Hurricane Delta

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Hurricane Delta
Category 4 major hurricane (SSHWS/NWS)
Delta 2020-10-08 1920Z.jpg
Hurricane Delta nearing its secondary peak intensity east of Texas on October 8
FormedOctober 4, 2020
DissipatedOctober 12, 2020
(Extratropical after October 10)
Highest winds 1-minute sustained: 140 mph (220 km/h)
Lowest pressure953 mbar (hPa); 28.14 inHg
Fatalities2 direct, 4 indirect [1]
Damage$3.09 billion (2020 USD)
Areas affected Jamaica, Nicaragua, Cayman Islands, Yucatán Peninsula, Gulf Coast of the United States, Southeastern United States, Northeastern United States
Part of the 2020 Atlantic hurricane season

Hurricane Delta was the record-tying fourth named storm of 2020 to make landfall in Louisiana, as well as the record-breaking tenth named storm to strike the United States in that year. The twenty-sixth tropical cyclone, twenty-fifth named storm, tenth hurricane, and third major hurricane of the record-breaking 2020 Atlantic hurricane season, Delta formed from a tropical wave which was first monitored by the National Hurricane Center (NHC) on October 1. Moving westward, the tropical wave began to quickly organize. A well-defined center of circulation formed with sufficiently organized deep convection on October 4, and was designated as Tropical Depression Twenty-six and soon thereafter, Tropical Storm Delta. Extremely rapid intensification ensued throughout October 5 into October 6, with Delta becoming a Category 4 hurricane within 28 hours of attaining tropical storm status. The rate of intensification was the fastest in the Atlantic basin since Hurricane Wilma in 2005. After peaking in intensity however, an unexpected increase in wind shear and dry air quickly weakened the small storm before it made landfall in Puerto Morelos, Mexico as a Category 2 hurricane with 105 mph (165 km/h) winds. It weakened some more over land before emerging into the Gulf of Mexico, where it was downgraded to a Category 1 hurricane. After that, it began to restrengthen, regaining Category 3 status late on October 8. It then turned northward and reached a secondary peak intensity of 953 mb and winds of 120 mph early on October 9. Delta then began to turn more north-northeastward into an area of cooler waters, higher wind shear, and dry air, causing it to weaken back to Category 2 status. Delta then made landfall at 23:00 UTC near Creole, Louisiana with winds of 100 mph (155 km/h) and a pressure of 970 mb (28.64 inHg). The storm began to weaken more rapidly after landfall, becoming post-tropical just 22 hours later.

Contents

Widespread tropical cyclone watches and warnings were issued throughout the Western Caribbean and the Mexican states of Yucatán and Quintana Roo, which had just been hit by Hurricane Gamma, in preparation for the storm. As Delta moved out of the Gulf of Mexico, more watches were issued for the U.S. Gulf Coast, an area that had already seen multiple strong hurricanes such as Laura and Sally earlier in the season. States of emergency were also declared in the U.S. states of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama and several coastal and low-lying areas were ordered to evacuate. In Mexico, trees and power lines were blown down, and roofs were ripped off homes and other buildings. Louisiana and Southeast Texas were again by heavy rain, high winds, and storm surge, and 14 weak tornadoes were confirmed in Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia and the Carolinas. Total insured losses resulting from the storm amounted to $3.09 billion, with $2.9 billion in the US and US$186 million in Mexico. [2] [3]

Meteorological history

Map plotting the storm's track and intensity, according to the Saffir-Simpson scale

Map key
Saffir-Simpson scale
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Tropical depression (<=38 mph, <=62 km/h)

Tropical storm (39-73 mph, 63-118 km/h)

Category 1 (74-95 mph, 119-153 km/h)

Category 2 (96-110 mph, 154-177 km/h)

Category 3 (111-129 mph, 178-208 km/h)

Category 4 (130-156 mph, 209-251 km/h)

Category 5 (>=157 mph, >=252 km/h)

Unknown
Storm type
Tropical cyclone
Subtropical cyclone
Extratropical cyclone / Remnant low / Tropical disturbance / Monsoon depression Delta 2020 track.png
Map plotting the storm's track and intensity, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale
Map key
  Tropical depression (≤38 mph, ≤62 km/h)
  Tropical storm (39–73 mph, 63–118 km/h)
  Category 1 (74–95 mph, 119–153 km/h)
  Category 2 (96–110 mph, 154–177 km/h)
  Category 3 (111–129 mph, 178–208 km/h)
  Category 4 (130–156 mph, 209–251 km/h)
  Category 5 (≥157 mph, ≥252 km/h)
  Unknown
Storm type
ArrowUp.svg Extratropical cyclone / Remnant low / Tropical disturbance / Monsoon depression

At 00:00 UTC on October 1, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) began to monitor a tropical wave moving into the Eastern Caribbean for potential development. [4] It moved steadily westward at 15–20 miles per hour (24–32 km/h) and began to organize late on October 3. [5] A well-defined center of circulation formed with sufficiently organized deep convection around 18:00 UTC on October 4, marking the formation of Tropical Depression Twenty-Six. Thunderstorm activity continued to increase after formation, but was initially confined to the southern portion of the circulation due to northerly wind shear. Once the shear lessened on October 5, convection became more symmetric around the center, and the system strengthened to become Tropical Storm Delta by 12:00 UTC that day about 150 mi (240 km) south-southwest of Montego Bay, Jamaica. [1]

Continuing westward in defiance of forecasts that repeatedly predicted a northwestward turn, Delta began a period of rapid intensification, becoming a Category 1 hurricane 12 hours after being named. [6] As it finally began to turn northwestward early on October 6, Delta continued to rapidly intensify, reaching Category 2 status just nine hours later at 09:00 UTC. [7] [8] Delta's intensification was described as the fastest in a 24-hour period since Hurricane Wilma of 2005. [9] By 12:30 UTC, Delta began to develop a small pinhole eye only 4  nautical miles (4.6 miles) in diameter, although it was not visible in satellite imagery. [10] Rapid intensification continued and at 15:00 UTC, Delta was upgraded to Category 3 major hurricane status, before reaching Category 4 status just 20 minutes later, after an NOAA hurricane Hunter aircraft indicated that the storm's 1-minute sustained wind speed was at 130 mph (210 km/h). [11] [12] Delta intensified from a tropical depression to Category 4 hurricane in just over 36 hours, breaking the record of 42 hours that Hurricane Keith set in 2000. [13]

Delta at its initial peak intensity as a Category 4 hurricane on October 6. Delta 2020-10-06 1330Z.png
Delta at its initial peak intensity as a Category 4 hurricane on October 6.

Delta reached its initial peak intensity at 18:00 UTC, with winds of 140 mph (220 km/h) and a pressure of 953 mb (28.14 inHg), an unusually high pressure for a storm this strong, which indicated that Delta's circulation did not extend as far into the upper troposphere as would be expected for a storm of its intensity. [14] Additionally, the storm's eye was barely visible on visible satellite imagery, although it was seen on microwave images. Delta did not keep this intensity for very long as an increase in mid-level wind shear and dry air entrainment significantly disrupted Delta's small core, and the storm abruptly weakened with its banding features becoming less defined and its eye completely disappearing. [15] It accelerated northwestward and at around 05:45 UTC on October 7, the storm made landfall at Puerto Morelos, Quintana Roo, Mexico, as a high-end Category 2 storm with winds of 110 mph (175 km/h). [16] It subsequently weakened some more as it moved over the Yucatán Peninsula and into the Gulf of Mexico, north of the Dzilam de Bravo State Reserve, [17] as an 85 mph (140 km/h) Category 1 hurricane at 21:00 UTC on October 7. [18] Afterward, Delta finally began to reorganize and it regained Category 2 intensity at 06:00 UTC on October 8. [19]

Delta steadily became more organized on the morning of October 8, with an eye occasionally becoming evident on satellite imagery and a lowering minimum central pressure as it turned northward ahead of an approaching trough to its northwest. [20] Delta regained Category 3 intensity at 21:00 UTC, before reaching its secondary peak intensity at 00:00 UTC on October 9, with its minimum pressure again dropping to 953 mb (28.14 inHg) and sustained winds increasing to 120 mph (195 km/h). [21] [22] Delta held that intensity for six hours as it turned due north before moving into a hostile environment of cooler waters, drier air, and increasing wind shear. This caused Delta to begin a slow weakening trend as its eye clouded over and its convective pattern became ragged. It was downgraded to a Category 2 hurricane at 18:00 UTC as it turned north-northeastward towards land. [23] [24] Delta then made landfall near Creole, Louisiana with winds of 100 mph (155 km/h) and a pressure of 970 mb (28.64 inHg) at 23:00 UTC. [25] After that, Delta began to weaken more rapidly, dropping to Category 1 status an hour after landfall at 00:00 UTC on October 10 and a tropical storm six hours later. [26] [27] It accelerated northeastward and transitioned into an extratropical cyclone over Western Mississippi by 18:00 UTC. The system continued to weaken and its circulation broadened through the day on October 11, and by 00:00 on October 12, it opened into a trough of low pressure over the southeastern United States. [1]

Preparations

Cayman Islands and Cuba

Tropical Storm Gamma (left) and Hurricane Delta (right) on October 5. Hurricane-Delta-Gamma.jpg
Tropical Storm Gamma (left) and Hurricane Delta (right) on October 5.

Tropical storm warnings were issued for the islands of Grand Cayman and Cayman Brac when advisories were first initiated on Potential Tropical Cyclone Twenty-Six. [28] In the Cayman Islands, all public schools were closed from October 5 to October 6 as the rainbands were forecast to bring high winds and flooding to the islands. All government offices were on the afternoon of October 5 and remained closed for the entire day on October 6. Cayman Airways reported cancellation of its flights. The Red Cross shelter on Huldah Avenue was on stand-by in the event of flooding. The government set up facilities for shelter with proper protocol for COVID-19 for people with the virus isolating at home. All Government events on October 5–6 were cancelled, including Older Person's Month activities. [29]

When the initial advisory was issued for Potential Tropical Cyclone Twenty-Six, a hurricane watch was issued for the provinces Pinar del Río, Artemisa and the Isle of Youth while a tropical storm watch was issued for La Habana. [28] Three hours after the storm was upgraded to Tropical Storm Delta, the watch for Pinar del Río was upgraded to a hurricane warning while a Tropical Storm Warning was issued for the Isle of Youth. [30] This, however, was downgraded to a tropical storm warning when Hurricane Delta jogged south and put less of the area in harm's way. [6]

Mexico

Enhanced Infrared satellite image of Delta making landfall in Quintana Roo on October 7 Delta 2020-10-07 1045Z.jpg
Enhanced Infrared satellite image of Delta making landfall in Quintana Roo on October 7

As Delta was nearing landfall in Quintana Roo, many communities were still being impacted by the remnants of Hurricane Gamma, which caused six deaths and left thousands of people homeless. [31] [32] Just minutes after tropical storm watches and warnings for Gamma were dropped from the Yucatan Peninsula, a hurricane warning was issued for the northeastern part of the peninsula after Delta jogged south, putting more of the region in the line of potential impact. [33] [34] More tropical storm warnings were put up shortly thereafter. [6] President Andrés Manuel López Obrador reported on October 6 that Admiral José Rafael Ojeda Durán, Secretary of the Navy, and Laura Velázquez, National Coordinator of Civil Protection, were traveling to Quintana Roo to help with preparations for Hurricane Delta. The federal government also had been communicating with Governor of Quintana Roo Carlos Joaquín González since October 5. [35] In addition, the president announced on October 6 the activation of the DN-III-E emergency plan and the mobilization of 5,000 soldiers of the Armed Forces to the southeast of the country, to help with the evacuation of sheltering of people still recovering from Gamma. [32] More than 4,000 people, including tourists and residents, were evacuated from Holbox due to the threat of life-threatening impacts from Hurricane Delta. Seven of the 59 shelters that exist in the municipality of Lázaro Cárdenas with a capacity of 1,800 people have been enabled. [36] A total of 41,000 tourists were evacuated from the state of Quintana Roo, and a red alert was declared for the state. Many hotels and archaeological sites in the Yucatan Peninsula were closed, including the busy historical sites of Chichen Itzá and Tulum. [32] In Cancún, 160 shelters were opened for tourists and residents. In addition, around 400 tourists were sheltering at the Cancún Convention Center, and some 300 guests and 200 staff from the Fiesta Americana Condesa hotel were taking shelter, at the Technological Institute of Cancún campus. [37] One lower division soccer match was postponed on October 8. [38]

United States

Alabama

Tourists and visitors were ordered to leave Alabama's barrier islands as of October 6 while a state of emergency was also declared for the state. [39]

Mississippi

Governor of Mississippi Tate Reeves declared a state of emergency on October 7 ahead of the storm. The Mississippi Emergency Management Agency distributed 160,000 sandbags to Hancock, Harrison, and Jackson Counties. [40] On October 8, President Donald Trump approved Governor Reeves' request for a federal emergency declaration in anticipation of Hurricane Delta. [41] On October 8, the Gulfport Municipal Marina advised vessels to evacuate by 1:00 p.m. CDT (18:00 UTC). [42]

Louisiana

The area that Delta threatened was the same area affected by the stronger Hurricane Laura a little over one month earlier. Many residents were still "traumatized" due to significant damage from Hurricane Laura still evident in coastal areas. Around 5,600 residents were still located in hotels six weeks after Laura struck because their homes were destroyed by the hurricane. [43] Additionally, 6,000 homes still had tarps on them. [44]

On October 6, Governor of Louisiana, John Bel Edwards, declared a state of emergency ahead of Hurricane Delta. [45] The Houston SPCA evacuated 15  cats from a shelter in Louisiana to their shelter in Houston. [46] A group of firefighters from Tulsa, Oklahoma traveled to Monroe to set-up a shelter for evacuees and help with swift water rescues along the coast. [47] Waitr offered free grocery delivery in Lafayette for those unable or choosing not to go out in public to prepare for the storm. [48] On October 7, Louisiana Governor John Bel Edwards conferred with President of the United States Donald Trump, who agreed to sign a disaster declaration for the entire state ahead of the storm. [49]

In college football, a matchup between Louisiana-Lafayette and Coastal Carolina was postponed to October 14. [50] The matchup between LSU and Missouri was relocated to Faurot Field in Columbia, Missouri as well. [51] More than 1,000 Louisiana National Guardsmen, 7,500 utility workers, and dozens of high water rescue vehicles, boats, and aircraft were put on standby. Another 8,000 utility workers were waiting outside the state. [44]

Elsewhere

On October 5, the oil drilling companies of BP and BHP began evacuating non-essential personnel from their offshore platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. [52]

Impact

The wind swath of Hurricane Delta with hurricane-force winds in red and tropical-storm force winds in orange. Delta wind history.png
The wind swath of Hurricane Delta with hurricane-force winds in red and tropical-storm force winds in orange.

Mexico

The storm brought power outages and uprooted trees in Cancún and Cozumel. [53] A peak wind gust of 110 mph (175 km/h) was reported in Puerto Morelos, Quintana Roo, where the hurricane made landfall. Another wind gust of 106 mph (171 km/h) was reported in nearby Cancún. [54] Civil defense official Luís Alberto Vázquez said there were no immediate reports of deaths or injuries, but reported that Delta downed about 95 trees and caused more than 266,000 customers to lose power in parts of the Yucatán Peninsula. [55] Many hotels and resorts lost electricity and air conditioning. [56] Street flooding was reported in Cozumel. [57] Many piers were destroyed due to storm surge, and several buildings near the coast were also destroyed. [54] Roughly 2,500 hectares of crops were damaged by the storm. [58] Before the arrival of the hurricane, a 65-year-old man in Tizimin, Yucatán, lost his life after falling from the second floor of his house while preparing for the storm. [59] Following the storm a woman lost her life in Mérida after touching a downed pole and thus being electrocuted. [60] Damage in Cancún stood at MX$4 billion (US$186 million). [61]

United States

25,000 customers in Texas and Louisiana lost power before Delta made landfall. [44] That number soon rose to 740,000 as Delta pulled inland. [62]

Louisiana

Radar image of Delta making landfall in Louisiana on October 9. Radar loop of Delta US Landfall 2020-10-09.gif
Radar image of Delta making landfall in Louisiana on October 9.

Street flooding was reported in Baton Rouge on October 8. [63] The Baton Rouge Metropolitan Airport reported 8 inches (200 mm) of rain, which prompted a flash flood warning issued by the National Weather Service. At least 25 motorists were stuck in high water in Baton Rouge. [44] The next day, Lake Charles Regional Airport reported a wind gust of 60 mph (96 km/h) as the storm approached at around 18:00 UTC, while another station in Lake Charles recorded a peak gust of 88 mph (142 km/h). [24] [64] In the following hours, a WeatherFlow observing site near Cameron reported a wind gust of 51 mph (82 km/h) and a National Ocean Service station at Calcasieu Pass reported sustained winds of 53 mph (85 km/h), a wind gust of 64 mph (104 km/h), and a pressure of 983.8 mb (29.05 inHg). [65] [66] [67] Around the time of landfall, a Florida Coastal Monitoring Tower near Lake Arthur reported a sustained wind of 77 mph (123 km/h) and a gust to 96 mph (154 km/h) while a NOAA National Weather Service water level gauge at Freshwater Canal Locks reported 8 feet (2.4 m) of storm surge. [25] Shortly after that, the Lake Charles Regional Airport reported sustained winds of 64 mph (103 km/h) with gusts to 95 mph (153 km/h). [26]

Delta made landfall just 12 miles (19 km) east of where Hurricane Laura did six weeks earlier. [44] Across the state, tarps and debris from Laura were blown away. [68] Many areas in hard-hit Lake Charles were damaged again and some homes were flooded in Moss Bluff. [69] Additional damage occurred in Jennings and widespread power outages were reported. [44] In Calcasieu Parish, several vehicles were overturned on I-10. [70] Due to multiple car accidents on the Calcasieu River Bridge, both directions of the bridge, carrying I-10 and US 90, were closed to traffic. [71] The Bank Hotel in Lake Arthur had its roof damaged when many of the shingles on top were torn off. [72] In St. Martinville, a generator related fire caused the death of an 86-year-old man. [73] In addition, a 70-year-old woman in Iberia Parish died in a fire likely caused by a natural gas leak following damage from Hurricane Delta. [74]

Mississippi

Delta uprooted many trees across Mississippi. One tree landed on a news vehicle while its crew was inside in Jackson. No one was seriously injured. [70] A gust of 54 mph was reported in Jackson. In the Jackson metro area, damage was minimal, with power outages, a few uprooted trees, and a traffic signal damaged. In Warren County, emergency management reported 36 downed trees, including one that fell on a home in Vicksburg. In the state, a total of 95,700 customers lost power. Major highways such as US 61, US 84, and US 51 were closed due to uprooted trees and debris. [75] In Natchez, a home was destroyed by a large uprooted tree, and several other homes, apartments, and businesses were damaged. [76] An extremely brief EF0  tornado in McCall Creek also snapped or uprooted trees near a home on October 9. [77]

Alabama, Georgia, and the Carolinas

Widespread tornado warnings were issued throughout the rest of the Southeast and 13 other tornadoes were confirmed on October 10-11. [78] [79] [80] [81] On October 10 in Georgia, an EF1 tornado damaged a homeless shelter in Covington, injuring two people and displacing 30 others. [82] [83] [84] The next day, an EF1 tornado in Latta, South Carolina, destroyed a storage shed and damaged a billboard, mobile home, home, and trees. Later, another EF1 tornado in Conway, South Carolina snapped and uprooted trees, significantly damaged a home and old barn, and caused minor damage to a storage shed and another home, injuring one person. An EF1 tornado in Nakina, North Carolina damaged the roof and carport of a home as well as an outbuilding. [85]

Elsewhere

The precursor to Delta brought squally weather in the Lesser Antilles, ABC Islands, Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, and Hispaniola. [86] [87] Tropical-storm force winds from Delta were first reported in Texas, where a Texas Coastal Ocean Observation Network station at the Galveston Bay North Jetty reported sustained winds of 42 mph (68 km/h) and a wind gust of 49 mph (78 km/h) at around 16:00 UTC on October 9. [88] In the following hours, a wind gust of 55 mph (89 km/h) was reported at the Jack Brooks Regional Airport near Port Arthur, a wind gust of 60 mph (97 km/h) was observed at Nederland, and a Texas Coastal Ocean Observation Network station at Texas Point reported sustained winds of 62 mph (100 km/h) with a gust of 78 mph (126 km/h). [65] [66] [67] In Galveston, about 100 miles (160 km) from where the center made landfall, winds toppled trees, street signs and two homes under construction. Due to sand dunes flattened by earlier storms, storm surge reached beneath raised houses. Large swells and rip currents prompted beach closures as far west as the mouth of the Rio Grande River. [70] Two people drowned in Florida as a result of Hurricane Delta. One drowning occurred in Pensacola where a 49-year-old man was caught in strong rip currents and another drowning occurred in Destin where a 19-year-old tourist drowned and another was rescued after they were caught in a rip current produced by Hurricane Delta. [89] The remnants of Delta also affected parts of the Northeastern United States. In New Jersey, a peak rainfall amount of 3.67 inches (93 mm) was recorded in West Creek, and a top wind gust of 42 miles per hour (68 km/h) was recorded in Sea Girt. [90]

Aftermath

Mexico

In Cancun, within a week of Delta's passage, electrical and water services were restored throughout the area. [91] The Convoy of Hope handed out relief supplies to families affected by the hurricane. [92]

United States

Louisiana

In the immediate aftermath of Delta, Louisiana Governor John Bel Edwards stated that tens of thousands would need help recovering after the storm's destruction. [93] He also surveyed damage in areas hard-hit by the hurricane. [94]

Records and distinctions

Delta was the earliest 25th tropical or subtropical storm on record in an Atlantic hurricane season, surpassing the old mark of November 15, set by Tropical Storm Gamma in 2005. [95] [96] Delta rapidly intensified from a 35 mph (55 km/h) tropical depression to a 130 mph (215 km/h) Category 4 hurricane in twenty-four hours, the fastest such occurrence on record in the Atlantic Basin. [96] Delta was the record-setting tenth named storm of the year to make landfall in the continental U.S., surpassing the previous record of nine set in 1916. Delta was also the record-tying fourth named storm to hit Louisiana in 2020, tying the record set in 2002; this record was surpassed by Hurricane Zeta later in the month. [44] [97] [98]

See also

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Hurricane Marco was the first of two tropical cyclones to threaten the Gulf Coast of the United States within a three-day period, with the other being Hurricane Laura. The thirteenth named storm and third hurricane of the record-breaking 2020 Atlantic hurricane season, Marco developed from a fast-moving tropical wave west of the Windward Islands and south of Jamaica on August 20. The fast motion of the wave inhibited intensification initially, but as the wave slowed down and entered a more favorable environment, the system developed into a tropical depression, which in turn rapidly intensified into a strong tropical storm. Due to strong wind shear, Marco's intensification temporarily halted; however, after entering the warm waters of the Gulf of Mexico on August 23, Marco briefly intensified into a hurricane, only to quickly weaken later that evening due to another rapid increase in wind shear. Marco subsequently weakened to a tropical depression before degenerating into a remnant low early on the next morning. Marco's remnants subsequently dissipated on August 26.

Meteorological history of Hurricane Laura

Hurricane Laura tied the record for the strongest hurricane to make landfall in Louisiana as measured by maximum sustained winds, along with the 1856 Last Island hurricane and Hurricane Ida, and was overall the tenth-strongest hurricane to make landfall in the United States. The thirteenth tropical cyclone, twelfth named storm, fourth hurricane, and first major hurricane of the 2020 Atlantic hurricane season, Laura originated from a large tropical wave that moved off the West African coast on August 16. The tropical wave gradually organized, becoming a tropical depression on August 20. Though in only a marginally conducive environment for intensification, the depression nevertheless intensified into a tropical storm a day later, becoming the earliest twelfth named storm on record in the North Atlantic basin, forming eight days earlier than 1995's Hurricane Luis. The depression received the name Laura and tracked west-northwest towards the Lesser Antilles.

Hurricane Sally Category 2 Atlantic hurricane in 2020

Hurricane Sally was a destructive and slow-moving Atlantic hurricane, which was the first hurricane to make landfall in the U.S. state of Alabama since Ivan in 2004, coincidentally on the same date in the same place. The eighteenth named storm, and seventh hurricane of the extremely active 2020 Atlantic hurricane season, Sally developed from an area of disturbed weather which was first monitored over the Bahamas on September 10. The system grew a broad area of low-pressure on September 11, and was designated as a tropical depression late that day. Early the next day, the depression made landfall at Key Biscayne, and subsequently strengthened into Tropical Storm Sally that afternoon. Moderate northwesterly shear prevented significant intensification for the first two days, but convection continued to grow towards the center and Sally slowly intensified. On September 14, a center reformation into the center of the convection occurred, and data from a hurricane hunter reconnaissance aircraft showed that Sally rapidly intensified into a strong Category 1 hurricane. However, an increase in wind shear and upwelling of colder waters halted the intensification and Sally weakened slightly on September 15 before turning slowly northeastward. Despite this increase in wind shear, it unexpectedly re-intensified, reaching Category 2 status early on September 16, before making landfall at peak intensity at 09:45 UTC on September 16, near Gulf Shores, Alabama, with maximum sustained winds of 110 mph (175 km/h) and a minimum central pressure of 965 millibars (28.5 inHg). The storm rapidly weakened after landfall, before transitioning into an extratropical low at 12:00 UTC the next day. Sally's remnants lasted for another day as they moved off the coast of the Southeastern United States, before being absorbed into another extratropical storm on September 18.

Hurricane Paulette Category 2 Atlantic hurricane in 2020

Hurricane Paulette was a long-lived Category 2 Atlantic hurricane which became the first to make landfall in Bermuda since Hurricane Gonzalo did so in 2014. The sixteenth named storm and sixth hurricane of the record-breaking 2020 Atlantic hurricane season, Paulette developed from a tropical wave that left the coast of Africa on September 2. The wave eventually consolidated into a tropical depression on September 7. Paulette fluctuated in intensity over the next few days, due to strong wind shear, initially peaking as a strong tropical storm on September 8. It eventually strengthened into a hurricane early on September 13 as shear decreased. On September 14, Paulette made landfall in northeastern Bermuda as a Category 2 hurricane, while making a gradual turn to the northeast. The cyclone further strengthened as it moved away from the island, reaching its peak intensity with 1-minute sustained winds of 105 mph (165 km/h) and a minimum central atmospheric pressure of 965 mbar on September 14. On the evening of September 15, Paulette began to weaken and undergo extratropical transition, which it completed on September 16. The hurricane's extratropical remnants persisted and moved southward then eastward, and eventually, Paulette regenerated into a tropical storm early on September 20 south of the Azores– which resulted in the U.S National Weather Service coining the phrase "zombie storm" to describe its unusual regeneration. Paulette's second phase proved short-lived, however, as the storm quickly weakened and became post-tropical again two days later. The remnants persisted for another week before they dissipated south of the Azores on September 28. Paulette was the longest-lived tropical cyclone worldwide in 2020, its lifetime spanning 21 days.

Hurricane Teddy Category 4 Atlantic hurricane in 2020

Hurricane Teddy was a large and powerful Cape Verde hurricane that was the fourth-largest Atlantic hurricane by diameter of gale-force winds recorded. Teddy produced large swells along the coast of the Eastern United States and Atlantic Canada in September 2020. The twentieth tropical depression, nineteenth named storm, eighth hurricane, and second major hurricane of the record-breaking 2020 Atlantic hurricane season, Teddy initially formed from a tropical depression that developed from a tropical wave on September 12. Initially, the depression's large size and moderate wind shear kept it from organizing, but it eventually intensified into Tropical Storm Teddy on September 14. After steadily intensifying for about a day, the storm rapidly became a Category 2 hurricane on September 16 before westerly wind shear caused a temporary pause in the intensification trend. It then rapidly intensified again on September 17 and became a Category 4 hurricane. Internal fluctuations and eyewall replacement cycles then caused the storm to fluctuate in intensity before it weakened some as it approached Bermuda. After passing east of the island as a Category 1 hurricane on September 21, Teddy restrengthened back to Category 2 strength due to baroclinic forcing. It weakened again to Category 1 strength the next day before becoming post-tropical as it approached Atlantic Canada early on September 23. It then weakened to a gale-force low and made landfall in Nova Scotia with sustained winds of 65 mph (105 km/h). The system weakened further as it moved northward across eastern Nova Scotia and then the Gulf of St. Lawrence, before being absorbed by a larger non-tropical low early on September 24, near eastern Labrador.

Tropical Storm Beta (2020) Atlantic tropical storm in 2020

Tropical Storm Beta was a tropical cyclone that brought heavy rainfall, flooding, and severe weather to the Southeastern United States in September 2020. The twenty-third tropical depression and twenty-third named storm of the record-breaking 2020 Atlantic hurricane season, Beta originally formed from a trough of low pressure that developed in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico on September 10. The low moved slowly southwestward, with development hampered initially by the development of nearby Hurricane Sally. After Sally moved inland over the Southeastern United States and weakened, the disturbance became nearly stationary in the southwestern Gulf, where it began to organize. By September 16, the storm had gained a low-level circulation center and had enough organization to be designated as Tropical Depression Twenty-Two. The system held its intensity for a day due to the influence of strong wind shear and dry air, before eventually attaining tropical storm strength. It slowly moved northward and intensified to a mid-range tropical storm before dry air and wind shear halted its intensification. Beta then became nearly stationary on September 19, before starting to move west towards the Texas coast the next day, weakening as it approached. On September 21, Beta made landfall near Matagorda Peninsula, Texas as a minimal tropical storm. It subsequently weakened to a tropical depression the next day before becoming post-tropical early on September 23. Its remnants moved northeastward, before the center elongated and merged with a cold front early on September 25.

Hurricane Gamma Category 1 Atlantic hurricane in 2020

Hurricane Gamma was a Category 1 hurricane that brought heavy rains, flooding, and landslides to the Yucatán Peninsula in early October 2020. The twenty-fifth depression, twenty-fourth named storm and ninth hurricane of the extremely active 2020 Atlantic hurricane season, Gamma developed from a vigorous tropical wave that had been monitored as it was entering the Eastern Caribbean on September 29. The wave moved westward and slowed down as it moved into the Western Caribbean, where it began to interact with a dissipating cold front. A low formed within the disturbance on October 1 and the next day, it organized into a tropical depression. It further organized into Tropical Storm Gamma early the next day. It continued to intensify and made landfall as a minimal hurricane near Tulum, Mexico, on October 3. It weakened over land before reemerging in the Gulf of Mexico. Gamma then briefly restrengthened some before being blasted by high amounts of wind shear, causing it to weaken again. It degenerated into a remnant low on October 6 before dissipating on the next day.

Hurricane Zeta Category 3 Atlantic hurricane in 2020

Hurricane Zeta was a late-season major hurricane that made landfall on the Yucatán Peninsula and then in southeastern Louisiana, the latest on record to do so at such strength in the United States. Zeta was the record-tying sixth hurricane of the year to make landfall in the United States. The twenty-seventh named storm, twelfth hurricane and fifth major hurricane of the extremely active 2020 Atlantic hurricane season, Zeta formed from a broad area of low pressure that formed in the western Caribbean Sea on October 19. After battling wind shear, the quasi-stationary low organized into Tropical Depression Twenty-Eight on October 24. The system strengthened into Tropical Storm Zeta early on October 25 before becoming a hurricane the next day as it began to move northwestward. Hurricane Zeta made landfall on the Yucatán Peninsula late on October 26 and weakened while inland to a tropical storm, before moving off the northern coast of the peninsula on October 27. After weakening due to dry air entrainment, Zeta reorganized and became a hurricane again, and eventually a Category 2 hurricane, as it turned northeastward approaching the United States Gulf Coast on October 28. It continued to strengthen until it reached its peak intensity as a major Category 3 hurricane with 115 mph (185 km/h) sustained winds and a minimum pressure of 970 mbar (28.64 inHg) as it made landfall at Cocodrie, Louisiana, that evening. Zeta gradually weakened as it accelerated northeastward, and became post-tropical on October 29, as it moved through central Virginia, dissipating shortly afterwards off the coast of New Jersey. After bringing accumulating snow to parts of New England, the extratropical low-pressure system carrying Zeta's remnant energy impacted the United Kingdom on November 1 and 2.

Hurricane Iota Category 4 Atlantic hurricane in 2020

Hurricane Iota was a devastating late-season Category 4 Atlantic hurricane which caused severe damage to areas of Central America already devastated by Hurricane Eta just less than two weeks prior. The 31st and final tropical cyclone, 30th named storm, 14th hurricane, and record-tying seventh major hurricane of the record-breaking 2020 Atlantic hurricane season, Iota originated as a tropical wave that moved into the Eastern Caribbean on November 10. Over the next few days, the wave began to become better organized and by November 13, it developed into a tropical depression north of Colombia. The depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Iota six hours later. The storm was initially impacted by some wind shear, but a center relocation and relaxed shear allowed Iota to quickly strengthen into a hurricane on November 15, after which it underwent explosive intensification, peaking as a high-end Category 4 storm, with wind speeds of 155 mph (250 km/h). After weakening slightly, Iota made landfall in northeastern Nicaragua as a mid-range Category 4 hurricane, becoming the strongest recorded hurricane to make landfall in Nicaragua in November. Iota then rapidly weakened as it moved inland, dissipating on November 18.

Tropical Storm Danny (2021) Atlantic tropical storm in 2021

Tropical Storm Danny was a weak and short-lived tropical cyclone that brought minor damage to the U.S states of South Carolina and Georgia. The fourth named storm of the 2021 Atlantic hurricane season, the system formed from an area of low-pressure that developed from an upper-level trough over the central Atlantic Ocean on June 22. Moving briskly west-northwestward, the disturbance gradually developed as convection, or showers and thunderstorms, increased over it. Although it was moving over the warm Gulf Stream, the organization of the disturbance was hindered by strong upper-level wind shear. By 18:00 UTC of June 27, as satellite images showed a well-defined center and thunderstorms, the system was upgraded to a tropical depression by the National Hurricane Center (NHC). At 06:00 UTC on the next day, the system further strengthened to Tropical Storm Danny, east-southeast of Charleston, South Carolina. Danny continued its track towards South Carolina while slowly strengthening, subsequently reaching its peak intensity at that day of 45 mph (75 km/h) and a minimum central pressure of 1009 mb (29.80 inHg) at 18:00 UTC. Danny made landfall in Pritchards Island, north of Hilton Head, in a slightly weakened state at 23:20 UTC on the same day, with winds of 40 mph (65 km/h) and indicating that Danny weakened prior to moving inland. The system then weakened to a tropical depression over east-central Georgia, before dissipating shortly afterward.

Hurricane Grace Category 3 Atlantic hurricane in 2021

Hurricane Grace was the strongest tropical cyclone to make landfall in the Mexican state of Veracruz. Grace impacted much of the Leeward Islands and Greater Antilles as a tropical storm, before causing more substantial impacts in the Yucatán Peninsula and Veracruz as a hurricane. It was the seventh named storm, second hurricane, and first major hurricane of the 2021 Atlantic hurricane season. Originating from a tropical wave in the Main Development Region, the primitive system tracked west-northwest across the Atlantic Ocean towards the Antilles, becoming a tropical depression on August 14. It strengthened into Tropical Storm Grace later the same day, but weakened back to a depression due to an unfavorable environment. After moving near Haiti as a tropical depression, it strengthened back to a tropical storm and became a hurricane on August 18, reaching an initial peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 80 mph (130 km/h) and a pressure of 986 mbar (29.12 inHg). It weakened back to a tropical storm after its landfall in the Yucatán Peninsula and emerged into the Bay of Campeche, entering a very favorable environment for intensification hours later. Grace then rapidly intensified into a Category 3 hurricane with winds of 120 mph (195 km/h) in about 24 hours. The storm made its final landfall in the state of Veracruz at peak intensity and quickly degenerated into a remnant low over mainland Mexico on August 21; however, its remnants later regenerated into Tropical Storm Marty in the Eastern Pacific on August 23.

Hurricane Larry Category 3 Atlantic hurricane in 2021

Hurricane Larry was a strong and long-lived Cape Verde hurricane that became the first hurricane to make landfall in Newfoundland since Igor in 2010. The twelfth named storm, fifth hurricane, and third major hurricane of the 2021 Atlantic hurricane season, Larry originated from a tropical wave that emerged off the coast of Africa and organized into a tropical depression on August 31. The next day, the depression developed into a tropical storm, receiving the name Larry. The storm moved quickly across the far eastern tropical Atlantic, where it strengthened into a Category 1 hurricane the morning of September 2. Then, after undergoing a period of rapid intensification, Larry became a major Category 3 hurricane early on September 4. After churning for several days as a strong hurricane in the open ocean, Larry made landfall in Newfoundland on September 11, as a Category 1 hurricane. Later that day, Larry became an extratropical cyclone. Finally, on September 13, Larry was absorbed by a larger extratropical cyclone near Greenland.

Hurricane Nicholas Category 1 Atlantic hurricane in 2021

Hurricane Nicholas was a slow and erratic Category 1 hurricane that made landfall in the U.S. state of Texas in mid-September 2021. The fourteenth named storm, and sixth hurricane of the 2021 Atlantic hurricane season, Nicholas originated from a tropical wave that emerged off the west coast of Africa on August 28. The system developed into a tropical storm on September 12, with the National Hurricane Center (NHC) assigning the system the name Nicholas. Nicholas gradually intensified initially, due to adverse effects of strong wind shear. However, late on September 13, Nicholas began intensifying at a faster rate, and at 03:00 UTC on September 14, Nicholas intensified into a Category 1 hurricane, with maximum sustained winds of 75 mph (120 km/h) and a minimum central pressure of 988 mbar (29.2 inHg). At 5:30 UTC on the same day, Nicholas made landfall in Texas at peak intensity. Afterward, the system gradually weakened, weakening into a tropical storm several hours later, and weakening further into a tropical depression on the next day. The system proceeded to drift slowly over Louisiana. On September 15, Nicholas degenerated into a remnant low, before being absorbed into another extratropical system on September 20.

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