Humid continental climate

Last updated

Humid continental climate worldwide, utilizing the Koppen climate classification
Dsa
Dsb
Dwa
Dwb
Dfa
Dfb Koppen World Map Dsa, Dwa, Dfa, Dsb, Dwb and Dfb (Humid continental).svg
Humid continental climate worldwide, utilizing the Köppen climate classification
  Dsa
  Dsb
  Dwa
   Dwb
   Dfa
   Dfb

A humid continental climate is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, [1] typified by four distinct seasons and large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters. Precipitation is usually distributed throughout the year. The definition of this climate regarding temperature is as follows: the mean temperature of the coldest month must be below −3 °C (26.6 °F) [2] (or 0 °C (32.0 °F) [3] ) and there must be at least four months whose mean temperatures are at or above 10 °C (50 °F). In addition, the location in question must not be semi-arid or arid. The Dfb, Dwb and Dsb subtypes are also known as hemiboreal.

Contents

Humid continental climates are generally found roughly between latitudes 40° N and 60° N, [4] within the central and northeastern portions of North America, Europe, and Asia. They are much less commonly found in the Southern Hemisphere due to the larger ocean area at that latitude and the consequent greater maritime moderation. In the Northern Hemisphere some of the humid continental climates, typically in Hokkaido, Northern Honshu, Sakhalin island, Scandinavia, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland are heavily maritime-influenced, with relatively cool summers and winters being just below the freezing mark. [5] More extreme humid continental climates found in northeast China, southern Siberia, the Canadian Prairies, and the Great Lakes region of the American Midwest and Central Canada combine hotter summer maxima and colder winters than the marine-based variety. [6]

Definition

The snowy city of Sapporo, Japan, has a humid continental climate (Koppen Dfa). Odori Park Sapporo Snow Festival 2007.JPG
The snowy city of Sapporo, Japan, has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfa).

Using the Köppen climate classification, a climate is classified as humid continental when the temperature of the coldest month is below −3 °C [26.6 °F] (or 0 °C [32.0 °F]) and there must be at least four months whose mean temperatures are at or above 10 °C (50 °F). [3] These temperatures were not arbitrary. In Europe, the −3 °C average temperature isotherm (line of equal temperature) was near the southern extent of winter snowpack. The 10 °C average temperature was found to be the minimum temperature necessary for tree growth. [7] Wide temperature ranges are common within this climate zone. [8]

Second letter in the classification symbol defines seasonal rainfall as follows: [3]

while the third letter denotes the extent of summer heat: [3]

Associated precipitation

Within North America, moisture within this climate regime is supplied by the Gulf of Mexico and adjacent western subtropical Atlantic. [9] Precipitation is relatively well distributed year-round in many areas with this climate (f), while others may see a marked reduction in wintry precipitation, [7] which increases the chances of a wintertime drought (w). [10] Snowfall occurs in all areas with a humid continental climate and in many such places is more common than rain during the height of winter. In places with sufficient wintertime precipitation, the snow cover is often deep. Most summer rainfall occurs during thunderstorms, [7] and in North America and Asia an occasionally tropical system. Though humidity levels are often high in locations with humid continental climates, the "humid" designation means that the climate is not dry enough to be classified as semi-arid or arid.

Vegetation

Mixed forest in Vermont during autumn Vermont fall foliage hogback mountain.JPG
Mixed forest in Vermont during autumn

By definition, forests thrive within this climate. Biomes within this climate regime include temperate woodlands, temperate grasslands, temperate deciduous, temperate evergreen forests, [9] and coniferous forests. [11] Within wetter areas, maple, spruce, pine, fir, and oak can be found. Fall foliage is noted during the autumn. [7]

Hot summer subtype

Regions with hot-summer humid continental climates Koppen World Map Dfa Dwa Dsa.png
Regions with hot-summer humid continental climates
Chicago, United States
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
50
 
 
−1
−9
 
 
45
 
 
2
−6
 
 
72
 
 
9
−1
 
 
97
 
 
15
5
 
 
98
 
 
22
11
 
 
106
 
 
27
16
 
 
97
 
 
29
19
 
 
99
 
 
28
18
 
 
88
 
 
24
14
 
 
71
 
 
17
7
 
 
82
 
 
9
1
 
 
71
 
 
2
−5
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: NOAA [12]
Shenyang, China
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
6.9
 
 
−5
−17
 
 
8.6
 
 
0
−12
 
 
21
 
 
7
−4
 
 
40
 
 
17
5
 
 
53
 
 
23
12
 
 
93
 
 
28
17
 
 
174
 
 
29
21
 
 
169
 
 
29
19
 
 
65
 
 
24
12
 
 
39
 
 
16
4
 
 
20
 
 
6
−5
 
 
10
 
 
−2
−13
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: China Meteorological Administration [13]

A hot summer version of a continental climate features an average temperature of at least 22 °C (71.6 °F) in its warmest month. [14] Since these regimes are limited to the Northern Hemisphere, the warmest month is usually July or August. For example, Chicago has average July afternoon temperatures near 29 °C (84 °F), while average January afternoon temperature are near −1 °C (30.2 °F). Frost free periods normally last 4–7 months within this climate regime. [7]

Within North America, this climate includes small areas of central and southeast Canada, and portions of the central and eastern United States from the 100th meridian eastward to the Atlantic. Precipitation increases further eastward in this zone and is less seasonally uniform in the west. The western states of the central United States (namely Montana, Wyoming, parts of southern Idaho, most of Lincoln County in Eastern Washington, parts of Colorado, parts of Utah, western Nebraska, and parts of western North and South Dakota) have thermal regimes which fit the Dfa climate type, but are quite dry, and are generally grouped with the steppe (BSk) climates.

In the Eastern Hemisphere, this climate regime is found within interior Eurasia, east-central Asia, and parts of India. Within Europe, the Dfa climate type is present near the Black Sea in southern Ukraine, the Southern Federal District of Russia, southern Moldova, Serbia, parts of southern Romania, and Bulgaria, [15] [16] but tends to be drier and can be even semi-arid in these places. In East Asia, this climate exhibits a monsoonal tendency with much higher precipitation in summer than in winter, and due the effects of the strong Siberian High much colder winter temperatures than similar latitudes around the world, however with lower snowfall, the exception being western Japan with its heavy snowfall. Tōhoku, between Tokyo and Hokkaidō and Western coast of Japan also has a climate with Köppen classification Dfa, but is wetter even than that part of North America with this climate type. A variant which has dry winters and hence relatively lower snowfall with monsoonal type summer rainfall is to be found in northern China including Manchuria and parts of North China, and over much of the Korean Peninsula; it has the Köppen classification Dwa. Much of central Asia, northwestern China, and southern Mongolia have a thermal regime similar to that of the Dfa climate type, but these regions receive so little precipitation that they are more often classified as steppes (BSk) or deserts (BWk).

This climate zone does not exist at all in the southern hemisphere, where the only landmass that enters the upper-middle latitudes, South America, tapers too much to have any place that gets the combination of snowy winters and hot summers. Marine influences preclude Dfa, Dwa, and Dsa climates in the southern hemisphere.

Warm summer subtype

Regions with warm-summer humid continental climates Koppen World Map Dfb Dwb Dsb.png
Regions with warm-summer humid continental climates
Moscow, Russian Federation
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
52
 
 
−4
−9
 
 
41
 
 
−4
−10
 
 
35
 
 
3
−4
 
 
37
 
 
11
2
 
 
49
 
 
19
8
 
 
80
 
 
22
12
 
 
85
 
 
24
14
 
 
82
 
 
22
13
 
 
68
 
 
16
7
 
 
71
 
 
9
3
 
 
55
 
 
1
−3
 
 
52
 
 
−3
−8
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: pogoda.ru.net
Halifax, Canada
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
139
 
 
0
−8
 
 
110
 
 
0
−8
 
 
133
 
 
4
−4
 
 
118
 
 
9
1
 
 
119
 
 
14
6
 
 
112
 
 
20
11
 
 
110
 
 
23
14
 
 
96
 
 
23
15
 
 
109
 
 
19
12
 
 
124
 
 
13
6
 
 
151
 
 
8
2
 
 
145
 
 
3
−4
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Environment Canada [17]

Areas featuring this subtype of the continental climate have an average temperature in the warmest month below 22 °C. Summer high temperatures in this zone typically average between 21–28 °C (70–82 °F) during the daytime and the average temperatures in the coldest month are generally far below the −3 °C (27 °F) (or 0 °C (32.0 °F)) isotherm. Frost-free periods typically last 3–5 months. Heat spells lasting over a week are rare. Winters are brisk and cold. [7]

The warm summer version of the humid continental climate covers a much larger area than the hot subtype. In North America, the climate zone covers from about 45°N to 50°N latitude mostly east of the 100th meridian, including most of Southern Ontario, The Maritimes and the island of Newfoundland. However, it can be found as far north as 54°N, and further west in the Canadian Prairie Provinces [ citation needed ] and below 40°N in the high Appalachians. In Europe this subtype reaches its most northerly latitude at nearly 61° N.[ citation needed ]

High-altitude locations as South Lake Tahoe, California, and Aspen, Colorado, in the western United States exhibit local Dfb climates. The south-central and southwestern Prairie Provinces also fits the Dfb criteria from a thermal profile, but because of semi-arid precipitation portions of it are grouped into the BSk category. Much of New England and small parts of the Mid-Atlantic also fall into this subtype.[ citation needed ]

In Europe, it is found in much of Eastern Europe and southern parts of Scandinavia not bathed by the Atlantic Ocean or North Sea: Ukraine (the whole country except the Black Sea coast), Belarus, Poland (one third of the east), Russia, Sweden (historical region of Svealand), Finland (south end, including the three largest cities), [16] Norway (most populated area), [18] Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Romania (generally above 100 m) and Hungary (generally above 100 m). [15] It has little warming or precipitation effects from the northern Atlantic. [16] The cool summer subtype is marked by mild summers, long cold winters and less precipitation than the hot summer subtype; however, short periods of extreme heat are not uncommon. Northern Japan has a similar climate.[ citation needed ]

In the Southern Hemisphere it exists in well-defined areas only in the Southern Alps of New Zealand [ citation needed ], in the Snowy Mountains of Australia in Kiandra, New South Wales (only dashes) [19] and the Andes Mountains of Argentina and Chile. [20]

Use in climate modeling

Since climate regimes tend to be dominated by vegetation of one region with relatively homogenous ecology, those that project climate change remap their results in the form of climate regimes as an alternative way to explain expected changes. [1]

See also

Related Research Articles

Climate Statistics of weather conditions in a given region over long periods

Climate is the long-term average of weather, typically averaged over a period of 30 years. Some of the meteorological variables that are commonly measured are temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, and precipitation. In a broader sense, climate is the state of the components of the climate system, which includes the ocean and ice on Earth. The climate of a location is affected by its latitude, terrain, and altitude, as well as nearby water bodies and their currents.

Subarctic climate

The subarctic climate is a climate characterised by long, usually very cold winters, and short, cool to mild summers. It is found on large landmasses, away from the moderating effects of an ocean, generally at latitudes from 50° to 70°N poleward of the humid continental climates. Subarctic or boreal climates are the source regions for the cold air that impacts temperate latitudes to the south in winter. These climates represent Köppen climate classification Dfc, Dwc, Dsc, Dfd, Dwd and Dsd.

Temperate climate

In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth. In most climate classifications, temperate climates refer to the climate zone between 35 and 50 north and south latitudes.

Continental climate

Continental climates often have a significant annual variation in temperature. They tend to occur in the middle latitudes, where prevailing winds blow overland, and temperatures are not moderated by bodies of water such as oceans or seas. Continental climates occur mostly in the Northern Hemisphere, which has the kind of large landmasses on temperate latitudes required for this type of climate to develop. Most of northern and northeastern China, eastern and southeastern Europe, central and southeastern Canada, and the central and northeastern United States have this type of climate.

Mediterranean climate Type of climate

A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by dry summers and mild, wet winters. The climate receives its name from the Mediterranean Basin, where this climate type is most common. Mediterranean climate zones are typically located along the western sides of continents, between roughly 30 and 45 degrees north and south of the equator. The main cause of Mediterranean, or dry summer climate, is the subtropical ridge which extends northwards during the summer and migrates south during the winter due to increasing north-south temperature differences.

Subtropics Geographic and climate zone

The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° and temperate zones north and south of the Equator.

Tropical climate climate in the tropical region

A tropical climate in the Köppen climate classification is a non-arid climate in which all twelve months have mean temperatures warmer than 18 °C (64 °F). Tropical climates are normally found from the equator to 25 north and south latitude. Tropical climates are typically frost-free, and changes in the solar angle are small since they occupy low latitudes. In tropical climates, the temperature remains relatively constant (hot) throughout the year. Sunlight is intense.

Köppen climate classification climate classification system

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by the German-Russian climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936. Later, the climatologist Rudolf Geiger introduced some changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes called the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system.

Oceanic climate a type of climate characterised by cool summers and cool winters|category in the Köppen climate classification system

An oceanic climate, also known as a marine climate or temperate oceanic climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers and cool but not cold winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature. Oceanic climates are defined as having a monthly mean temperature below 22 °C (72 °F) in the warmest month, and above 0 °C (32 °F) in the coldest month. This climate type is often caused by the onshore flow from the cool, high latitude oceans that are found west of their location.

Semi-arid climate climate with precipitation below potential evapotranspiration

A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate. There are different kinds of semi-arid climates, depending on variables such as temperature, and they give rise to different biomes.

In climatology, the term mesothermal is used to refer to certain forms of climate found typically in the Earth's temperate zones. It has a moderate amount of heat, with winters not cold enough to sustain snow cover. Summers are warm within oceanic climate regimes, and hot within continental climate regimes.

In climatology, the term microthermal is used to denote the continental climates of Eurasia and North America.

Climate of Argentina

The climate of Argentina is a vastly complex subject, as the vast size of the country and wide variation in altitude make for a wide range of climate types. Summers are the warmest and wettest season in most of the country except in most of Patagonia where it is the driest season. Winters are normally mild in the north, cool in the center and cold in the southern parts experiencing frequent frost and snow. Because southern parts of the country are moderated by the surrounding oceans, the cold is less intense and prolonged than areas at similar latitudes in the northern hemisphere. Spring and autumn are transition seasons that generally feature mild weather.

Climate of Mexico

The climate of Mexico is highly varied. The Tropic of Cancer effectively divides the country into temperate and tropical zones. Land that is north of the twenty-fourth parallel experiences lower temperatures during the winter months. South of the twenty-fourth parallel, temperatures are fairly constant year round and vary solely as a function of elevation. The north of the country generally receives less precipitation than the south.

Climate of Kosovo

Kosovo is a relatively small territory. Because of the climatic position and complicated structure of the relief it has a variety of climate systems.

Humid subtropical climate category in the Köppen climate classification system

A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and cold to mild winters. These climates normally lie on the southeast side of all continents, generally between latitudes 25° and 35° and are located poleward from adjacent tropical climates. While many subtropical climates tend to be located at or near coastal locations, in some cases they extend inland, most notably in China and the United States, where they exhibit more pronounced seasonal variations and sharper contrasts between summer and winter, as part of a gradient between the more tropical climates of the southern coasts of these countries and the more continental climates of China and the United States’ northern and central regions.

Climate of Manitoba

Because of its location in the centre of the North American continent, the climate of Manitoba is extreme. In general, temperatures and precipitation decrease from south to north, and precipitation also decreases from east to west. Since Manitoba is far removed from the moderating influences of both mountain ranges and large bodies of water, and because of the generally flat landscape in many areas, it is exposed to numerous weather systems throughout the year, including cold Arctic high-pressure air masses that settle in from the northwest, usually during the months of January and February. In the summer, the air masses often come out of the southern United States, as the stronger Azores High ridges into the North American continent, the more warm, humid air is drawn northward from the Gulf of Mexico, generally during the months of July or August.

Climate of Spain Climate in Spain

The climate in Spain varies across the country. Spain is the most climatically diverse country in Europe with 13 different Köppen climates, excluding the Canary Islands, and is within the 10 most climatically diverse countries in the world. Five main climatic zones can be distinguished, according to Guzman geographical situation and orographic conditions:

Trewartha climate classification Method of classifying the worlds climates

The Trewartha climate classification is a climate classification system first published by American geographer Glenn Thomas Trewartha in 1966. It is a modified version of the Köppen-Geiger system, created to answer some of its deficiencies. The Trewartha system attempts to redefine the middle latitudes to be closer to vegetation zoning and genetic climate systems. It was considered a more true or "real world" reflection of the global climate.

Opuksky Nature Reserve Nature Reserve of Ukraine

Opuksky Nature Reserve is a protected nature reserve of Ukraine located on the southern coast of the Kerch Peninsula on the Black Sea. It is centered on a limestone massif rising from the kerch plains, and a salt lake. The site is a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance.

References

  1. 1 2 Michal Belda; Eva Holtanová; Tomáš Halenka; Jaroslava Kalvová (2014-02-04). "Climate classification revisited: from Köppen to Trewartha" (PDF). Climate Research. 59 (1): 1–14. Bibcode:2014ClRes..59....1B. doi:10.3354/cr01204.
  2. Kottek, Markus; Grieser, Jürgen; Beck, Christoph; Rudolf, Bruno; Rubel, Franz (2006). "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated". Meteorologische Zeitschrift. 15 (3): 259–263. Bibcode:2006MetZe..15..259K. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Peel, M. C.; Finlayson B. L. & McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen−Geiger climate classification" (PDF). Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11 (5): 1633–1644. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007. ISSN   1027-5606.
  4. Béla Berényi. Cultivated Plants, Primarily As Food Sources -- Vol II -- Fruit in Northern Latitudes (PDF). Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems. p. 1. Retrieved 2015-02-23.
  5. "Halifax, Nova Scotia Temperature Averages". Weatherbase. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
  6. "Milwaukee, Wisconsin Temperature Averages". Weatherbase. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 6 C. Donald Ahrens; Robert Henson (2015). Meteorology Today (11 ed.). Cengage Learning. pp. 491–492. ISBN   978-1305480629.
  8. Steven Ackerman; John Knox (2006). Meteorology: Understanding the Atmosphere. Cengage Learning. p. 419. ISBN   978-1-305-14730-0.
  9. 1 2 Andy D. Ward; Stanley W. Trimble (2003). Environmental Hydrology, Second Edition. CRC Press. pp. 30–34. ISBN   978-1-56670-616-2.
  10. Vijendra K. Boken; Arthur P. Cracknell; Ronald L. Heathcote (2005). Monitoring and Predicting Agricultural Drought : A Global Study: A Global Study. Oxford University Press. p. 349. ISBN   978-0-19-803678-4.
  11. Timothy Champion; Clive Gamble; Stephen Shennan; Alisdair Whittle (2009). Prehistoric Europe. Left Coast Press. p. 14. ISBN   978-1-59874-463-7.
  12. National Climatic Data Center. "Illinois Normals" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2015-02-23.[ permanent dead link ]
  13. "Archived copy" 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集(1971-2000年) (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Archived from the original on 2013-09-21. Retrieved 2010-05-04.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  14. Gordon B. Bonan (2008). "6. Earth's Climate". Ecological Climatology: Concepts and Applications. Cambridge University Press. ISBN   978-1-107-26886-9.
  15. 1 2 Joseph Hobbs (2012). Fundamentals of World Regional Geography. Cengage Learning. p. 76. ISBN   978-1-285-40221-5.
  16. 1 2 3 Michael Kramme (2012). Exploring Europe, Grades 5 - 8. Carson-Dellosa Publishing. p. 12. ISBN   978-1-58037-670-9.
  17. "Halifax Stanfield INT'L A, Nova Scotia". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. 2011-10-31. Retrieved May 8, 2014.
  18. Peel, M. C. and Finlayson, B. L. and McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification". Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11 (5): 1633–1644. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007. ISSN   1027-5606.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)(direkt: Final Revised Paper; PDF; 1,7 MB)
  19. "Changes in Köppen-Geiger climate types under a future climate for Australia: Hydrological implications". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2019-03-06.
  20. "Updated Köppen-Geiger climate map of the world". people.eng.unimelb.edu.au. Retrieved 2019-03-06.