Humenné

Last updated
Humenné
Town
Humenne-place-Liberte.jpg
Freedom Square in Humenné
Coat of arms of Humenne.png
Coat of arms
Presov Region - physical map.png
Red pog.svg
Humenné
Location of Humenné in Slovakia
Slovakia relief location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Humenné
Humenné (Slovakia)
Coordinates: 48°56′09″N21°54′24″E / 48.93583°N 21.90667°E / 48.93583; 21.90667 Coordinates: 48°56′09″N21°54′24″E / 48.93583°N 21.90667°E / 48.93583; 21.90667
Country Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia
Region Prešov
District Humenné
First mentioned1317
Government
  MayorMiloš Meričko
Area
  Total28.762 km2 (11.105 sq mi)
Elevation
156 m (512 ft)
Population
 (2018-12-31 [1] )
  Total33,191
  Density1,200/km2 (3,000/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
066 01
Area code(s) 421-57
Car plate HE
Website www.humenne.sk

Humenné ( Loudspeaker.svg pronunciation  ; Rusyn : Гуменне) is a town in the Prešov Region ("kraj") in eastern Slovakia and the second largest town of the historic Zemplín region. It lies at the volcanic Vihorlat mountains and at the confluence of the Laborec and Cirocha Rivers.

Contents

Names and etymology

The name comes from a common Slavic word "humno" (gumьno). In Slovak "backyard", the exact meaning may differ in dialects. Initially, a female adjective (1322 Homonna, 1332 Humenna, 1381 Humenna, 1391 Humonna) then neutrum Humenné. [2]

Landmarks

Humenné is a center of one of the easternmost districts ("okres") in Slovakia. The most attractive places are the Vihorlat Mountains boasting of their Morské oko lake, and the Bukovské vrchy (section of the Bieszczady Mountains) at the border of Slovakia, Poland, and Ukraine, which are part of the Poloniny National Park. Humenné is surrounded by ruins of medieval castles and an open-air museum of architecture situated in the town park.

Castles and mansions near Humenné:

History

Humenne Mansion Humenne-manoir-2.jpg
Humenné Mansion

The Laborec river and the Carpathian mountains predetermined the development of the town and its surroundings, a silent witness of which has been Vihorlat volcano, at 1,075 m (3,526.90 ft) the highest peak of the Vihorlat mountains. Thanks to its advantageous location and pleasant climate, preconditioned by the neighboring mountains, the town has been an attractive place for people since the Stone Age, which is evidenced by a number of archeological findings. The Slavic forefathers of the Slovaks gradually moved to the basin of Humenné during the great migration of peoples, starting in the 5th century.

An intensive and organized settlement of this area started as late as in the middle of the 13th century, after the Mongol raids. The first written document mentioning Humenné dates back to 1317. The history of Humenné is closely connected with the Drugeth (Drugets, Drugetovci), a distinguished aristocratic family originally from Naples, who, accompanying the king Charles Robert of Anjou, came to the Kingdom of Hungary (the territory of present-day Slovakia was part of the Kingdom of Hungary) at the beginning of the 14th century. The Drugeths made Humenné their seat and changed it into the centre of one of the largest feudal dominions in Upper-Hungary. King Matthias Corvinus conferred civic privileges (town status) on the town, which were validated by a seal with coat of arms. At that time, the town was crossed by an important trade route connecting the Kingdom of Hungary with the Kingdom of Poland. Humenné is mentioned among royal customs offices, and later on it received the right of storehousing and supposedly market rights, too. This was also the time of an ever-increasing influence of shepherd colonization from Transcarpathia by the so-called Walachians (Ruthenes, Poles, and Romanians).

The most significant town monument, a Renaissance castle, was built on the place of an original stone castle in about 1610. The castle came to be an indispensable characteristic feature of the town and serves for museum and cultural purposes at present.

In 1613, during the Counter Reformation, a Jesuit college was established as the first secondary school in the history of Humenné.

In 1619, about 10,000 Polish riders—a lisowczycy—led by Walenty Rogawski, defeated army of George I Rákóczi in Battle of Humenné. Rákóczi was insurgent against Habsburgs and ally of Gábor Bethlen, Duke of Transylvania.

The Drugeth line died out in 1684 and new feudal lords moved in, notably the Csákys and the Wandernats.

The abolition of some feudal duties and the reforms of Maria Theresa promoted the development of crafts, and Humenné became the seat of the so-called "salt office". The town's population consisted of Slovaks, Ruthenes, Hungarians and Jews. Latin was used as the administrative language, which appeared to be a stabilizing factor in such a mixture of nationalities.

The Andrássy family from Transylvania started to influence the history of Humenné in the 19th century, a period characterized by economic growth. Moreover, many new buildings were erected at that time. The main fields of activities of town inhabitants were agriculture, crafts and trade. The first train appeared in Humenné in 1871, stimulating the development of trade and wood cutting. In 1899 the first business academy in Austria-Hungary was established in Humenné. Toward the end of the 19th century, Humenné counted 4,000 inhabitants.

The 20th century brought along a cultural revival. Humenné was famous for its markets and fairs. This promising, though timid, development was interrupted by World War I. A short period of the existence of Czechoslovakia between the two world wars proved to have positive effects upon the life of Humenné. As a corollary of World War II, however, all the effort had to start from the very beginning. On 26 November 1944, Humenné was captured by troops of the Soviet 18th Army, acting as a part of the 4th Ukrainian Front, after which the town became again part of Czechoslovakia.

Coat of Arms of the town of Humenne, on the facade of a historical building in the centre of the town Erb Humenne.JPG
Coat of Arms of the town of Humenné, on the façade of a historical building in the centre of the town

Until 1956 Humenné was an administrative rather than an economic centre. Then the construction of a plant for the production of textile polyamide fibres, the present Chemlon company, triggered a real chain effect on the town's growth. Humenné was gradually becoming a centre of chemical, building, food and mechanical engineering industries. This had a positive impact on the development of technical colleges. The industrial development entailed large-scale housing projects, and the town area was completed by new housing estates. While there were 7,000 inhabitants living in Humenné in 1948, the population now amounts over 33,000.

Demographics

According to the 2012 census, the town had 34,634 inhabitants. However, along with the surrounding villages that make up the town-ring, Humenné has some 42 thousand inhabitants. 79% of inhabitants were Slovaks, 6.5% Rusyns, 2.33% Roma, 1.16% Ukrainian and 0.49% Czechs. [3] The religious makeup was 57.91% Roman Catholics, 23.00% Greek Catholics, 8.69% people with no religious affiliation, 5.91% Orthodox and 0.98% Lutherans. [3]

In 1910, 48.6% were Roman Catholic, 34.8% Jewish, 12.3% Greek Catholic, while 38.2% reported Hungarian as their primary language, 30.8% Slovak and 21.1% Yiddish or German.

Sports

Football

Humenné had one club with Slovak First League history – FC Chemlon Humenné, winning Slovak Cup in 1996. FC Chemlon also played UEFA Cup Winners' Cup in the 1996–97 season. Its followers as HFC Humenné, 1. HFC Humenné and ŠK Futura Humenné were not successful like FC Chemlon. In August 2015, the licence of ŠK Futura was bought by FK Drustav Svidník, but Slovak Football Association rules do not allow to change club names only a few days before a season. The Svidník club also announced a merger between FK Drustav and ŠK Futura within one year with a new name. [4] FK Humenné is the second club in Humenné, established in TBA, playing home matches at Ihrisko pri Mlyne Stadium in Humenné. Humenné currently has only one active club: FK Humenné in the Slovak 4. liga.

Volleyball

Humenné had one of the most successful team VK Chemes Humenné in Slovak volleyball but due to dispute between owner and town about finance, club was transferred to another town Spiššká Nová Ves. Nowadays no one volleyball club is in Humenné.

Ice hockey

The city's ice hockey club is MHK Humenné, that competes in Slovak 1.Liga (2nd level).

Largest companies in Humenné (2015)

Notable natives and residents

Statue of The Good Soldier Svejk Bona Soldato SVEJK en Humenne.JPG
Statue of The Good Soldier Švejk

Twin towns — sister cities

Humenné is twinned with: [6]

See also

Related Research Articles

Uzhhorod City and administrative center of Zakarpattia Oblast, Ukraine

Uzhhorod previously and historically known as Ungvár is a city located in western Ukraine, at the border with Slovakia and near the border with Hungary. The city is located nearly within the same distance to the three nearest seas: the Baltic, the Adriatic and the Black Sea making it the most inland city in this part of Europe. It is the administrative center of Zakarpattia Oblast (region), as well as the administrative center of the surrounding Uzhhorod Raion (district) within the oblast. The city itself is also designated as city of oblast significance, a status equivalent to that of a raion, and does not belong to Uzhhorod Raion. Population: 115,512 (2020 est.) .

Prešov Region Region of Slovakia

The Prešov Region, also Priashiv Region is one of the eight Slovak administrative regions and consists of 13 districts (okresy) and 666 municipalities, from which 23 have a town status. The region was established in 1996 and is the most populous of all the regions in the country. Its administrative center is the city of Prešov.

Snina Town in Slovakia

Snina is a town in Slovakia located at the confluence of the Cirocha river and the small river Pčolinka in the valley between the Beskydy foothills and the Vihorlat Mountains. It is the closest town with rail and bus connections to Poloniny National Park.

Michalovce Town in Slovakia

Michalovce is a town on the Laborec river in eastern Slovakia. Originally named after the Archangel St Michael, it is the second-largest city in the Košice Region and the seat of the Michalovce District.

Medzilaborce Town in Slovakia

Medzilaborce is a town in northeastern Slovakia close to the border with Poland, located near the towns of Sanok and Bukowsko. Its population is approximately 6,500.

Gelnica Town in Slovakia

Gelnica is a town in the Košice Region of Eastern Slovakia. It has a population of 6,076.

Khust City in Zakarpattia Oblast, Ukraine

Khust is a city located on the Khustets River in Zakarpattia Oblast (province) in western Ukraine. It is near the сonfluence of the Tisa and Rika Rivers. Serving as the administrative center of Khust Raion (district), the city itself does not belong to the raion and is designated as a city of oblast significance, with the status equal to that of a raion. Population: 28,321 (2020 est.)

Svidník Town in Slovakia

Svidník is a town in eastern Slovakia, the capital of the Svidník District in the Prešov Region. It has a population of around 11,000.

Stropkov Town in Slovakia

Stropkov is a town in Stropkov District, Prešov Region, Slovakia.

Veľký Šariš Town in Slovakia

Veľký Šariš is a small town near Prešov in eastern Slovakia. The town is known as the site of the largest brewery in Slovakia – Šariš Brewery.

Brekov

Brekov is a village and municipality in the Humenné District in the Prešov Region of north-east Slovakia.

Hajnáčka Village in Slovakia

Hajnáčka is a village and municipality in the Rimavská Sobota District of the Banská Bystrica Region of southern Slovakia.

Strážske Town in Slovakia

Strážske is a small town and municipality in Michalovce District in the Kosice Region of eastern Slovakia. It is located in the most northern part of Michalovce District.

George I Rákóczi Hungarian prince of Transylvania

George I Rákóczi was Prince of Transylvania from 1630 until his death in 1648. Prior to that, he was a leader of the Protestant faction in Hungary and a faithful supporter of Gabriel Bethlen, his predecessor as Prince. When Bohemian nobles requested military support in their struggles against the Habsburg Monarchy, Rákóczi persuaded Bethlen to help and commanded Transylvanian forces in several battles. Rákóczi was elected prince after Bethlen's death, succeeding Bethlen's wife Catherine of Brandenburg and brother Istvan.

Low Beskids

The Low Beskids or Central Beskids are a mountain range in southeastern Poland and northeastern Slovakia. They constitute a middle (central) section of the Beskids, within the Outer Eastern Carpathians.

Battle of Humenné

The Battle of Humenné took place on 22–23 November 1619 near Humenné during the first period of the Thirty Years' War between the Transylvanian army and the joined loyalist Hungarian and Polish forces of Lisowczycy. It was the only battle of that war to involve the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

1. FK Svidník

1.FK Svidník is a Slovak football team, based in the town of Svidník. The club was founded in 1925.

ŠK Futura Humenné

ŠK Futura Humenné was a Slovak football team, based in the town of Humenné. During the Summer 2015, ŠK Futura sold their license to Svidník.

Brekov Castle

Brekov Castle is a ruined Gothic and Renaissance era stone castle above the village of Brekov in Humenné District, Prešov Region, in east Slovakia. It is a hilltop castle located on a cone-shaped hill with a limestone bedrock, in an altitude of approximately 480 m (1574.80 ft) above sea level. The eponymous village at the foot of the castle hill was founded as an adjoined castle settlement, similarly to several other villages in the region. Brekov and Brekov Castle lie in the traditional region of Zemplín. The castle is listed in the National Cultural Heritage list of the Monuments Board of the Slovak Republic.

Jasenov Castle

Jasenov Castle is a ruined Gothic and Renaissance era stone castle above the village of Jasenov in Humenné District, Prešov Region, in east Slovakia. It is a hilltop castle located on a fairly steep, roughly cone-shaped hill with a limestone bedrock, in an altitude of approximately 392 m (1286.08 ft) above sea level. The eponymous village at the foot of the castle hill was founded as an adjoined castle settlement, similarly to several other villages in the region. Jasenov and Jasenov Castle lie in the traditional region of Zemplín. The castle is listed in the National Cultural Heritage list of the Monuments Board of the Slovak Republic.

References

  1. "Population and migration". Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic. Retrieved 2019-04-16.
  2. Uhlár, Vlado (1982). "Miestne názvy Humenné a Cimenná" (PDF). Slovenská reč (in Slovak). Jazykovedný ústav Ľudovíta Štúra SAV (6): 357.
  3. 1 2 "Municipal Statistics". Statistical Office of the Slovak republic. Archived from the original on 2008-01-11. Retrieved 2008-01-12.
  4. ŠK Futura priniesla pod Duklu vyššiu súťaž August 4, 2015
  5. Gabriel, Levicky. "Gabriel Levicky (born Gabriel Levický), 1948". National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library. NCSML.
  6. "Partnerské mestá" (in Slovak). Humenné. Retrieved 2019-09-03.