Humphrey Bogart (1899–1957)was an American actor and producer whose 36-year career began with live stage productions in New York in 1920. He had been born into an affluent family in New York's Upper West Side, the first-born child and only son of illustrator Maud Humphrey and physician Belmont Deforest Bogart. The family eventually came to include his sisters Patricia and Catherine. His parents believed he would excel academically, possibly matriculate at Yale University and become a surgeon. They enrolled him in the private schools of Delancey, Trinity, and Phillips Academy, but Bogart was not scholarly inclined and never completed his studies at Phillips, joining the United States Navy in 1918.
On the completion of his military service, Bogart began working in theatrical productions. He was initially employed as a manager behind the scenes for the plays Experience and The Ruined Lady, before trying his talents on stage in the 1922 play Drifting. A recurring legend about Bogart is that his dialog in the 1925 play Hell's Bells was, "Tennis anyone?", but Bogart denied that. His body of stage work included more than a dozen plays, and lasted a little over a decade. He began to pursue a career in film by 1928, first appearing in the short film The Dancing Town , and then in the 1930 short film Broadway's Like That . Bogart appeared in 75 feature films, and initially believed he was on the road to stardom when he secured a 1929 contract with Fox Film. The resulting productions of A Devil with Women , Up the River , A Holy Terror , Body and Soul and Women of All Nations for Fox, as well as Bad Sister for Universal Pictures, were collectively a disappointment to him, and he returned to stage work in New York.
Bogart's break-out role was that of escaped murderer Duke Mantee whom he played in 197 stage performances of the 1935 Broadway theatre production of The Petrified Forest, with actor Leslie Howard in the lead. The play, and his subsequent casting in the movie version, propelled him to stardom, and secured him a movie contract with Warner Bros. He made 48 films for them, including The Maltese Falcon , To Have and Have Not , Key Largo , and Casablanca , the last of which earned Bogart his first nomination for an Academy Award for Best Actor. Bogart won the award on his second nomination, for his 1951 performance in the United Artists production The African Queen . His third Oscar nomination was for his performance in the 1954 Columbia Pictures production The Caine Mutiny . In addition to his film work, Bogart guest starred in numerous radio and television programs, primarily reprising his film roles. He formed Santana Productions in 1948, with the company's 1950 production of In a Lonely Place chosen by the National Film Registry in 2007 for permanent preservation as "culturally, historically or aesthetically" significant. Santana Productions also created the 1951–1952 Bold Venture half-hour radio series as a vehicle for Bogart and his wife Lauren Bacall.
After Bogart completed his World War I service with the United States Navy, he found theatrical employment in New York. He stage managed the 1920 play Experience, and later became a road manager for The Ruined Lady.When he began to pursue an acting career, his debut role was in the 1922 play Drifting.
He appeared in 18 productions on Broadway, including the role that would propel him to fame and success in the movie industry; from January through June 1935, he appeared in 197 performances of The Petrified Forest as Duke Mantee, a murderer fleeing across the Arizona-Mexico border to evade capture by law enforcement.Leslie Howard appeared in the lead role as intellectual idealist Alan Squier.
Note that the opening and closing dates of the below productions are not listed. With the exception of The Petrified Forest, the sources do not indicate whether or not Bogart was in the entire run of any production.
|Drifting||1922||Multiple roles||Playhouse Theatre|
|Swifty||1922||Tom Proctor||Playhouse Theatre|
|Meet the Wife||1923||Gregory Brown||Klaw Theatre|
|Nerves||1924||Bob Thatch||Comedy Theatre|
|Hell's Bells||1925||Jimmy Todhunter||Wallack's Theatre||Popular lore says Bogart delivered the line, "Tennis anyone?" (or similar phrasing) in this play. Bogart denied it, saying his line was, "It's forty-love outside. Anyone care to watch?"|
|Cradle Snatchers||1925||Jose Vallejo||Music Box Theatre|
|Baby Mine||1927||Alfred Hardy||Chanin's 46th Street Theatre|
|Saturday's Children||1927||Rims O'Neil||Booth Theatre|
|Saturday's Children||1928||Rims O'Neil||Forrest Theatre|
|Skyrocket||1929||Vic. Ewing||Lyceum Theatre|
|It's a Wise Child||1929–1930||Roger Baldwin||Belasco Theatre|
|After All||1931||Duff Wilson||Booth Theatre|
|I Loved You Wednesday||1932||Randall Williams||Sam H. Harris Theatre|
|Chrysalis||1932||Don Ellis||Martin Beck Theatre|
|Our Wife||1933||Jerry Marvin||Booth Theatre|
|The Mask and the Face||1933||Luciano Spina||Guild Theatre|
|Invitation to a Murder||1934||Horatio Channing||Theatre Masque|
|The Petrified Forest||1935||Duke Mantee||Broadhurst Theatre||197 performances, with Leslie Howard in the lead role of Alan Squier|
Bogart always believed that the future of his profession was ultimately in the burgeoning film industry. After signing with Charles Frohman Productions, he was cast as the male lead opposite stage actress Helen Hayes in a two-reel silent The Dancing Town (1928) for Paramount Pictures.He appeared in a Vitaphone short musical Broadway's Like That (1930), which also featured Joan Blondell and Ruth Etting.
|The Dancing Town||1928||Man in Doorway at Dance|| Paramount Pictures |
Preserved at the UCLA Film & Television Archive
|Broadway's Like That||1930||Ruth's Fiancé||Soundtrack lost|
He made 75 feature length films during his career. Two serendipitous events helped pave a path for his career ambitions. During the last half of the 1920s, the film industry's transition from the silent era to sound shifted focus towards stage actors whose vocal talents had been honed in front of live audiences.When the 1929 stock market crash triggered the Great Depression in the United States, funding for stage shows became precarious. Bogart's brother-in-law, Stuart Rose, had become an employee of Fox Film, and was able to arrange a screen test for him with Fox executive Al Lewis. After viewing the test, the Hollywood home office of Fox sent Lewis a directive that Bogart was to be signed to a $750 per week contract, with an option of raising it to $1,000 per week if he performed as expected:
I'm going to become the biggest movie star Hollywood's ever seen.
The films made in Hollywood under his Fox contract were A Devil with Women (1930), Up the River (1930), A Holy Terror (1931), Body and Soul (1931), and Women of All Nations (1931). While still in California, he also made Bad Sister (1931) for Universal Pictures. Bogart was less than impressed with the end products, and returned to his stage career in New York.
When Warner Bros. purchased the film rights for The Petrified Forest, the studio retained Leslie Howard in the lead role he had performed on Broadway, but replaced Bogart with Edward G. Robinson in the role of Mantee. Howard intervened on Bogart's behalf to reclaim the role for him.Following the success of Bogart's performance in the 1936 film, Jack L. Warner put him under contract for $550 a week, with a morals clause, and financial options which could potentially more than triple Bogart's weekly salary.
He continued to appear in feature films for the rest of his life, and claimed that "at Warner Bros. in the 30s, I became a one-man film factory."He made 48 films for Warner Bros., more than any other studio he was affiliated with. His body of work there included some of his most acclaimed films: Dark Victory (1939), High Sierra (1941), The Maltese Falcon (1941), Casablanca (1942), To Have and Have Not (1944), The Big Sleep (1946), The Treasure of the Sierra Madre (1948) and Key Largo (1948). By comparison, he only made seven films with Fox, five films each with Columbia Pictures and his own Santana Productions, three films for Paramount Pictures, two for United Artists, and one each for United States Pictures, Universal Pictures, First National Pictures, Samuel Goldwyn Productions, MGM and Walter Wanger Productions.
Bogart created his own Santana Productions in 1948. The company produced Knock on Any Door (1949), Tokyo Joe (1949), And Baby Makes Three (1949) starring Robert Young and Barbara Hale, Sirocco (1951), The Family Secret (1951) starring John Derek and Lee J. Cobb, and Beat the Devil (1951), Bogart's spoof of The Maltese Falcon. The company's production of In a Lonely Place (1950) was added to National Film Registry in 2007, "to be preserved for all time". Inclusion of films in the registry are based on "culturally, historically or aesthetically" significant quality.
|A Devil with Women||1930||Tom Standish||Fox Film|
|Up the River||1930||Steve Jordan||Fox Film|
|Bad Sister||1931||Valentine Corliss|| Universal Pictures |
distributed through Warner Bros.
|A Holy Terror||1931||Steve Nash||Fox Film|
|Body and Soul||1931||Jim Watson||Fox Film|
|Women of All Nations||1931||Stone |
Preserved at the UCLA Film & Television Archive
|Big City Blues||1932||Shep Adkins||Warner Bros.|
|Three on a Match||1932||Harve||Warner Bros.|
|Love Affair||1932||Jim Leonard||Columbia Pictures|
|Midnight||1934||Gar Boni||aka Call It Murder|
|The Petrified Forest||1936||Duke Mantee||Warner Bros.|
|Bullets or Ballots||1936||Nick "Bugs" Fenner||Warner Bros.|
|Two Against the World||1936||Sherry Scott||aka One Fatal Hour|
|China Clipper||1936||Hap Stuart||First National Pictures|
|Isle of Fury||1936||Valentine "Val" Stevens||Warner Bros.|
|Black Legion||1937||Frank Taylor||Warner Bros.|
|The Great O'Malley||1937||John Phillips||Warner Bros.|
|Marked Woman||1937||District Attorney David Graham||Warner Bros.|
|San Quentin||1937||Joe "Red" Kennedy||Warner Bros.|
|Kid Galahad||1937||Turkey Morgan||Warner Bros.|
|Dead End||1937||Hugh "Baby Face" Martin||Samuel Goldwyn Productions|
|Stand-In||1937||Doug Quintain||Walter Wanger Productions|
|Swing Your Lady||1938||Ed Hatch||Warner Bros.|
|Crime School||1938||Deputy Commissioner Mark Braden||Warner Bros.|
|Men Are Such Fools||1938||Harry Galleon||Warner Bros.|
|Racket Busters||1938||Pete "Czar" Martin||Warner Bros.|
|The Amazing Dr. Clitterhouse||1938||"Rocks" Valentine||Warner Bros.|
|Angels with Dirty Faces||1938||James Frazier||Warner Bros.|
|King of the Underworld||1939||Joe Gurney||Warner Bros.|
|The Oklahoma Kid||1939||Whip McCord||Warner Bros.|
|You Can't Get Away with Murder||1939||Frank Wilson||Warner Bros.|
|Dark Victory||1939||Michael O'Leary||Warner Bros.|
|The Roaring Twenties||1939||George Hally||Warner Bros.|
|The Return of Doctor X||1939||Dr. Maurice Xavier, aka Marshall Quesne||Warner Bros.|
|Invisible Stripes||1939||Chuck Martin||Warner Bros.|
|They Drive by Night||1940||Paul Fabrini||Warner Bros.|
|Virginia City||1940||John Murrell||Warner Bros.|
|It All Came True||1940||Grasselli aka Chips Maguire||Warner Bros.|
|Brother Orchid||1940||Jack Buck||Warner Bros.|
|High Sierra||1941||Roy Earle||Warner Bros.|
|The Wagons Roll at Night||1941||Nick Coster||Warner Bros.|
|The Maltese Falcon||1941||Sam Spade||First film appearance of Sydney Greenstreet |
|All Through the Night||1942||Alfred 'Gloves' Donahue||Warner Bros.|
|The Big Shot||1942||Joseph "Duke" Berne||Warner Bros.|
|Across the Pacific||1942||Rick Leland||Warner Bros.|
|Casablanca||1942||Rick Blaine||Nominated for Best Actor Oscar |
|Action in the North Atlantic||1943||Lt. Joe Rossi||Warner Bros.|
|Sahara||1943||Sgt. Joe Gunn||Columbia Pictures|
|Thank Your Lucky Stars||1943||Himself||Warner Bros.|
|Passage to Marseille||1944||Jean Matrac||Warner Bros.|
|To Have and Have Not||1944||Harry "Steve" Morgan|| Lauren Bacall's debut film|
|Conflict||1945||Richard Mason||Warner Bros.|
|The Big Sleep||1946||Philip Marlowe||Warner Bros. |
Preserved at the UCLA Film & Television Archive
|Dead Reckoning||1947||Capt. Warren "Rip" Murdock||Columbia Pictures|
|The Two Mrs. Carrolls||1947||Geoffrey Carroll||Warner Bros.|
|Dark Passage||1947||Vincent Parry||Warner Bros.|
|Always Together||1948||Himself||Warner Bros.|
|The Treasure of the Sierra Madre||1948||Fred C. Dobbs||Warner Bros.|
|Key Largo||1948||Frank McCloud||Warner Bros.|
|Knock on Any Door||1949||Andrew Morton|| Santana Productions, Bogart's company founded in 1948|
Preserved at the UCLA Film & Television Archive
|Tokyo Joe||1949||Joseph "Joe" Barrett||Santana Productions|
|Chain Lightning||1950||Lt. Col. Matthew "Matt" Brennan||Warner Bros.|
|In a Lonely Place||1950||Dixon Steele||Santana Productions;added to the National Film Registry in 2007, as "culturally, historically or aesthetically" significant.|
|The Enforcer||1951||Dist. Atty. Martin Ferguson|| United States Pictures |
Preserved at the UCLA Film & Television Archive
|Sirocco||1951||Harry Smith||Santana Productions|
|The African Queen||1951||Charlie Allnut||Won the Best Actor Oscar|
|Deadline – U.S.A.||1952||Ed Hutcheson||Fox Film|
|Battle Circus||1953||Maj. Jed Webbe||MGM|
|Beat the Devil||1953||Billy Dannreuther|| Romulus Films |
Santana Pictures Corporation
|The Caine Mutiny||1954||Lt. Cmdr. Philip Francis Queeg||Nominated for Best Actor Oscar|
|Sabrina||1954||Linus Larrabee||Paramount Pictures|
|The Barefoot Contessa||1954||Harry Dawes||Figaro|
|We're No Angels||1955||Joseph||Paramount Pictures|
|The Left Hand of God||1955||James "Jim" Carmody||Fox Film|
|The Desperate Hours||1955||Glenn Griffin||Paramount Pictures|
|The Harder They Fall||1956||Eddie Willis||Columbia Pictures|
Occasionally Bogart made public fund-raising/patriotic appearances on film. He also appeared in cameos, some uncredited, in a small handful of other films.
|I Am an American||1944||Produced for Constitution Day|
|Report from the Front||1944||American Red Cross fund-raising short|
|Hollywood Victory Caravan||1944||Victory Bond tour|
|Two Guys From Milwaukee||1946||A Warner Bros. film, with Bogart and Bacall cameo uncredited sitting at a table|
|Always Together||1948||Bit part spoof of Stella Dallas , Bogart cameo crying against a window pane.|
|Road to Bali||1952||A clip from The African Queen|
|US Savings Bond trailer||1952||Bogart urging Americans to buy savings bonds|
|The Love Lottery||1954||Uncredited cameo|
David Niven film for Ealing Studios
He made numerous radio and television appearances throughout his career. The Lux Radio Theatre was an anthology series featuring adaptations of Broadway plays and film scripts. It was broadcast on the National Broadcasting Company's Blue Network (the forerunner of the American Broadcasting Company) (1934–35);CBS Radio network (1935–54), and NBC Radio (1954–55). The Screen Guild Theater (aka Gulf Screen Guild Theater aka Stars in the Air) was a radio anthology series broadcast from 1939 until 1952. Academy Award Theatre was a 1946 radio anthology series featuring adaptations of film scripts. Kraft Music Hall was a radio musical variety show on NBC radio from 1933 to 1949. The Bold Venture half-hour radio series ran for 78 episodes during 1951–1952, and was developed by Bogart's Santana Productions, as a starring vehicle for Bogart and his wife Lauren Bacall.
|Lux Radio Theatre||Bullets or Ballots||April 17, 1939|
|The Gulf Screen Guild Theater||The Petrified Forest||January 7, 1940|
|The Gulf Screen Guild Theater||If Only You Could Cook||November 23, 1941|
|The Gulf Screen Guild Theater||The Amazing Dr. Clitterhouse||November 2, 1941|
|The Screen Guild Theater||High Sierra||January 4, 1942|
|Jack Benny Radio Program||The Frightwig Murder Case||February 2, 1942|
|The Screen Guild Theater||Casablanca||April 26, 1943|
|The Screen Guild Theater||The Maltese Falcon||September 20, 1943|
|Screen Guild Players||High Sierra||April 17,1944|
|Lux Radio Theatre||Moontide||April 30, 1945|
|Academy Award Theatre||The Maltese Falcon||July 3, 1946|
|Lux Radio Theatre||To Have and Have Not||October 14, 1946|
|Jack Benny Radio Program||January 5, 1947|
|Kraft Music Hall||November 6, 1947|
|Lux Radio Theatre||Treasure of the Sierra Madre||April 18, 1949|
|Bold Venture||78-episode series||March 26, 1951|
| Stars in the Air |
(Screen Guild Theater)
|The House on 92nd Street||May 3, 1952|
|Lux Radio Theatre||The African Queen||December 15, 1952|
|Jack Benny television program (CBS -TV)||October 25, 1953|
|Producers' Showcase (NBC -TV)||The Petrified Forest||May 30, 1955|
Bogart's first nomination for an Academy Award for Best Actor was for Casablanca (1942),a film that he and co-stars Ingrid Bergman and Paul Henreid initially believed was of little significance. Bogart won the award on his second nomination, for his 1951 performance in the United Artists production The African Queen . He was nominated a third time for The Caine Mutiny (1954). He posthumously received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 1960. The United States Postal Service honored Bogart in 1997, at a ceremony at Grauman's Chinese Theatre unveiling Bogart's stamp as part of the postal service's "Legends of Hollywood" series. In 2006, the street in front of his boyhood home was renamed Humphrey Bogart Place.
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