Hurricane Dora

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Hurricane Dora
Category 4 major hurricane (SSHWS/NWS)
Dorasep51964nimbus.png
Satellite image of Dora on September 5
FormedAugust 28, 1964
DissipatedSeptember 14, 1964
Highest winds 1-minute sustained: 130 mph (215 km/h)
Lowest pressure942 mbar (hPa); 27.82 inHg
Fatalities5 total
Damage$280 million (1964 USD)
Areas affected Bahamas, East Coast of the United States (especially Florida), Atlantic Canada
Part of the 1964 Atlantic hurricane season

Hurricane Dora was the first tropical cyclone on record to make landfall over the Atlantic coast of North Florida at hurricane intensity. The sixth tropical storm and second hurricane of the 1964 season, Dora developed from a tropical wave near the coast of Senegal on August 28. After a reconnaissance aircraft flight on September 1, the depression was upgraded to Tropical Storm Dora. It then curved northeastward and continued to strengthen. By early on September 3, Dora became a Category 1 hurricane. Six hours later, the storm reached Category 2 intensity. Intensification slowed somewhat, though Dora became a Category 3 on September 5. Deepening further, the storm peaked as a Category 4 with maximum sustained winds of 130 mph (210 km/h) early the following day. At 18:00 UTC on September 6, Dora weakened to a Category 3 hurricane, then a Category 2 hurricane while curving westward early the following day.

Contents

Later on September 7, Dora continued to maintain Category 2 intensity on approaching the east coast of Florida, Dora's motion became erratic, making a few cyclonic loops. Around 04:00 UTC on September 10, the hurricane made landfall near St. Augustine, Florida, with winds of 110 mph (175 km/h), the hurricane fell to tropical storm intensity over land on September 11. Dora then briefly drifted over southwestern Georgia, until turned east-northeastward late the next day. Early on September 14, the storm re-emerged into the Atlantic Ocean near Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, and transitioned into an extratropical cyclone several hours later. The remnants of Dora moved rapidly northeastward and dissipated offshore Newfoundland early on September 16.

Along the coast, tides reached up to 10 ft (3 m) above mean sea level. Strong winds lashed North Florida, with sustained wind of 125 mph (200 km/h) observed in St. Augustine. In Jacksonville, approximately 156,000 customers were left without electricity, while about 19% of phones in Duval County were out of service. Much of the damage in the Jacksonville area occurred to older buildings and those located in coastal areas. Additionally, sections of the city experienced wind-induced river flooding in the vicinity of the St. Johns River. Heavy rainfall damaged many unharvested crops and inundated numerous of roads and bridges, isolated some communities for several days. Throughout Florida, 74 dwellings were flattened and 9,374 received damage, while 14 mobile homes were destroyed and 218 others suffered severe impact. About 50 farm buildings and 423 small businesses were severely damaged or demolished. Three deaths and at least $230 million in damage occurred. In Georgia, the storm damaged about 1,135 homes and obliterated five others. Additionally, 18 trailers suffered major impact, while 43 small businesses were destroyed or experienced severe damage. There was one death in the state and at least $9 million in damage. A few other states were affected by the storm, though impact there was much lesser. One death occurred in Virginia. Overall, Dora caused $280 million in damage and five deaths.

Meteorological history

Map plotting the storm's track and intensity, according to the Saffir-Simpson scale

Map key
Saffir-Simpson scale
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Tropical depression (<=38 mph, <=62 km/h)

Tropical storm (39-73 mph, 63-118 km/h)

Category 1 (74-95 mph, 119-153 km/h)

Category 2 (96-110 mph, 154-177 km/h)

Category 3 (111-129 mph, 178-208 km/h)

Category 4 (130-156 mph, 209-251 km/h)

Category 5 (>=157 mph, >=252 km/h)

Unknown
Storm type
Tropical cyclone
Subtropical cyclone
Extratropical cyclone / Remnant low / Tropical disturbance / Monsoon depression Dora 1964 track.png
Map plotting the storm's track and intensity, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale
Map key
  Tropical depression (≤38 mph, ≤62 km/h)
  Tropical storm (39–73 mph, 63–118 km/h)
  Category 1 (74–95 mph, 119–153 km/h)
  Category 2 (96–110 mph, 154–177 km/h)
  Category 3 (111–129 mph, 178–208 km/h)
  Category 4 (130–156 mph, 209–251 km/h)
  Category 5 (≥157 mph, ≥252 km/h)
  Unknown
Storm type
ArrowUp.svg Extratropical cyclone / Remnant low / Tropical disturbance / Monsoon depression

Hurricane Dora was first identified as a broad area of low pressure on August 28, 1964, as it moved off the west coast of Africa into the Atlantic Ocean near Dakar, Senegal. [1] Traveling west-southwestward, [2] the system brushed the Cape Verde Islands on the next day. By August 31, images from the eighth Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS VIII) depicted a developing storm with a central dense overcast, banding features and cirrus outflow. Observations from ships in the vicinity of the storm indicated decreasing barometric pressures and wind gusts up to 40 mph (65 km/h). On September 1, reconnaissance aircraft flew into the system and determined that it had already become a tropical storm, with sustained winds reaching 60 mph (95 km/h). Shortly thereafter, the first advisory was issued on Tropical Storm Dora and the center was estimated to be roughly 850 mi (1,370 km) east of Trinidad. [1] [3]

Upon being classified on September 1, Dora turned towards the northwest and intensified. [2] Several reconnaissance missions into the storm indicated that it attained hurricane status during the afternoon of September 2; [1] however, in the official Atlantic hurricane database, it is not listed as reaching this intensity until the nighttime hours. [2] Increasing in size and strength, [1] Dora attained winds of 100 mph (160 km/h) early on September 3, the equivalent of a Category 2 on the modern-day Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale. [2] At the time, meteorologists expected the storm to maintain a northwesterly course and be steered over open waters by a trough associated with Hurricane Cleo to the west. [3] [4] However, Dora "missed" the trough and gradually turned towards the west on September 6. [3] That day, the hurricane attained its peak intensity as a Category 4-equivalent storm with winds estimated at 130 mph (210 km/h) and a central pressure of 942 mbar (hPa; 27.82 inHg). [2]

Enlarged track of Hurricane Dora detailing its erratic track prior to landfall Hurricane Dora 1964 Florida track.png
Enlarged track of Hurricane Dora detailing its erratic track prior to landfall

While executing the turn, Dora steadily weakened as its low-level inflow was disrupted. By September 8, the storm restrengthened slightly and attained winds of 115 mph (185 km/h). [1] [3] [2] Tracking westward towards Florida, Dora's forward movement decreased and became erratic as it neared the coast. Early on September 9, the storm abruptly turned southeastward before moving north for several hours. Throughout the remainder of September 9, the hurricane executed three distinct cyclonic loops while maintaining a general westward motion. [1] During the afternoon hours, Dora passed over the Gulf Stream, resulting in its central pressure decreasing 9 mbar (hPa; 0.27 inHg) in a few hours. [5]

Around 12:20 a.m. EST on September 10, Hurricane Dora made landfall about 6 mi (9.7 km) north of St. Augustine, Florida, with sustained winds between 115 and 125 mph (185 and 205 km/h). [1] Although estimated to have been a Category 3 at landfall, the highest winds onshore were believed to have been in the Category 2 range. [6] Striking northeastern Florida, Dora became the first tropical cyclone on record to make landfall in the region. [1] Once onshore the storm gradually weakened, losing hurricane status about 24 hours later, and began a gradual turn towards the northeast. During the morning of September 12, Dora became almost stationary over the southern border between Alabama and Georgia. However, the storm rapidly accelerated and re-emerged into the Atlantic Ocean on September 14 near the Outer Banks of North Carolina. Hours after moving over water, the system transitioned into an extratropical cyclone. The remnants of Dora were last mentioned on September 16 off the northeast coast of Newfoundland. [2]

Preparations

Caribbean

Upon Dora's classification on September 1, a small craft advisory was issued for the Leeward Islands and the northern Windward Islands. [3]

United States

As Dora approached Florida, gale warnings were issued for the northeast section of the coastline. [7] As Dora moved inland, gale warnings were issued from Sarasota to Pensacola. [8] In addition, small craft for much of the Gulf Coast to the west coast of Florida, and later in the Mid-Atlantic were advised to remain in port until the storm subsided. [8]

Impact

Overall, Hurricane Dora was responsible for five deaths and $280 million in damage, much of which occurred in Florida. [9]

Bahamas and Florida

Damage caused by storm surge in Atlantic Beach Doraatlanticbeach.jpg
Damage caused by storm surge in Atlantic Beach

In the Bahamas, Dora brought heavy rains and high winds to Nassau. [10] Along the coast of Florida, tides reached up to 10 ft (3.0 m) above mean sea level. [3] The hurricane also produced storm surge and abnormally high tides on the Gulf Coast of Florida, especially from Tampa Bay to St. Marks, where tides between 2 and 6 ft (0.61 and 1.83 m) were observed. Residents were forced to evacuate their homes. Strong winds lashed northeastern Florida, with sustained wind of 125 mph (200 km/h) observed in St. Augustine. [3] Many locations north of Daytona Beach received sustained winds of at least 100 mph (160 km/h). [11] Because of the slow movement of Dora, some places experienced the worst of the storm for as much as 24 hours. [3] Many areas of North Florida received at least 10 in (250 mm) of rainfall, damaging many unharvested crops and inundating numerous roads and bridges, which isolated some communities for several days. [3] Throughout Florida, 74 dwellings were flattened and 9,374 received damage, while 14 mobile homes were destroyed and 218 others suffered severe impact. About 50 farm buildings and 423 small businesses were severely damaged or demolished. [12]

First Coast

Jacksonville was one of the most severely impacted cities. Approximately 156,000 customers were left without electricity, while about 19% of phones in Duval County were out of service. The power supply for Jacksonville and surrounding towns was lost for six days. [13] Much of the damage in the Jacksonville area occurred to older buildings and those located in coastal areas. Additionally, sections of the city experienced wind-induced river flooding in the vicinity of the St. Johns River. [3] Along the coast, Atlantic Beach and Jacksonville Beach were lashed by storm surge, which flooded low-lying areas and swept away houses and roads. One street in the latter was inundated with about 6 ft (1.8 m) of water. Three homes were destroyed and 3,992 suffered damage, while 5 mobile homes were demolished and 25 experienced impact, overall in Duval County. [14]

The Beatles at their hotel in Key West Thebeatleskeywest.jpg
The Beatles at their hotel in Key West

The storm was also one of the factors that nearly led to the cancellation of a Beatles concert at Gator Bowl Stadium in Jacksonville on September 11; other reasons included that the Beatles would not perform with a segregated audience, the American Guild of Variety Artists forced the Fab Four to pay union dues, and that a group of filmmakers attempted to create bootleg footage of the concert. Those issues were eventually resolved. Initially, the Beatles planned to fly to Jacksonville after their concert in Montreal on September 8, but the storm forced their plane to be diverted to Key West. Just hours before the concert began, the Beatles arrived at Imeson Field. More than 20,000 fans attended the concert, though thousands of others could not attend due to power outages in the city. Because winds were still gusting up to 45 mph (72 km/h), Ringo Starr's drums were nailed to the stage. [15]

In American Beach, which was once an African-American beach community established by Abraham Lincoln Lewis, many of its historical buildings were damaged or destroyed. [16] Additionally, several homes and businesses were also affected or demolished. [17] Some homes were swept away in Fernandina Beach, while the foundations of several other dwellings were threatened. [18] Approximately 40 residences were damaged or destroyed. [19] At Fort Clinch, located near the northern tip of Amelia Island, the exterior of the fort was severely impacted by erosion. [20] Throughout Nassau County, Dora destroyed about 50 homes and damaged 500 others, while 25 small businesses were either demolished or suffered major impact. [21]

Aerial view of Ponte Vedra Beach Dorapvbeach.jpg
Aerial view of Ponte Vedra Beach

In St. Johns County, 14 beach homes and 2 car garages were destroyed by erosion between Vilano Beach and southern Ponte Vedra Beach. A number of other dwellings were damaged. Waves inundated many areas of St. Augustine with a few inches to as much as several feet of water. [22] The heaviest impact occurred at the bay front, in Davis Shores, and along the San Sebastian River. At Slave Market Square, floodwaters were "hip deep", [23] while floodwaters outside the Monson Motor Lodge was described as "hubcap deep". The St. Augustine Record office was submerged, [24] while some motel lobbies along the Matanzas River were flooded with 30 in (760 mm) of water. [25] Additionally, Castillo de San Marcos was surrounded by water. [23] Winds unroofed some homes and downed giant, centuries old oak trees. [22] Much of the city was left without electricity. Damage in St. Augustine totaled about $5 million. [25] The pier and boardwalk at St. Augustine Beach were majorly damaged, as well as a section of State Road A1A, causing it to be closed to traffic. [24] Approximately 1,027 homes and 19 others were destroyed, while 20 businesses suffered major losses or were demolished in St. Johns County alone. [21]

High tides were also reported Flagler County, especially at Flagler Beach. About half of the municipal pier was destroyed, with some of its debris scattered over State Road A1A. In addition to the debris, washouts forced the road to be temporarily closed. Impact to private property was mainly limited to lost shingles, flooded yards, and a few downed trees. Seedling cabbage plants may have been completely ruined. Damage in the county was minor, reaching approximately $500,000. [26] Tides of about 8 ft (2.4 m) along the St. Johns River in Palatka threatened to wash away the eastern side of the memorial bridge. Extensive erosion occurred elsewhere in Putnam County along the river. A 75 ft (23 m) yacht was beached at a county commissioner's riverfront home. Then-State Road 309 was flooded in the vicinity of Georgetown. [27] Some trees were downed and a few classrooms suffered water leaks at St. Johns River Junior College in Palatka, but damage overall was minor. [28] Approximately 1,800 people were left without telephone service in Palatka, Pomona Park, and Welaka. [27]

Interior North Florida and Florida Panhandle

West of the Jacksonville area, the storm brought heavy rainfall, with over 10 in (250 mm) of precipitation falling in a 10,000 sq mi (26,000 km2) area. [3] Precipitation from the hurricane peaked at 23.73 in (603 mm) in Mayo, [29] including 14.62 in (371 mm) that fell in a 24‑hour period. [24]

In Ocala, 11.7 in (300 mm) of rain fell since September 1, about 11.46 in (291 mm) in association with Dora. A few blocks were closed in the city due to flooding. [30] One lane along Route 441 was inundated at Orange Lake. Throughout Marion County, 15 to 20 county roads were submerged. Additionally, Interstate 75 was flooded between Route 27 and County Road 318, resulting in the closure of that section of the highway. [31] The storm inflicted minor damage on 18 homes and severe impacts on 8 others residences in Marion County. [21]

Farther north, in Gainesville, "scores" of dwellings and 25 homes at Highland Court Manor and Lincoln Estates were invaded by water. Several residences on Northwest 10th Avenue were also flooded, [32] while another 25 dwellings experienced water damage in High Springs after the Santa Fe River overflowed. [33] A trailer park on Archer Road was inundated waist-deep. At Clear Lake, several homes were threatened by the rising body of water. A 25,000 US gal (95,000 l; 21,000 imp gal) fuel tank at Stengel Field emerged from the ground due to saturation. [32] At the University of Florida, the half-basements of Anderson, Flint, Matherly, and Tigert halls were flooded, though classes remained in session while crews pumped out the water. [34] Throughout the city, saturation downed trees, some of which fell on power lines, roads, and houses. Damage in Gainesville alone exceeded $300,000. [32] Overall, 225 dwellings and 36 mobile homes in Alachua County were impacted, while 4 businesses received major damage or were destroyed. [12]

Flooding in Live Oak Photographers in boat after Hurricane Dora - Live Oak.jpg
Flooding in Live Oak

At Live Oak, 18.62 in (473 mm) of precipitation was observed over the course of four days. Flooding left the town almost completely isolated, with all highways leading into Live Oak closed. Portions of the downtown business district were inundated with more than 10 ft (3.0 m) of water. Some homes floated away, while others were flooded with water above the second story window. In a few neighborhoods, only the tops of the chimneys were visible. Many residents were stranded on their rooftops and required rescue by boats. [24] One person died directly as a result of the storm from a drowning in Live Oak. [11] Throughout Suwannee County, 100 homes suffered major damage, while 219 other dwellings were dealt minor impairments and 5 mobile homes received severe impacts. Additionally, seven farm buildings were extensively damaged and 80 small businesses suffered either destruction or significant effects. [35]

Many roads were flooded in Lafayette County, including U.S. Route 27 and State Road 51, [36] [37] causing school to be canceled for several days. Much of the town of Mayo was inundated. [33] Thirteen homes were damaged in the county, while four mobile homes received major impacts. [14] In Madison County, 18 homes were inflicted minor damage. [21]

In Taylor County, the city of Perry was flooded, with water entering more than 100 homes. Farther south, Steinhatchee was effected by freshwater flooding and storm surge. High water left State Road 51 the only highway to and from Steinhatchee closed for a few days. Throughout Taylor County, the storm damaged 300 homes to some degree, 25 severely. A total of 30 mobile homes suffered major impact. Additionally, 10 small businesses and 30 boats experienced major damage or were demolished. [35]

Central Florida southward

In New Smyrna Beach, two concrete decks at the beach were swept away. More than 200 ft (61 m) of sand was lost at the Coast Guard station. [24] Strong winds downed power lines and trees, which struck six homes. [38] Sixty-three dwellings in Daytona Beach were damaged and over 1,000 sq ft (93 m2) of the roof at Daytona Beach International Airport was lost. [24] One house burned down in Glenwood, a community between DeLeon Springs and DeLand, after the owner forgot to extinguish a kerosene lantern before falling asleep. [39] In DeLand, winds uprooted many trees and caused power and telephone service outages. The winds and rainfall ranging from 6 to 7 in (150 to 180 mm) caused some losses of oranges and grapefruits. [38] A total of 5 homes experienced significant damage in Orange City, while 8 other suffered light impacts. In western Volusia County, one dwelling was destroyed and twenty-nine suffered major impact, while one hundred twenty-seven homes experienced minor damage. Additionally, 15 trailers were significantly impacted. [35] The hurricane destroyed 1 home, caused major damage to 19 homes, and inflicted minor damage to 397 homes in eastern Volusia County. Also in that section of the county, 5 mobile homes experienced substantial damage and 12 boats were either destroyed or severely damaged. [14]

In Seminole County, wind damage was mainly limited a to downed power lines, electrical poles, and trees, some of which fell on homes and blocked streets, particularly in Altamonte Springs, Geneva, and Sanford. [40] Two deaths occurred on September 9 when a helicopter being evacuated from the storm crashed near Sanford, killing two Navy personnel. [3] Throughout Seminole County, 461 homes suffered minor damage and 8 mobile homes received minor damage. Additionally, 26 farm buildings were severely damaged and 12 boats were either extensively damaged or destroyed. [35] In Brevard County, the storm caused minor flood damage to homes in Titusville. A few power lines and telephone lines were downed by the wind. A loss of 10% of grapefruit crops and 2%3% of oranges in the county. [38] Throughout southern Brevard County, Dora caused major damage to 4 homes and minor damage to 24 others. The cyclone also destroyed 4 mobile homes and inflicted major damage to 14 others. Additionally, 10 small businesses were either demolished or received extensive damage. [35] In Indian River County, a total of 45 homes suffered light damage. [14] Farther south, storm surge and above normal tides caused the loss of about 10 to 12 ft (3.0 to 3.7 m) of sand in Fort Pierce. Winds in the area left some power outages and toppled a steel, concrete sign at a courthouse. [38]

Elsewhere in North America

Map of rainfall from Hurricane Dora in the Southeastern United States Dora 1964 rainfall.png
Map of rainfall from Hurricane Dora in the Southeastern United States

Some locations in Georgia also experienced hurricane-force winds and heavy rainfall from the storm, particularly in the southeastern portion of the state. Winds estimated at 90 mph (140 km/h) were experienced on the coastal islands, while gale-force winds were observed as far north as Savannah and as far west as Waycross. Hundreds of trees were toppled, which downed trees and power lines, with some areas experiencing a near complete loss of electricity. The storm also brought heavy rainfall, with some areas observing more than 10 in (250 mm) of rain, while much of the southern half of Georgia experienced more than 3 in (76 mm) of precipitation. Storm surge and higher tides resulted in erosion and coastal flooding. [41] On Jekyll Island, two motels lost portions of their roofs and a ferris wheel was destroyed. Extensive erosion also occurred on the island. [42] Damage on Jekyll Island was conservatively estimated at $1 million. [43] At least five homes were swept away on St. Simons Island, while sections of the pier and seawall were demolished. The F.J. Torras Causeway, a bridge connecting Sea Island and St. Simons Island to Brunswick, was flooded. [42]

Many streets in Brunswick were covered with 1 to 3 ft (0.30 to 0.91 m) of water, leaving them impassible. In one section of the city, about 100 homes were deroofed, while 25 other homes in another section were severely damaged. An estimated 35%-40% of dwellings were damaged to some degree in Brunswick. Many trees, and power lines were downed, limiting communication between the islands and the mainland to radio networks. Portions of Route 17 south of Brunswick was washed out. [42] One man drowned in the Little Satilla River near Brunswick while attempting to secure his boat. [44] Glynn County suffered over $3.6 million in damage. [43] Soil erosion caused by heavy rainfall in Waycross resulted in extensive damage to buildings and streets. [42] Throughout Georgia, the storm structurally impacted about 1,135 homes and obliterated five others. Additionally, 18 trailers suffered major impact, while 43 small businesses were destroyed or experienced severe damage. [12] Although many pastures were flooded, [41] impact on agriculture was minor. [44] Overall, the storm left at least $9 million in damage in Georgia. [3]

A few other states were affected by the storm, though impact there was much lesser. One death occurred in Virginia. [3]

In Newfoundland, over 100 ships sought shelter at the St. John's harbor. The central portions of the province experienced heavy rainfall and winds up to 59 mph (95 km/h). [45]

Aftermath

Following the storm, President Lyndon Johnson toured the devastated area with Florida governor Farris Bryant, U.S. senators Spessard Holland and George Smathers, Jacksonville mayor and Democratic nominee for governor Haydon Burns. President Johnson also personally assessed the damage in coastal Georgia, including at Brunswick and St. Simons Island. [46] In the flooded areas, the Red Cross delivered typhoid serum by helicopter. [24]

The name "Dora" had replaced "Donna" on the hurricane lists, and it was retired from the Atlantic hurricane lists and replaced with "Dolly" for the 1968 season.

See also

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The Okeechobee hurricane of 1928, also known as the San Felipe Segundo hurricane, was one of the deadliest hurricanes in the recorded history of the North Atlantic basin, and the third deadliest hurricane in the United States, only behind the 1900 Galveston hurricane and Hurricane Maria. The hurricane killed an estimated 2,500 people in the United States; most of the fatalities occurred in the state of Florida, particularly in Lake Okeechobee. It was the fourth tropical cyclone, third hurricane, and only major hurricane of the 1928 Atlantic hurricane season. It developed off the west coast of Africa on September 6 as a tropical depression, but it strengthened into a tropical storm later that day, shortly before passing south of the Cape Verde islands. Further intensification was slow and halted late on September 7. About 48 hours later, the storm strengthened and became a Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale. Still moving westward, the system reached Category 4 intensity before striking Guadeloupe on September 12, where it brought great destruction and resulted in 1,200 deaths. The islands of Martinique, Montserrat, and Nevis also reported damage and fatalities, but not nearly as severe as in Guadeloupe.

Hurricane Bertha (1996) Category 3 Atlantic hurricane in 1996

Hurricane Bertha was an intense and early-forming major hurricane that affected areas from the Leeward Islands to the United States in July of the 1996 Atlantic hurricane season. The second named storm, first hurricane, and first major hurricane during the season. Bertha originated from a tropical wave that moved off the coast of Africa in early July. Steadily organizing while moving generally towards the west, the disturbance was designated as a tropical depression at 0000 UTC on July 5, and was further upgraded to a tropical storm by 1200 UTC later that day. Over the next few days, continued intensification occurred, and Bertha became a Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale, the first hurricane of the season, prior to moving through the northern Leeward Islands. Late on July 8, a period of rapid intensification began, and at 0600 UTC on July 9, Bertha reached its peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 115 mph (185 km/h) with a minimum barometric pressure of 960 mbar (28 inHg). Moving around the western periphery of the subtropical ridge, Bertha passed north of the Bahamas as a weakening hurricane before turning towards the north-northeast and undergoing another period of rapid intensification. Late on July 12, Bertha made landfall between Wrightsville Beach and Topsail Beach, North Carolina with winds of 105 mph (169 km/h). Gradual weakening ensued the following day as Bertha moved up the Mid-Atlantic and into New England before becoming an extratropical cyclone on July 14. The storm's remnants persisted for another several days, before dissipating on July 18.

Hurricane Isbell Category 3 Atlantic hurricane in 1964

Hurricane Isbell was the final hurricane to affect the United States during the 1964 season. The eleventh tropical storm and sixth hurricane of the season, Isbell developed from a dissipating cold front in the southwestern Caribbean on October 8. The depression initially remained disorganized as it track northwestward, but strengthened into Tropical Storm Isbell on October 13. Re-curving northeastward, Isbell quickly strengthened further and reached hurricane status by later that day. Late on October 13, Isbell made landfall in the Pinar del Río Province of Cuba. The storm continued strengthening and peaked as a Category 3 hurricane on the following day. Isbell moved northeastward and made landfall near Everglades, Florida, late on October 14. After reaching the Atlantic on the following day, the storm began to weaken. Isbell turned northward and continued weakening, before transitioning to an extratropical cyclone while located just offshore eastern North Carolina on October 16.

Hurricane Erin (1995) Category 2 Atlantic hurricane in 1995

Hurricane Erin was the first hurricane to strike the United States since Hurricane Andrew in 1992. The fifth tropical cyclone, fifth named storm, and second hurricane of the unusually active 1995 Atlantic hurricane season, Erin developed from a tropical wave near the southeastern Bahamas on July 31. Moving northwestward, the cyclone intensified into a Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson scale near Rum Cay about 24 hours later. After a brief jog to the north-northwest on August 1, Erin began moving to the west-northwest. The cyclone then moved over the northwestern Bahamas, including the Abaco Islands and Grand Bahama. Early on August 2, Erin made landfall near Vero Beach, Florida, with winds of 85 mph. The hurricane weakened while crossing the Florida peninsula and fell to tropical storm intensity before emerging into the Gulf of Mexico later that day.

1921 Tampa Bay hurricane Category 4 Atlantic hurricane in 1921

The Tampa Bay hurricane of 1921 was the most recent major hurricane to strike the Tampa Bay Area and the second latest major hurricane to strike the continental United States in the calendar year on record, behind Hurricane Zeta in 2020. The eleventh tropical cyclone, sixth tropical storm, and fifth hurricane of the season, the storm developed from a trough in the southwestern Caribbean Sea on October 20. Initially a tropical storm, the system moved northwestward and intensified into a hurricane on October 22 and a major hurricane by October 23. Later that day, the hurricane peaked as a Category 4 on the modern day Saffir–Simpson scale with maximum sustained winds of 140 mph (220 km/h). After entering the Gulf of Mexico, the hurricane gradually curved northeastward and weakened to a Category 3 before making landfall near Tarpon Springs, Florida, late on October 25, becoming the first major hurricane to hit the area since a hurricane in 1848. The storm quickly weakened to a Category 1 hurricane while crossing Central Florida, before reaching the Atlantic Ocean early on the following day. Thereafter, system moved east-southeastward and remained fairly steady in intensity before weakening to a tropical storm late on October 29. The storm was then absorbed by a larger extratropical cyclone early the next day, with the remnants of the hurricane soon becoming indistinguishable.

Effects of Hurricane Wilma in Florida

The effects of Hurricane Wilma in Florida resulted in the storm becoming the third-costliest tropical cyclone in Florida history. Wilma developed in the Caribbean Sea just southwest of Jamaica on October 15 from a large area of disturbed weather. After reaching tropical storm intensity on October 17 and then hurricane status on October 18, the system explosively deepened, peaking as the strongest tropical cyclone ever recorded in the Atlantic basin. Wilma then slowly weakened while trekking to the northwest and fell to Category 4 intensity by the time it struck the Yucatán Peninsula on October 22. Thereafter, a strong cold front swept the storm northeastward into Florida on October 24, with landfall occurring near Cape Romano as a Category 3 hurricane with winds of 120 mph (190 km/h). Wilma continued rapidly northeastward into the Atlantic Ocean and became extratropical on October 26.

1949 Florida hurricane Category 4 Atlantic hurricane in 1949

The 1949 Florida hurricane, also known as the Delray Beach hurricane, caused significant damage in the southern portions of the state late in the month of August. The second recorded tropical cyclone of the annual hurricane season, the system originated from a tropical wave near the northern Leeward Islands on August 23. Already a tropical storm upon initial observations, the cyclone curved west-northwestward and intensified, becoming a hurricane on August 25. Rapid intensification ensued as the storm approached the central Bahamas early on August 26, with the storm reaching Category 4 hurricane strength later that day and peaking with maximum sustained winds of 130 mph (215 km/h) shortly after striking Andros. Late on August 26, the storm made landfall near Lake Worth, Florida, at the same intensity. The cyclone initially weakened quickly after moving inland, falling to Category 1 status early the next day. Shortly thereafter, the system curved northward over the Nature Coast and entered Georgia on August 28, where it weakened to a tropical storm. The storm then accelerated northeastward and became extratropical over New England by August 29. The remnants traversed Atlantic Canada and much of the Atlantic Ocean before dissipating near Ireland on September 1.

1933 Treasure Coast hurricane Category 4 Atlantic hurricane in 1933

The 1933 Treasure Coast hurricane was the second-most intense tropical cyclone to strike the United States during the active 1933 Atlantic hurricane season. The eleventh tropical storm, fifth hurricane, and the third major hurricane of the season, it formed east-northeast of the Leeward Islands on August 31. The tropical storm moved rapidly west-northwestward, steadily intensifying to a hurricane. It acquired peak winds of 140 miles per hour (225 km/h) and passed over portions of the Bahamas on September 3, including Eleuthera and Harbour Island, causing severe damage to crops, buildings, and infrastructure. Winds over 100 mph (161 km/h) affected many islands in its path, especially those that encountered its center, and many wharves were ruined.

Effects of Hurricane Floyd in Florida Aftermath of hurricane in Florida

Hurricane Floyd in 1999 threatened Florida as a major hurricane roughly three times as large as Hurricane Andrew. Floyd originated from a tropical wave well east of the Lesser Antilles on September 7. While approaching the Bahamas, the storm strengthened significantly between September 12 and September 13. On the latter day, Floyd peaked as a strong Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson scale. However, upon moving closer to the Bahamas, the storm fluctuated in intensity between a Category 3 and a Category 4 hurricane. A subtropical ridge eroded by a mid- to upper-tropospheric trough over the eastern United States caused Floyd to curve northwestward over the Abaco Islands and later to northeast, avoiding a potentially catastrophic landfall in Florida. The storm made its closest approach to Florida early on September 15, passing about 110 mi (180 km) east of Cape Canaveral.

Hurricane Hermine Category 1 Atlantic hurricane in 2016

Hurricane Hermine was the first hurricane to make landfall in Florida since Hurricane Wilma in 2005, and the first to develop in the Gulf of Mexico since Hurricane Ingrid in 2013. The ninth tropical depression, eighth named storm, and fourth hurricane of the 2016 Atlantic hurricane season, Hermine developed in the Florida Straits on August 28 from a long-tracked tropical wave. The precursor system dropped heavy rainfall in portions of the Caribbean, especially the Dominican Republic and Cuba. In the former, the storm damaged more than 200 homes and displaced over 1,000 people. Although some areas of Cuba recorded more than 12 in (300 mm) of rain, the precipitation was generally beneficial due to a severe drought. After being designated on August 29, Hermine shifted northeastwards due to a trough over Georgia and steadily intensified into an 80 mph (130 km/h) Category 1 hurricane just before making landfall in the Florida Panhandle during September 2. After moving inland, Hermine quickly weakened and transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on September 3 near the Outer Banks of North Carolina. The remnant system meandered offshore the Northeastern United States before dissipating over southeastern Massachusetts on September 8.

Effects of Hurricane Matthew in Florida

Hurricane Matthew was the strongest tropical cyclone to affect the First Coast of Florida since 1898. A late-season Category 5 hurricane in late 2016, Matthew was the first hurricane to threaten the Floridan coastline as a major hurricane since Wilma in 2005. While the center of the storm did not actually cross the coastline, the western eyewall of the storm paralleled the coast, with the most eastern portions receiving winds up to Category 2 strength. The storm caused at least three direct deaths and eleven indirect, and up to $1.49 billion in damages.

Effects of Hurricane Irma in Florida

Hurricane Irma was the most expensive storm in the history of the U.S. state of Florida. Irma developed from a tropical wave near the Cape Verde Islands on August 30, 2017. The storm quickly became a hurricane on August 31 and then a major hurricane shortly thereafter, but would oscillate in intensity over the next few days. By September 4, Irma resumed strengthening, and became a powerful Category 5 hurricane on the following day. The cyclone then struck Saint Maarten and the British Virgin Islands on September 6 and later crossed Little Inagua in the Bahamas on September 8. Irma briefly weakened to a Category 4 hurricane, but re-intensified into a Category 5 hurricane before making landfall in the Sabana-Camagüey Archipelago of Cuba. After falling to Category 3 status due to land interaction, the storm re-strengthened into a Category 4 hurricane in the Straits of Florida. Irma struck Florida twice on September 10 – the first as a Category 4 at Cudjoe Key and the second on Marco Island as a Category 3. The hurricane weakened significantly over Florida, and was reduced to a tropical storm, before exiting the state into Georgia on September 11.

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