioneering the Humboldtian model of higher education, which has strongly influenced other European and Western universities. [12]

It was regarded as the world's preeminent university for the natural sciences during the 19th and early 20th century, as the university is linked to major breakthroughs in physics and other sciences by its professors, such as Albert Einstein. [13] Past and present faculty and notable alumni include 57 Nobel Prize laureates [5] (the most of any German university by a substantial margin), as well as eminent philosophers, sociologists, artists, lawyers, politicians, mathematicians, scientists, and heads of state; among them are: Albert Einstein, Hermann von Helmholtz, Emil du Bois-Reymond, Robert Koch, Theodor Mommsen, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Otto von Bismarck, W. E. B. Du Bois, Angela Davis, Arthur Schopenhauer, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Walter Benjamin, Max Weber, Georg Simmel, Karl Liebknecht, Ernst Cassirer, Heinrich Heine, Eduard Fraenkel, Max Planck and the Brothers Grimm.

As one of Germany's most prestigious institutions of higher education, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin has been conferred the title of "University of Excellence" under the German Universities Excellence Initiative.


Main building

The main building of Humboldt-Universität is the Prinz-Heinrich-Palais (English: Prince Henry's Palace) on Unter den Linden boulevard in the historic centre of Berlin. It was erected from 1748 to 1753 for Prince Henry of Prussia, the brother of Frederick the Great, according to plans by Johann Boumann in Baroque style. In 1809, the former Royal Prussian residence was converted into a university building. Damaged during the Allied bombing in World War II, it was rebuilt from 1949 to 1962. [14]

In 1967, eight statues from the destroyed Potsdam City Palace were placed on the side wings of the university building. Currently there is discussion about returning the statues to the Potsdam City Palace, which was rebuilt as the Landtag of Brandenburg in 2013. [15]

Early history

Statue of Wilhelm von Humboldt in front of the main building by artist Paul Otto. Wilhelm von Humboldt Denkmal - Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin.jpg
Statue of Wilhelm von Humboldt in front of the main building by artist Paul Otto.

The University of Berlin was established on 16 August 1809, on the initiative of the liberal Prussian educational politician Wilhelm von Humboldt by King Friedrich Wilhelm III, similar to University of Bonn, during the period of the Prussian Reform Movement. The university was located in a palace constructed from 1748 to 1766 [16] for the late Prince Henry, the younger brother of Frederick the Great. [17] After his widow and her ninety-member staff moved out, the first unofficial lectures were given in the building in the winter of 1809. [17] Humboldt faced great resistance to his ideas as he set up the university. He submitted his resignation to the King in April 1810, and was not present when the school opened that fall. [1] The first students were admitted on 6 October 1810, and the first semester started on 10 October 1810, with 256 students and 52 lecturers [10] in faculties of law, medicine, theology and philosophy under rector Theodor Schmalz. The university celebrates 15 October 1810 as the date of its opening. [1] In 1810, at the time of the opening, the university established the first academic chair in the field of history in the world. [18] From 1828 to 1945, the school was named the Friedrich Wilhelm University, in honor of its founder. Ludwig Feuerbach, then one of the students, made a comment on the university in 1826: "There is no question here of drinking, duelling and pleasant communal outings; in no other university can you find such a passion for work, such an interest for things that are not petty student intrigues, such an inclination for the sciences, such calm and such silence. Compared to this temple of work, the other universities appear like public houses." [19]

The university has been home to many of Germany's greatest thinkers of the past two centuries, among them the subjective idealist philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte, the theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher, the absolute idealist philosopher G.W.F. Hegel, the Romantic legal theorist Friedrich Carl von Savigny, the anti-optimist philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer, the objective idealist philosopher Friedrich Schelling, cultural critic Walter Benjamin, and famous physicists Albert Einstein and Max Planck.

Friedrich Wilhelm University in 1850 Berlin Universitaet um 1850.jpg
Friedrich Wilhelm University in 1850

The founders of Marxist theory Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels attended the university, as did poet Heinrich Heine, novelist Alfred Döblin, founder of structuralism Ferdinand de Saussure, German unifier Otto von Bismarck, Communist Party of Germany founder Karl Liebknecht, African American Pan Africanist W. E. B. Du Bois and European unifier Robert Schuman, as well as the influential surgeon Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach in the early half of the 1800s.

The structure of German research-intensive universities served as a model for institutions like Johns Hopkins University. Further, it has been claimed that "the 'Humboldtian' university became a model for the rest of Europe [...] with its central principle being the union of teaching and research in the work of the individual scholar or scientist." [20]


Statue of Alexander von Humboldt outside Humboldt-Universitat, from 1883 by artist Reinhold Begas. Alexander von Humboldt Denkmal - Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin.jpg
Statue of Alexander von Humboldt outside Humboldt-Universität, from 1883 by artist Reinhold Begas.

In addition to the strong anchoring of traditional subjects, such as science, law, philosophy, history, theology and medicine, the university developed to encompass numerous new scientific disciplines. Alexander von Humboldt, brother of the founder William, promoted the new learning. The construction of modern research facilities in the second half of the 19th century aided the teaching of the natural sciences. Famous researchers, such as the chemist August Wilhelm Hofmann, the physicist Hermann von Helmholtz, the mathematicians Ernst Eduard Kummer, Leopold Kronecker, Karl Weierstrass, the physicians Johannes Peter Müller, Emil du Bois-Reymond, Albrecht von Graefe, Rudolf Virchow, and Robert Koch, contributed to Berlin University's scientific fame.

Friedrich Wilhelm University became an emulated model of a modern university in the 19th century (photochrom from 1900). Berlin Universitat um 1900.jpg
Friedrich Wilhelm University became an emulated model of a modern university in the 19th century (photochrom from 1900).

During this period of enlargement, the university gradually expanded to incorporate other previously separate colleges in Berlin. An example would be the Charité, the Pépinière and the Collegium Medico-chirurgicum. In 1710, King Friedrich I had built a quarantine house for Plague at the city gates, which in 1727 was rechristened by the "soldier king" Friedrich Wilhelm: "Es soll das Haus die Charité heißen" (It will be called Charité [French for charity]). By 1829 the site became the Friedrich Wilhelm University's medical campus and remained so until 1927 when the more modern University Hospital was constructed.

The university started a natural history collection in 1810, which by 1889, required a separate building and became the Museum für Naturkunde . The preexisting Tierarznei School, founded in 1790 and absorbed by the university, in 1934 formed the basis of the Veterinary Medicine Facility (Grundstock der Veterinärmedizinischen Fakultät). Also the Landwirtschaftliche Hochschule Berlin (Agricultural University of Berlin), founded in 1881 was affiliated with the Agricultural Faculties of the university.

In August 1870, in a speech delivered on the eve of war with France, Emil du Bois-Reymond proclaimed that "the University of Berlin, quartered opposite the King's palace, is, by the deed of our foundation, the intellectual bodyguard of the House of Hohenzollern (das geistige Leibregiment des Hauses Hohenzollern)." [22]

Third Reich

Friedrich Wilhelm University in 1938 Bundesarchiv Bild 146-2006-0130, Berlin, Humboldt Universitat.jpg
Friedrich Wilhelm University in 1938

After 1933, like all German universities, Friedrich Wilhelm University was affected by the Nazi regime. The rector during this period was Eugen Fischer. It was from the university's library that some 20,000 books by "degenerates" and opponents of the regime were taken to be burned on 10 May of that year in the Opernplatz (now the Bebelplatz) for a demonstration protected by the SA that also featured a speech by Joseph Goebbels. A monument to this can now be found in the center of the square, consisting of a glass panel opening onto an underground white room with empty shelf space for 20,000 volumes and a plaque, bearing an epigraph from an 1820 work by Heinrich Heine: "Das war ein Vorspiel nur, dort wo man Bücher verbrennt, verbrennt man am Ende auch Menschen" ("This was but a prelude; where they burn books, they ultimately burn people").

The Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service (German "Gesetz zur Wiederherstellung des Berufsbeamtentums") resulted in 250 Jewish professors and employees being fired from Friedrich Wilhelm University during 1933–1934 and numerous doctorates being withdrawn. Students and scholars and political opponents of Nazis were ejected from the university and often deported. During this time nearly one third of all of the staff were fired by the Nazis.

Cold War

Humboldt University, 1950 Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S92636, Berlin, Humboldt-Universitat, Hauptgebaude, Ruine.jpg
Humboldt University, 1950
Humboldt University in 1964 Berlin Humboldt Uni 1964 day.jpg
Humboldt University in 1964

During the Cold War, the university was located in East Berlin. It reopened in 1946 as the University of Berlin, but faced repression from the Soviet Military Administration in Germany, including the persecution of liberal and social democrat students. Almost immediately, the Soviet occupiers started persecuting non-communists and suppressing academic freedom at the university, requiring lectures to be submitted for approval by Socialist Unity Party officials, and piped Soviet propaganda into the cafeteria. This led to strong protests within the student body and faculty. NKVD secret police arrested a number of students in March 1947 as a response. The Soviet Military Tribunal in Berlin-Lichtenberg ruled the students were involved in the formation of a "resistance movement at the University of Berlin", as well as espionage, and were sentenced to 25 years of forced labor. From 1945 to 1948, 18 other students and teachers were arrested or abducted, many gone for weeks, and some taken to the Soviet Union and executed. Many of the students targeted by Soviet persecution were active in the liberal or social democratic resistance against the Soviet-imposed communist "dictatorship"; the German communist party had regarded the social democrats as their main enemies since the early days of the Weimar Republic. [23] During the Berlin Blockade, the Freie Universität Berlin was established as a de facto western successor in West Berlin in 1948, with support from the United States, and retaining traditions and faculty members of the old Friedrich Wilhelm University. The name of the Free University refers to West Berlin's perceived status as part of the Western "free world," in contrast to the "unfree" Communist world in general and the "unfree" communist-controlled university in East Berlin in particular. [23]

Since the historical name, Friedrich Wilhelm University, had monarchic origins, the school was officially renamed in 1949. Although the Soviet occupational authorities preferred to name the school after a communist leader, university leaders were able to name it the Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, after the two Humboldt brothers, a name that was also uncontroversial in the west and capitalized on the fame of the Humboldt name, which is associated with the Humboldtian model of higher education. [24]

Modern Germany

Frontansicht des Hauptgebaudes der Humboldt-Universitat in Berlin.jpg
The main building of Humboldt- Universität, located in Berlin's "Mitte" district (Unter den Linden boulevard)

After the German reunification, the university was radically restructured under the Structure and Appointment Commissions, which were presided by West German professors. [25] [26] For departments on social sciences and humanities, the faculty was subjected to a "liquidation" process, in which contracts of employees were terminated and positions were made open to new academics, mainly West Germans. Older professors were offered early retirement. [26] [27] The East German higher education system included a much larger number of permanent assistant professors, lecturers and other middle level academic positions. After reunification, these positions were abolished or converted to temporary posts for consistency with the West German system. [28] As a result, only 10% of the mid-level academics in Humboldt-Universität still had a position in 1998. [26] Through the transformations, the university's research and exchange links with Eastern European institutions were maintained and stabilized. [25]

Today, Humboldt University is a state university with a large number of students (36,986 in 2014, among them more than 4,662 foreign students) after the model of West German universities, and like its counterpart the Freie Universität Berlin.

The university consists of three different campuses, namely Campus Mitte, Campus Nord and Campus Adlershof. Its main building is located in the centre of Berlin at the boulevard Unter den Linden and is the heart of Campus Mitte. The building was erected on order by King Frederick II for his younger brother Prince Henry of Prussia. All the institutes of humanities are located around the main building together with the Department of Law and the Department of Business and Economics. Campus Nord is located north of the main building close to Berlin Hauptbahnhof and is the home of the life science departments including the university medical center Charité. The natural sciences, together with computer science and mathematics, are located at Campus Adlershof in the south-east of Berlin. Furthermore, the university continues its tradition of a book sale at the university gates facing Bebelplatz.


The Berlin Natural History Museum (shown here photographed in 2005) is one of the largest natural history museums in the world. Founded alongside the University of Berlin in 1810 it left the Humboldt University in 2009. Naturkundemuseum Berlin.jpg
The Berlin Natural History Museum (shown here photographed in 2005) is one of the largest natural history museums in the world. Founded alongside the University of Berlin in 1810 it left the Humboldt University in 2009.

The aforementioned nine faculties into which the university is divided: [29]

Furthermore, there are two independent institutes (Zentralinstitute) that are part of the university:

Student representation

Each year, students elect the Studierendenparlament, which serves as the body of student representatives under German law. [30]

Summary of Studierendenparlament election results, 2022 [31] [32]
ListsVotes %±Seats±
OLKS – OffeneListeKritischerStudierender18015.45.89+3
Linke Liste an der HU – LiLi15613.3−0.980
RCDS – Demokratisch. Praktisch. Gut.15112.96.78+4
Queer-feministische LGBT*I*Q*-Liste1149.73.86+3
Die Linke.SDS HU Berlin887.54.84+2
IYSSE 635.42.73+1
João & the autonome alkis.Die LISTE534.52.13+2


Berlin-Mitte Bebelplatz1 05-2014.jpg
The former Royal Library, now seat of the Faculty of Law

When the Royal Library proved insufficient, a new library was founded in 1831, first located in several temporary sites. In 1871–1874 a library building was constructed, following the design of architect Paul Emanuel Spieker. In 1910 the collection was relocated to the building of the Berlin State Library.

During the Weimar Period the library contained 831,934 volumes (1930) and was thus one of the leading university libraries in Germany at that time.

During the Nazi book burnings in 1933, no volumes from the university library were destroyed. The loss through World War II was comparatively small. In 2003, natural science-related books were outhoused to the newly founded library at the Adlershof campus, which is dedicated solely to the natural sciences.

Since the premises of the State Library had to be cleared in 2005, a new library building was erected close to the main building in the center of Berlin. The "Jacob und Wilhelm Grimm-Zentrum" (Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm Centre, Grimm Zentrum, or GZ as referred to by students) opened in 2009.

In total, the university library contains about 6.5 million volumes and 9,000 held magazines and journals, and is one of the biggest university libraries in Germany.

The books of the Institut für Sexualwissenschaft were destroyed during the Nazi book burnings, and the institute destroyed. Under the terms of the Magnus Hirschfeld Foundation, the government had agreed to continue the work of the institute at the university after its founder's death. However, these terms were ignored. In 2001, the university acquired the Archive for Sexology from the Robert Koch Institute, which was founded with a large private library donated by Erwin J. Haeberle. This has now been housed at the new Magnus Hirschfeld Center. [33]


University rankings
Global – Overall
QS World [34] 131 (2023)
THE World [35] 86 (2023)
USNWR Global [36] 78 (2022)


Measured by the number of top managers in the German economy, Humboldt-Universität ranked 53rd in 2019. [37]

In 2020 the British QS World University Rankings rankedHumboldt-Universität 117th overall in the world and 4th best in Germany. Its global subject rankings were: 15th in Arts & Humanities, 13th in Philosophy and 7th in Classics & Ancient History. [38]

The British Times Higher Education World University Ranking 2019 listed Humboldt-Universität as the 67th best university in the world, 20th best in the Arts & Humanities, and 4th best in Germany. [39]

In 2020, the American U.S. News & World Report listed Humboldt-Universität as the 82nd best in the world, climbing eight positions, being among the 100 best in the world in 17 areas out of 29 ranked. [40]

International partnerships

HU students can study abroad for a semester or a year at partner institutions such as the University of Warwick, Princeton University, and the University of Vienna.

Notable alumni and faculty

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">University of Cologne</span> University in Germany

The University of Cologne is a university in Cologne, Germany. It was established in the year 1388 and is one of the most prestigious and research intensive universities in Germany. It was the sixth university to be established in Central Europe. It closed in 1798 before being re-established in 1919. It is now one of the largest universities in Germany with more than 50,000 students. The University of Cologne is a member of the German U15 association of major research-intensive universities and was a university of excellence as part of the German Universities Excellence Initiative from 2012 to 2019. It is constantly ranked among top 20 German universities in the world rankings.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">University of Bonn</span> Public university in Bonn, Germany

The Rhenish Friedrich Wilhelm University of Bonn is a public research university located in Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It was founded in its present form as the Rhein-Universität on 18 October 1818 by Frederick William III, as the linear successor of the Kurkölnische Akademie Bonn which was founded in 1777. The University of Bonn offers many undergraduate and graduate programs in a range of subjects and has 544 professors. The University of Bonn is a member of the German U15 association of major research-intensive universities in Germany and has the title of "University of Excellence" under the German Universities Excellence Initiative; it is consistently ranked amongst the best German universities in the world rankings and is one of the most research intensive universities in Germany.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">University of Göttingen</span> University in the city of Göttingen, Germany

The University of Göttingen, officially the Georg August University of Göttingen, is a public research university in the city of Göttingen, Germany. Founded in 1734 by George II, King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover, and starting classes in 1737, the Georgia Augusta was conceived to promote the ideals of the Enlightenment. It is the oldest university in the state of Lower Saxony and the largest in student enrollment, which stands at around 31,600.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Technical University of Berlin</span> Public university in Berlin, Germany

The Technical University of Berlin is a public research university located in Berlin, Germany. It was the first German university to adopt the name "Technische Universität".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">University of Tübingen</span> Public research university in Tübingen, Germany

The University of Tübingen, officially the Eberhard Karl University of Tübingen, is a public research university located in the city of Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Free University of Berlin</span> Public university in Berlin, Germany

The Free University of Berlin is a public research university in Berlin, Germany. It emphasizes on political science and the humanities. The university utilizes its German name without translation on its English-language website.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Leipzig University</span> University in Leipzig, Germany

Leipzig University, in Leipzig in Saxony, Germany, is one of the world's oldest universities and the second-oldest university in Germany. The university was founded on 2 December 1409 by Frederick I, Elector of Saxony and his brother William II, Margrave of Meissen, and originally comprised the four scholastic faculties. Since its inception, the university has engaged in teaching and research for over 600 years without interruption.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">University of Basel</span> Public university in Basel, Switzerland

The University of Basel is a university in Basel, Switzerland. Founded on 4 April 1460, it is Switzerland's oldest university and among the world's oldest surviving universities. The university is traditionally counted among the leading institutions of higher learning in the country.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">University of Marburg</span> German Protestant university

The Philipps University of Marburg was founded in 1527 by Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse, which makes it one of Germany's oldest universities and the oldest still operating Protestant university in the world. It is now a public university of the state of Hesse, without religious affiliation. The University of Marburg has about 23,500 students and 7,500 employees and is located in Marburg, a town of 76,000 inhabitants, with university buildings dotted in or around the town centre. About 14% of the students are international, the highest percentage in Hesse. It offers an International summer university programme and offers student exchanges through the Erasmus programme.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Leibniz University Hannover</span> Public university in Hannover, Germany

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz University Hannover, also known as the University of Hannover, is a public research university located in Hanover, Germany. Founded on 2 May 1831 as Higher Vocational School, the university has undergone six periods of renaming, its most recent in 2006.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">University of Giessen</span> Public university in Giessen, Hesse, Germany

University of Giessen, official name Justus Liebig University Giessen, is a large public research university in Giessen, Hesse, Germany. It is named after its most famous faculty member, Justus von Liebig, the founder of modern agricultural chemistry and inventor of artificial fertiliser. It covers the areas of arts/humanities, business, dentistry, economics, law, medicine, science, social sciences, and veterinary medicine. Its university hospital, which has two sites, Giessen and Marburg, is the only private university hospital in Germany.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Goethe University Frankfurt</span> University in Frankfurt, Germany

Goethe University Frankfurt is a university located in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It was founded in 1914 as a citizens' university, which means it was founded and funded by the wealthy and active liberal citizenry of Frankfurt. The original name in German was Universität Frankfurt am Main. In 1932, the university's name was extended in honour of one of the most famous native sons of Frankfurt, the poet, philosopher and writer/dramatist Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. The university currently has around 45,000 students, distributed across four major campuses within the city.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">University of Rostock</span> Public university in Rostock, Germany

The University of Rostock is a public university located in Rostock, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. Founded in 1419, it is the third-oldest university in Germany. It is the oldest university in continental northern Europe and the Baltic Sea area, and 8th oldest in Central Europe. It was the 5th university established in the Holy Roman Empire.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">University of Würzburg</span> University in Germany

The Julius Maximilian University of Würzburg is a public research university in Würzburg, Germany. The University of Würzburg is one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in Germany, having been founded in 1402. The university initially had a brief run and was closed in 1415. It was reopened in 1582 on the initiative of Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn. Today, the university is named for Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn and Maximilian Joseph.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">University of Hamburg</span> Public university in Hamburg, Germany

The University of Hamburg is a public research university in Hamburg, Germany. It was founded on 28 March 1919 by combining the previous General Lecture System, the Hamburg Colonial Institute, and the Academic College. The main campus is located in the central district of Rotherbaum, with affiliated institutes and research centres distributed around the city-state.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">University of Erlangen–Nuremberg</span> Public research university in Bavaria, Germany

University of Erlangen–Nuremberg is a public research university in the cities of Erlangen and Nuremberg in Bavaria, Germany. The name Friedrich–Alexander comes from the university's first founder Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, and its benefactor Alexander, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Charité</span> University hospital in Berlin

The Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin is one of Europe's largest university hospitals, affiliated with Humboldt University and Free University Berlin. With numerous Collaborative Research Centres of the German Research Foundation it is one of Germany's most research-intensive medical institutions. From 2012 to 2022, it was ranked by Focus as the best of over 1000 hospitals in Germany. In 2019 to 2022 Newsweek ranked the Charité as the 5th best hospital in the world, and the best in Europe. More than half of all German Nobel Prize winners in Physiology or Medicine, including Emil von Behring, Robert Koch and Paul Ehrlich, have worked at the Charité. Several politicians and diplomats have been treated at the Charité, including German Chancellor Angela Merkel, who underwent meniscus treatment at the Orthopaedic Department, Yulia Tymoshenko from Ukraine, and more recently Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny, who received treatment at the hospital due to his poisoning in August 2020.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Universities and research institutions in Berlin</span>

The Berlin-Brandenburg capital region is one of the most prolific centers of higher education and research in the world. It is the largest concentration of universities and colleges in Germany. The city has four public research universities and 27 private, professional and technical colleges (Hochschulen), offering a wide range of disciplines. Access to the German university system is tuition free.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Humboldtian model of higher education</span> Concept of academic education

The Humboldtian model of higher education or just Humboldt's Ideal is a concept of academic education that emerged in the early 19th century and whose core idea is a holistic combination of research and studies. Sometimes called simply the Humboldtian model, it integrates the arts and sciences with research to achieve both comprehensive general learning and cultural knowledge. Several elements of the Humboldtian model heavily influenced and subsequently became part of the concept of the research university. The Humboldtian model goes back to Wilhelm von Humboldt, who in the time of the Prussian reforms relied on a growing, educated middle class to promote his claims about general education.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nikolaus Rajewsky</span>

Nikolaus Rajewsky is a German system biologist at the Max-Delbrück-Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC) and at the Charité in Berlin. He founded and directs the “Berlin Institute for Medical Systems Biology”.. He leads the Rajewsky lab, where he studies how RNA regulates gene expression. He also co-chairs LifeTime, a pan-European research initiative of more than 90 academic institutions and 70 companies, which aims to revolutionize healthcare by mapping, understanding, and targeting cells during disease progression. LifeTime integrates several technologies: single-cell multiomics, machine learning, and personalized disease models such as organoids. Rajewsky has received numerous awards and honors, including the most prestigious German award, the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize, endowed with 2.5 million euros by the German Research Foundation (DFG).


  1. 1 2 3 Langner, Stefanie. "Man beruft eben tüchtige Männer und läßt die Universität sich allmählich encadrieren — Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin".[ permanent dead link ]
  2. "Leistungsbericht über das Jahr 2020 zur Umsetzung des Hochschulvertrags 2018 – 2022" (PDF) (in German). Senate Chancellery of Berlin. p. 27. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  3. 1 2 3 "Facts and Figures". Humboldt University of Berlin. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
  4. 1 2 3 "Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin". Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
  5. 1 2 List of Nobel laureates by university affiliation
  6. design. "Hausfarben der Humboldt-Universität". Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin (in German). Retrieved 7 October 2022.
  7. "Das moderne Original der Reformuniversität" (in German). Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  8. "Humboldt University of Berlin – university, Berlin, Germany". Encyclopedia Britannica.
  9. During that period, it was also unofficially called Universität unter den Linden after its location in the former palace of Prince Henry of Prussia which his brother, King Frederick II, had built for him between 1748 and 1753 on the avenue Unter den Linden .
  10. 1 2 "Berlin's oldest university faces new challenges as it turns 200". Deutsche Welle . 15 October 2010.
  11. hu_adm. "Daten und Zahlen zur Humboldt-Universität — Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin". (in German). Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  12. Connell Helen, University Research Management Meeting the Institutional Challenge: Meeting the Institutional Challenge, p. 137, OECD, 2005, ISBN   9789264017450
  13. Hans C. Ohanian, Einstein's Mistakes: The Human Failings of Genius, p. 156, W. W. Norton & Company, 2009, ISBN   9780393070422
  14. Humboldt-Universität (in German) Landesdenkmalamt Berlin
  15. ladenbea. "Die Attikaskulpturen". Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin (in German). Retrieved 11 February 2023.
  16. temp_adm. "Short History — Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin".
  17. 1 2 Nolte, Dorothee (12 October 2009). "200 Jahre Humboldt-Uni: Der Ort: Ein Palais Unter den Linden" via Die Zeit.
  18. Benedict Anderson (1991). Imagined Communities . New York City & London: Verso Books. p. 194. ISBN   0-86091-329-5.
  19. Mclellan, David (1981). Karl Marx: A Biography (Fourth ed.). Palgrave Macmillan. p.  15.
  20. Anderson, Robert (March 2010). "The 'Idea of a University' today". History & Policy. United Kingdom: History & Policy. Archived from the original on 31 March 2014. Retrieved 9 December 2010.
  21. Rüegg 2004, pp. 4–6
  22. Hayek, Friedrich A. (13 September 2010). "Planning, Science, and Freedom". Mises Institute. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
  23. 1 2 Schrader, Helena P. (30 September 2011). The blockade breakers: the Berlin Airlift. ISBN   978-0-7524-6803-7. OCLC   893685205.
  24. "Die Umbenennung zur "Humboldt-Universität" — Presseportal". (in German). Archived from the original on 20 February 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2016.
  25. 1 2 "Short History". Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
  26. 1 2 3 Boesch, Frank (2018). A History Shared and Divided: East and West Germany since the 1970s. Berghahn Books. p. 419. ISBN   9781785339264 . Retrieved 2 June 2020.
  27. Fair-Schulz, Axel; Kessler, Mario (2017). East German Historians since Reunification: A Discipline Transformed. SUNY Press. p. 119. ISBN   9781438465388.
  28. Polyzoi, Eleoussa; Fullan, Michael; Anchan, John P. (2003). Change forces in post-communist Eastern Europe. Routledge. p. 103. ISBN   9780415306591.
  29. "Faculties and Departments". Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
  30. mig_adm. "StuPa". Gremien und Beauftragte der HU (in German). Retrieved 17 October 2022.
  31. Studentischer Wahlvorstand (13 July 2022). "Vorläufiges amtliches Endergebnis der Wahl der Mitglieder des 30. Studierendenparlaments" (PDF). HU Berlin.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  32. Studentischer Wahlvorstand (14 August 2021). "Vorläufiges amtliches Endergebnis der Wahl der Mitglieder des 29. Studierendenparlaments" (PDF). HU Berlin.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  33. Erwin J Haeberle". "Berlin and its Sexological Heritage". Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology. Archived from the original on 30 August 2009.
  34. "QS World University Rankings 2023". Top Universities. Retrieved 13 October 2022.
  35. "World University Rankings 2023 – Humboldt University of Berlin". Times Higher Education (THE). 23 March 2022. Retrieved 13 October 2022.
  36. "Best Global Universities 2022". U.S. News Education (USNWR). Retrieved 13 October 2022.
  37. "An diesen Unis haben die DAX-Vorstände studiert |". (in German). Retrieved 19 October 2019.
  38. "Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin". Retrieved 25 June 2020.
  39. "Humboldt University of Berlin". Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  40. "Humboldt University of Berlin". Retrieved 21 October 2020.

Further reading