|Born||18 January 1868|
Xiaonanhe Village, Jinghai County, Tianjin, Qing China
|Died||9 August 1910 42) (aged|
Shanghai, Qing China
|Style|| Wushu |
|Teacher(s)||Chen Seng-ho |
(m. before 1910)
|Notable relatives||Huo Endi (father)|
|Notable club(s)||Chin Woo Athletic Association|
|Part of a series on|
|Chinese martial arts (Wushu)|
Huo Yuanjia (18 January 1868 – 9 August 1910),courtesy name Junqing, was a Chinese martial artist and a co-founder of the Chin Woo Athletic Association, a martial arts school in Shanghai. A practitioner of the martial art mizongyi, Huo is considered a hero in China for defeating foreign fighters in highly publicised matches at a time when Chinese sovereignty was being eroded by foreign imperialism, concessions and spheres of influence. Due to his heroic status, the legends and myths surrounding events in his life are difficult to discern from facts.
Huo was born in Xiaonanhe Village in Jinghai County, Tianjin, as the fourth of Huo Endi's ten children. The family's main source of income was from agriculture, but Huo Endi also made a living by escorting merchant caravans to Manchuria and back. Although he was from a family of traditional wushu practitioners, Huo was born weak and susceptible to illness. He had asthma and, at an early age, he contracted jaundice, which would recur periodically for the rest of his life. It is theorised that he may have had a mild form of congenital jaundice known as Gilbert's syndrome.[ citation needed ] Due to his frail frame, his father discouraged him from learning wushu.
Huo Endi hired Chen Seng-ho, a tutor from Japan, to teach his son academics and moral values. In return, Chen was taught the Huo family's style of martial arts, mizongyi. Huo still desired to learn wushu, against his father's wishes, so he observed his father teaching his students martial arts in the day and secretly practised at night with Chen.
In 1890, a martial artist from Henan visited the Huo family and fought with Huo's elder brother, who lost. To the surprise of his family, Huo fought with his brother's opponent and defeated the latter. As Huo proved that he was physically able to practise wushu, his father accepted him as a student. As he became older, Huo went on to challenge martial artists from neighbouring areas and his fame grew as he defeated more opponents in bouts.
Huo joined his father at work as a caravan guard. One day, while escorting a group of monks, Huo was confronted by a group of bandits, who threatened to attack the monks. Huo fought the bandit chief and defeated him. News of his feat spread and added on to his growing fame. In 1896, Huo went to Tianjin and made a living there by working as a porter in the Huaiqing pharmacy and by selling firewood.
In 1902, Huo responded to a challenge advertised by a Russian wrestler in Xiyuan Park, Tianjin. The wrestler openly called the Chinese "sick men of Asia" because no one accepted his challenge to a fight. The Russian forfeited when Huo accepted his challenge and told Huo that he was merely putting on a performance to make a living and apologised for his earlier remark in the newspaper.
Between 1909 and 1910, Huo travelled to Shanghai twice to accept an open challenge posed by an Irish boxer, Hercules O'Brien. The two of them had arguments over the rules governing such boxing matches and eventually agreed that whoever knocked down his opponent would be the victor. O'Brien fought Huo and lost. Huo's victory was a great inspiration to the Chinese people and had them questioning the basis of imperialistic dominance. However, there is a lot of controversy over whether the fight ever took place. A recent article states that O'Brienopted to leave town instead.
Between 1909 and 1910,Huo founded the Chin Woo Physical Training Centre (精武体操会) (later renamed to "Chin Woo Athletic Association") with his close friend Nong Jinsun, who served as the president of the association. Huo was encouraged by his close friends and was sponsored by Sun Yat-sen and Song Jiaoren, who were living in Tokyo. The centre was meant to be a school for learning the arts of self-defence and improvement of health and mind.
Huo suffered from jaundice and tuberculosis and started seeing a Japanese physician for medication and treatment. The physician, who was a member of the Japanese Judo Association in Shanghai, invited Huo to a competition upon hearing of the latter's fame. Huo's student, Liu Zhensheng, competed with a judo practitioner. Although there were disputes over who won the match, both sides generally agreed that the disagreement culminated in a brawl and that members of the judo team were injured, some with broken fingers and hands, including the head instructor.[ citation needed ]
Huo died in 1910 at the age of 42. He was survived by his wife Ms. Wang (王氏; given name unknown) (1869?–1960), two sons Huo Dongzhang (霍東章) and Huo Dongge (霍東閣), and three daughters Huo Dongru (霍東茹), Huo Dongling (霍東玲) and Huo Dongqin (霍東琴).
The historian Chen Gongzhe, who was also one of Huo's students, believed that the cause of his master's death was hemoptysis disease. Chen wrote that Huo was introduced to a Japanese physician by the judo instructor as his health declined. The physician prescribed some medicine for his condition, but Huo's health continued to deteriorate. Huo was admitted to the Shanghai Red Cross Hospital, where he died two weeks later. Although Chen did not mention that the medicine prescribed by the Japanese physician contained arsenic or any other poison, some leaders of the Chin Woo Athletic Association speculated that Huo was poisoned around the time of his death.
In 1989, Huo's and his wife's graves were excavated and their remains were relocated elsewhere. Black spots were discovered in Huo's pelvic bones. The Tianjin Municipality Police Laboratory confirmed that they contained arsenic.However, it is difficult to ascertain whether Huo's death was caused by malicious poisoning or by the prescription of medicine. This was because arsenic trioxide has been used therapeutically for approximately 2,400 years as part of traditional Chinese medicine.
Huo died months after co-founding the Chin Woo Athletic Association. Before his death, he invited Zhao Lianhe of the Shaolin Mizong Style to teach in Chin Woo and Zhao agreed. Subsequently, a number of other martial arts masters agreed to teach at the school. They included Eagle Claw master Chen Zizheng, Seven Star Praying Mantis master Luo Guangyu, Xingyiquan master Geng Xiaguang, and Wu Jianquan, the founder of Wu-style taijiquan. In June 1910, the Eastern Times announced the establishment of the Chin Woo association in Huo's name. It was the first civil martial arts organisation in China that was not associated with a particular school or style.
Huo's life has been adapted into films and television series. In these adaptations, Huo is typically depicted as a heroic martial artist who fights to uphold the dignity of the Chinese people in the face of foreign aggression. He is secretly poisoned to death by foreigners, usually the Japanese, who see him as a threat to their exploitation of China. A notable feature in some of these adaptations is the appearance of Chen Zhen, a fictional character first portrayed by Bruce Lee in the 1972 film Fist of Fury . In the film, Chen Zhen is one of Huo's apprentices. He brings his teacher's murderers to justice and ensures that Huo's legacy, the Jingwu School and "Jingwu Spirit", continues to live on. Notable actors who have portrayed Huo on screen include Wong Yuen-sun in The Legendary Fok (1981), Bryan Leung in Legend of a Fighter (1982), Eddy Ko in Fist of Fury (1995), Vincent Zhao in Huo Yuanjia (2001), Jet Li in Fearless (2006), and Ekin Cheng in Huo Yuanjia (2008).
Li Lianjie, better known by his stage name Jet Li, is a Chinese-born Singaporean film actor, film producer, martial artist, and retired Wushu champion who was born in Beijing.
Eagle Claw is a style of Chinese martial arts known for its gripping techniques, system of joint locks, takedowns, and pressure point strikes, which is representative of Chinese grappling known as Chin Na. The style is normally attributed to the famous patriotic Song Dynasty General Yue Fei. Popular legends states that he learned martial arts from a Shaolin Monk named Zhou Tong and later created Eagle Claw to help his armies combat the invading armies of the Jin dynasty. It was passed down until the Ming Dynasty. Thus, the style took on long range strikes and aerial jumps. During the Qing Dynasty, the military instructor Liu Shi Jun became known as the modern progenitor of Eagle Claw and taught many students. His student Liu Cheng You later taught Chen Zizheng who was invited to teach the style in the prestigious Chin Woo Athletic Association during the Republican era. The style spread as Chin Woo opened sister schools in other provinces. Today, it is practiced around the world.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to martial arts:
Mízōngyì, or simply Mízōng, is a style of Chinese martial art based on deception and mobility. Mizong is also known as Mízōngquán and Yànqīngquán. There are many sub-branches of this style.
Fist of Fury is a 1972 Hong Kong action martial arts film written and directed by Lo Wei, produced by Raymond Chow, and starring Bruce Lee in his second major role after The Big Boss (1971). Lee plays Chen Zhen, a student of Huo Yuanjia, who fights to defend the honor of the Chinese in the face of foreign aggression, and to bring to justice those responsible for his master's death.
Fist of Legend is a 1994 Hong Kong martial arts film directed by Gordon Chan, featuring action choreography by Yuen Woo-ping, and produced by Jet Li, who also starred in the lead role. The film was released on 22 December 1994. It is a remake of the 1972 film Fist of Fury, which starred Bruce Lee as the lead character. The film is set in the Shanghai International Settlement in 1914 at the beginning of the First World War as the Imperial Japanese Army are stationed in Shanghai, China. It holds a 100% rating on Rotten Tomatoes.
Chin Woo Athletic Association is an international martial arts organisation founded in Shanghai, China, on July 7, 1910, but some sources cite dates in 1909. Its name is also spelled in many other ways throughout the world - Ching Mo, Chin Woo, Ching Mou, Ching Wu, Jing Mo, Jing Wo, Jing Wu - but all of them are based on the same two Chinese characters - jing wu. It has at least 59 branches based in 22 or more countries worldwide, where it is usually known as an "athletic association" or "federation".
Fearless, also known as Huo Yuanjia (霍元甲) in Chinese, and as Jet Li's Fearless in the United Kingdom and in the United States, is a 2006 martial arts film directed by Ronny Yu and starring Jet Li. It is loosely based on the life of Huo Yuanjia, a Chinese martial artist who challenged foreign fighters in highly publicized events, restoring pride and nationalism to China at a time when Western imperialism and Japanese manipulation were eroding the country in the final years of the Qing Dynasty before the birth of the Republic of China. Li stated in an interview that the film was his last wushu martial arts epic, a point also made in the film's television promotions and other publicity.
Jing Wu Men may refer to:
Huo Endi (1836–1917) was the father of famous Chinese martial artist Huo Yuanjia. Huo Endi, a 6th-generation successor of Mizongyi was a well-known martial artist who served as a bodyguard for caravans travelling to the Northeast. In the 2006 film Fearless he died shortly before his son rose to fame, but in reality he outlived his son by about seven years.
Huo is a Chinese surname. It is pronounced as Fok in Cantonese.
Chen Zhen is a fictional character created by Hong Kong writer Ni Kuang. First portrayed by Bruce Lee in the 1972 film Fist of Fury, the character has been the subject of numerous film and television series, including remakes and adaptations of Fist of Fury. Many notable actors, including Jet Li and Donnie Yen, have portrayed Chen Zhen on screen after Bruce Lee. Although Chen Zhen's story varies in the different remakes and adaptations, most have an ending similar to the original Fist of Fury. Chen Zhen is believed to be based on Liu Zhensheng (劉振聲), an apprentice of Huo Yuanjia, a martial artist who lived during the late Qing dynasty of China.
Huo Yuanjia is a television series based on the life of the Chinese martial artist Huo Yuanjia. It includes a subplot about Chen Zhen, a fictional apprentice of Huo Yuanjia and the protagonist of the 1972 film Fist of Fury. The series was directed by Kuk Kwok-leung and starred Ekin Cheng, Jordan Chan, Zhou Muyin, Bryan Leung, Ding Li and Qu Yue in the lead roles. It was first released in 2008 and was later broadcast on various television channels in other countries in the following year. The sequel, Legend of the Fist: Chen Zhen, was released in late 2008.
Huo Yuanjia or Huo Yuan Jia or Fok Yuen Gap may refer to
Huo Yuanjia is a 2001 Chinese television series based on the life of the Chinese martial artist Huo Yuanjia. It includes a subplot about Chen Zhen, a fictional apprentice of Huo Yuanjia and the protagonist of the 1972 film Fist of Fury. The series was directed by Jia Yun and starred Vincent Zhao, Wu Yue, Mei Ting, Qi Yan, and He Yin in the lead roles. A sequel, Jingwu Yingxiong Chen Zhen, was released later in the same year.
Legend of the Fist: Chen Zhen is a television series based on the story of Chen Zhen, a fictional student of the Chinese martial artist Huo Yuanjia. The series is a sequel to the 2008 television series Huo Yuanjia, with Jordan Chan reprising his role as Chen Zhen.
Jingwu Yingxiong Chen Zhen is a Chinese television series based on the story of Chen Zhen, a fictional student of the Chinese martial artist Huo Yuanjia. The series is a sequel to the 2001 television series The Legend of Huo Yuanjia, with Wu Yue reprising his role as Chen Zhen.
Wu Yue is a Chinese film and television series actor. Some of his more notable roles include Chen Zhen in Huo Yuanjia and Jingwu Yingxiong Chen Zhen (2001); Di Yun in Lian Cheng Jue (2004); Sun Wukong in Journey to the West (2011); Ariq Böke in The Legend of Kublai Khan (2013); and Wan Zonghua in Ip Man 4 (2019).
Liu Baichuan (1870–1964) was a Chinese martial artist.
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