Hurricane Ella (1958)

Last updated

Hurricane Ella
Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS/NWS)
Ella 1955-09-06 weather map.png
Surface weather analysis of Hurricane Ella on September 6
FormedAugust 30, 1958
DissipatedSeptember 6, 1958
Highest winds 1-minute sustained: 110 mph (175 km/h)
Lowest pressure983 mbar (hPa); 29.03 inHg
Fatalities36 direct
Damage$200,000 (1958 USD)
Areas affected Leeward Islands, Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Cuba, Florida, Texas
Part of the 1958 Atlantic hurricane season

Hurricane Ella brought flooding to the Greater Antilles and Texas in September 1958. The fifth named storm and third hurricane of the annual season, Ella developed from a tropical wave located just east of the Lesser Antilles on August 30. Initially a tropical depression, it strengthened into Tropical Storm Ella six hours later. The system crossed the Leeward Islands and entered the Caribbean Sea late on August 30. Ella headed westward and by August 31, intensified into a Category 1 hurricane. Hours later, it strengthened into a Category 2 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale. The storm curved northwestward while south of Hispaniola and as a result, struck the Tiburon Peninsula of Haiti on September 1. Flooding in that country killed 30 people in Aux Cayes and left 3 other missing. Additionally, thousands were left homeless, about one-third of crops were washed out, and numerous cattle were killed.

Contents

After re-emerging into the Caribbean Sea, Ella made landfall on September 2, near Santiago de Cuba, Cuba. Heavy rainfall lead to flooding, which in turn caused hundreds to flee their homes, and resulted in 5 fatalities. Hundreds of livestock drowned, and telephone and telegraph services were disrupted in many areas. The storm became disorganized while moving across the southern coast of Cuba and weakened to a tropical storm by later on September 2. Ella reached the Gulf of Mexico on September 4 and briefly re-strengthened. However, it began to weaken again while approaching the Gulf Coast of the United States. The storm made landfall as a weak tropical storm near Corpus Christi, Texas on September 6. It rapidly weakened inland and dissipated later that day. Rainfall and rough surf caused both inland and coastal flooding in Texas. Offshore, the captain of a snapper boat fell overboard and went missing; he was later presumed to have drowned.

Meteorological history

Map plotting the storm's track and intensity, according to the Saffir-Simpson scale

Map key
Saffir-Simpson scale
.mw-parser-output .div-col{margin-top:0.3em;column-width:30em}.mw-parser-output .div-col-small{font-size:90%}.mw-parser-output .div-col-rules{column-rule:1px solid #aaa}.mw-parser-output .div-col dl,.mw-parser-output .div-col ol,.mw-parser-output .div-col ul{margin-top:0}.mw-parser-output .div-col li,.mw-parser-output .div-col dd{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}
.mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}
Tropical depression (<=38 mph, <=62 km/h)

Tropical storm (39-73 mph, 63-118 km/h)

Category 1 (74-95 mph, 119-153 km/h)

Category 2 (96-110 mph, 154-177 km/h)

Category 3 (111-129 mph, 178-208 km/h)

Category 4 (130-156 mph, 209-251 km/h)

Category 5 (>=157 mph, >=252 km/h)

Unknown
Storm type
Tropical cyclone
Subtropical cyclone
Extratropical cyclone / Remnant low / Tropical disturbance / Monsoon depression Ella 1958 track.png
Map plotting the storm's track and intensity, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale
Map key
  Tropical depression (≤38 mph, ≤62 km/h)
  Tropical storm (39–73 mph, 63–118 km/h)
  Category 1 (74–95 mph, 119–153 km/h)
  Category 2 (96–110 mph, 154–177 km/h)
  Category 3 (111–129 mph, 178–208 km/h)
  Category 4 (130–156 mph, 209–251 km/h)
  Category 5 (≥157 mph, ≥252 km/h)
  Unknown
Storm type
ArrowUp.svg Extratropical cyclone / Remnant low / Tropical disturbance / Monsoon depression

A tropical wave was first observed near 50°W on August 29. Later that day, reconnaissance aircraft flight reported a wind shirt and above average shower and thunderstorm activity, but no low-level circulation. [1] At 0600 UTC on August 30, a tropical depression developed just east of the Lesser Antilles. Six hours later, the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Ella. The storm moved through the Leeward Islands and entered the Caribbean Sea late on August 30. [2] A reconnaissance aircraft into Ella reported sustained winds between 55 and 60 mph (95 km/h). It was around that time that the Weather Bureau Office in San Juan, Puerto Rico began issuing bulletins and advisories. [1] Ella strengthened into a Category 1 hurricane at 1200 UTC on August 31, six hours later, before becoming a Category 2 hurricane. On September 1, Ella curved west-northwestward, and by later that day, made landfall on the Tiburon Peninsula of Haiti with winds of 110 mph (175 km/h). [2] However, the storm was operationally thought to have remained offshore. [1]

Ella re-emerged into the Caribbean Sea on September 1, and on September 2, [2] the storm made landfall near Santiago de Cuba, Cuba as a Category 1 Hurricane. Rough terrain over the island caused Ella to weaken to a Category 1 hurricane on September 2. Later that day, it further weakened to a tropical storm. The storm re-strengthened to a 70 mph (110 km/h) before reaching the Gulf of Mexico on September 4. Ella maintained this intensity for approximately 48 hours while moving west-northwestward, but began to weaken again on September 6. Hours later, the storm made landfall near Corpus Christi, Texas with winds of 45 mph (75 km/h). It weakened back to a tropical depression and dissipated by late on September 6. [2]

Preparations and impact

Rainfall accumulations from Hurricane Ella in the United States Ella 1958 rainfall.png
Rainfall accumulations from Hurricane Ella in the United States

Wind gusts in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands were between 40 and 50 mph (64 and 80 km/h). [1] Heavy rainfall in the former caused local flooding. Damage was minor in both locations, confined mostly to crops. [3] In preparation for Ella on the island of Hispaniola, a hurricane warning was issued from Barahona, Dominican Republic, and along the Haitian coastline to Saint-Marc. [4] Ella brought heavy rains, peaking at 9.63 in (245 mm) in Polo, Barahona. [5] Damage from the resultant flooding in southwestern Dominican Republic reached $100,000. [1] Additionally, wind gusts up to 37 mph (60 km/h) were reported in Santo Domingo. Heavy precipitation in Haiti caused flash floods that killed 30 people near Aux Cayes, and three other people were listed as missing. [1] As much as 5 to 6 ft (1.5 to 1.8 m) of water covered roads in low-lying areas. A combination of strong winds and flooding also rendered thousands homeless. Damage to agriculture was heavy, with numerous cattle killed and about one-third of crops washed out, mostly to bananas and sugar cane. [3] There was no monetary damage estimate, though losses in Haiti were noted to have been "considerable". [1]

Flooding also occurred in Cuba. Hundreds were evacuated their homes in four different provinces in Cuba, including 400 peasant families in Oriente Province. [6] Near Santiago de Cuba, 25 houses were swept away after the Bayamo River overflowed. In the same area, a woman and her four sons drowned due to the swollen river. Additionally, a body of a man was recovered near Santa Cruz del Sur. [7] Hundreds of livestock drowned, and telephone and telegraph services were disrupted in many areas. Losses in Cuba were estimated to have reached $100,000. [1] Ella had a role in the Cuban Revolution as the government troops of Fulgencio Batista y Zaldívar stayed in their barracks during the storm while the rebels made progress under cover of Ella. Later, when the guerrillas heard about Hurricane Fifi on the radio, Che Guevara taught his illiterate comrades that entities like tropical cyclones are named in alphabetical order. [8]

The outer bands of Ella produced gale force winds in the Florida Keys, causing damage mainly to antennas, fences, shrubbery, and signs. Winds on Stock Island damaged and overturned 4 trailers. Further north in Miami, a freighter was disabled and had to be towed in to port by the United States Coast Guard. [1] Due to fears of a storm similar to Hurricane Audrey in the previous year, some residents evacuated southwestern Louisiana. An estimated 1,500 fled inland as Ella approached, leaving only 100 people to ride out the storm. [9] In Louisiana, squalls from Ella caused the collision of two ocean-bound freighters along the Mississippi River near New Orleans. [10] Impact elsewhere in Louisiana was limited to minor damage to rice crops in the southwestern portion of the state. [3] On 35  oil platforms offshore of Houston, Texas, 1,400 people were alerted about possible evacuations if Ella were to approach the area. [11] Along the coast, there were evacuations in Indianola, Port Alto, Port O'Connor, and Sabine Pass. [12] Ella brought heavy rains to eastern and southern Texas, including 13.1 in (330 mm) in Galveston. [13] Precipitation brought minor flooding to low-lying areas of the Bolivar Peninsula, Galveston Island, Kemah, La Marque, the Matagorda Peninsula, Seabrook, and Texas City. [14] Ella also brought swells to the coast of Texas. A portion of Texas State Highway 87 was closed due to inundation between Sabine Pass and High Island. Further south, tidal flooding along Texas State Highway 316 caused the closure of the portion near Indianola. Offshore, a 65 ft (20 m) shrimp trawler sank during the storm, after being smashed against the rocks near Galveston. The crew fled to the life boats and were later rescued by a United States Coast Guard Patrol Vessel. The captain of the snapper boat E. W. Fowler went missing after he was washed overboard; the man was later presumed to have drowned. [12]

See also

Related Research Articles

Hurricane Lili Category 4 Atlantic hurricane in 2002

Hurricane Lili was the second costliest, deadliest, and strongest hurricane of the 2002 Atlantic hurricane season, only surpassed by Hurricane Isidore, which affected the same areas around a week before Lili. Lili was the twelfth named storm, fourth hurricane, and second major hurricane of the 2002 Atlantic hurricane season. The storm developed from a tropical disturbance in the open Atlantic on September 21. It continued westward, affecting the Lesser Antilles as a tropical storm, then entered the Caribbean. As it moved west, the storm dissipated while being affected by wind shear south of Cuba, and regenerated when the vertical wind shear weakened. It turned to the northwest and strengthened up to category 2 strength on October 1. Lili made two landfalls in western Cuba later that day, and then entered the Gulf of Mexico. The hurricane rapidly strengthened on October 2, reaching Category 4 strength that afternoon. It weakened rapidly thereafter, and hit Louisiana as a Category 1 hurricane on October 3. It moved inland and dissipated on October 6.

1958 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1958 Atlantic hurricane season included every tropical cyclone either affecting or threatening land. There were ten named storms as well as one pre-season tropical storm. Seven of the storms became hurricanes, including five that were major hurricanes, or the equivalent of a Category 3 on the Saffir-Simpson scale. The strongest storm was Hurricane Helene, which became a strong Category 4 hurricane with 150 mph (240 km/h) winds and a barometric pressure of 930 mbar while just offshore the southeastern United States.

1963 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1963 Atlantic hurricane season featured one of the deadliest tropical cyclones on record in the Atlantic basin: Hurricane Flora. The season officially began on June 15, and lasted until November 15. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. It was an season in terms of tropical storms, with a total of ten nameable storms. The first system, an unnamed tropical storm, developed over the Bahamas on June 1. In late July, Hurricane Arlene, developed between Cape Verde and the Lesser Antilles. The storm later impacted Bermuda, where strong winds resulted in about $300,000 (1963 USD) in damage. Other storms such as hurricanes Beulah and Debra, as well as an unnamed tropical storm, did not impact land. During the month of September, Tropical Storm Cindy caused wind damage and flooding in Texas, leaving three deaths and approximately $12.5 million in damage. Hurricane Edith passed through the Lesser Antilles and the eastern Greater Antilles, causing 10 deaths and about $43 million in damage, most of which occurred on Martinique.

1964 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1964 Atlantic hurricane season featured the highest number of U.S.-landfalling hurricanes since 1933. The season officially began on June 15, and lasted until November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. The season was above average, with thirteen named storms, seven hurricanes, and five major hurricanes. The first system, an unnamed tropical storm, developed on June 2, almost two weeks before the official start of the season. Striking Florida on June 6, the storm brought localized flooding to portions of Cuba and the Southeastern United States, leaving about $1 million in damage. The next storm, also unnamed, developed near the end of July; it did not impact land.

1966 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1966 Atlantic hurricane season saw the Weather Bureau office in Miami, Florida, be designated as the National Hurricane Center (NHC) and assume responsibility of tropical cyclone forecasting in the basin. The season officially began on June 1, and lasted until November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. It an above-average season in terms of tropical storms, with a total of 15. The first system, Hurricane Alma, developed over eastern Nicaragua on June 4 and became the most recent major hurricane in the month of June. Alma brought severe flooding to Honduras and later to Cuba, but caused relatively minor impact in the Southeastern United States. Alma resulted in 91 deaths and about $210.1 million (1966 USD) in damage.

1970 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1970 Atlantic hurricane season was the first season of the most recent low-quality era of tropical cyclone formation in the Atlantic. It was also the first year in which reconnaissance aircraft flew into all four quadrants of a tropical cyclone. The season officially began on June 1 and lasted until November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. The season was fairly average, with 10 total storms forming, of which five were hurricanes. Two of those five became major hurricanes, which are Category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson scale. The first system, Hurricane Alma, developed on May 17. The storm killed eight people, seven from flooding in Cuba and one from a lightning strike in Florida. In July, Tropical Storm Becky brought minor flooding to Florida and other parts of the Southern United States, leaving one death and about $500,000 (1970 USD) in damage.

1979 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1979 Atlantic hurricane season was the first season to include both male and female names, as well as the common six-year rotating lists of tropical cyclone names. The season officially began on June 1, and lasted until November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. It was slightly below average, with nine systems reaching tropical storm intensity. The first system, an unnumbered tropical depression, developed north of Puerto Rico on June 9. Two days later, Tropical Depression One formed and produced severe flooding in Jamaica, with 40 deaths and about $27 million (1979 USD) in damage. Tropical Storm Ana caused minimal impact in the Lesser Antilles. Hurricane Bob spawned tornadoes and produced minor wind damage along the Gulf Coast of the United States, primarily in Louisiana, while the remnants caused flooding, especially in Indiana. Tropical Storm Claudette caused extensive flooding in Texas due to torrential rainfall, resulting in two deaths and about $750 million in damage.

1981 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1981 Atlantic hurricane season featured direct or indirect impacts from nearly all of its 12 tropical or subtropical storms. Overall, the season was fairly active, with 22 tropical depressions, 12 of which became a namable storm, while 7 of those reached hurricane status and 3 intensified into major hurricanes. The season officially began on June 1, 1981, and lasted until November 30, 1981. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. However, tropical cyclogenesis can occur before these dates, as demonstrated with the development of two tropical depressions in April and Tropical Storm Arlene in May. At least one tropical cyclone formed in each month between April and November, with the final system, Subtropical Storm Three, becoming extratropical on November 17.

1928 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1928 Atlantic hurricane season featured the Okeechobee hurricane, the second deadliest tropical cyclone in the history of the contiguous United States. Only seven tropical cyclones developed during the season. Of these seven tropical systems, six of them intensified into a tropical storm and four further strengthened into hurricanes. One hurricane deepened into a major hurricane, which is Category 3 or higher on the modern-day Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale. The first system, the Fort Pierce hurricane, developed near the Lesser Antilles on August 3. The storm crossed the Bahamas and made landfall in Florida. Two fatalities and approximately $235,000 in damage was reported. A few days after the first storm developed, the Haiti hurricane, formed near the southern Windward Islands on August 7. The storm went on to strike Haiti, Cuba, and Florida. This storm left about $2 million in damage and at least 210 deaths. Impacts from the third system are unknown.

1921 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1921 Atlantic hurricane season featured the most recent major hurricane to strike the Tampa Bay area in Florida. Although no "hurricane season" was defined at the time, the present-day delineation of such is June 1 to November 30. The first system, a tropical depression, developed on June 1, while the last, a tropical storm, dissipated on November 25. Of note, three of the twelve cyclones co-existed with another tropical cyclone during the season.

1915 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1915 Atlantic hurricane season featured the strongest tropical cyclone to make landfall in the United States since the 1900 Galveston hurricane. The first storm, which remained a tropical depression, appeared on April 29 near the Bahamas, while the final system, also a tropical depression, was absorbed by an extratropical cyclone well south of Newfoundland on October 22. Of the six tropical storms, five intensified into a hurricane, of which three further strengthened into a major hurricane. Four of the hurricanes made landfall in the United States. The early 20th century lacked modern forecasting and documentation, and thus, the hurricane database from these years may be incomplete.

1909 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1909 Atlantic hurricane season was an average Atlantic hurricane season. The season produced thirteen tropical cyclones, twelve of which became tropical storms; six became hurricanes, and four of those strengthened into major hurricanes. The season's first storm developed on June 15 while the last storm transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on November 14. The most notable storm during the season formed in late August, while east of the Lesser Antilles. The hurricane devastated the Lesser Antilles, the Greater Antilles, and Mexico, leaving around 4,000 fatalities and more than $50 million (1909 USD) in damage.

1901 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1901 Atlantic hurricane season was the most active season without a major hurricane – tropical cyclones that reach at least Category 3 on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale – until 2013. The first system was initially observed in the northeastern Caribbean on June 11. The fourteenth and final system transitioned into an extratropical cyclone near Bermuda on November 5. These dates fall within the period with the most tropical cyclone activity in the Atlantic. Eight of the fourteen tropical cyclones existed simultaneously.

1900 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1900 Atlantic hurricane season featured the Galveston hurricane, the deadliest natural disaster in the history of the United States. A total of 10 tropical cyclones formed, 7 of which intensified into a tropical storm. Three of those made landfall in the United States. The first system was initially observed over the central Atlantic Ocean on January 17, while the final storm transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on October 28. These dates fall within the period with the most tropical cyclone activity in the Atlantic. Every storm of the season except the seventh system existed simultaneously with another tropical cyclone.

1899 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1899 Atlantic hurricane season featured the longest-lasting tropical cyclone in the Atlantic basin on record. There were nine tropical storms, of which five became hurricanes. Two of those strengthened into major hurricanes, which are Category 3 or higher on the modern day Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale. The first system was initially observed in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico on June 26. The tenth and final system dissipated near Bermuda on November 10. These dates fall within the period with the most tropical cyclone activity in the Atlantic. In post-season analysis, two tropical cyclones that existed in October were added to HURDAT – the official Atlantic hurricane database. At one point during the season, September 3 through the following day, a set of three tropical cyclones existed simultaneously.

1897 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1897 Atlantic hurricane season was an inactive season, featuring only six known tropical cyclones, four of which made landfall. There were three hurricanes, none of which strengthened into major hurricanes, which are Category 3 or higher on the modern-day Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale. The first system was initially observed south of Cape Verde on August 31, an unusually late date. The storm was the strongest of the season, peaking as a Category 2 hurricane with winds of 100 mph (155 km/h). While located well north of the Azores, rough seas by the storm sunk a ship, killing all 45 crewmen. A second storm was first spotted in the Straits of Florida on September 10. It strengthened into a hurricane and tracked northwestward across the Gulf of Mexico, striking Louisiana shortly before dissipating on September 13. This storm caused 29 deaths and $150,000 (1897 USD) in damage.

2008 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 2008 Atlantic hurricane season was the most destructive Atlantic hurricane season since 2005, causing over 1,000 deaths and nearly $50 billion in damage. The season ranked as the third costliest ever at the time, but has since fallen to eighth costliest. It was an above-average season, featuring sixteen named storms, eight of which became hurricanes, and five which further became major hurricanes. It officially started on June 1 and ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. However, the formation of Tropical Storm Arthur caused the season to start one day early. It was the only year on record in which a major hurricane existed in every month from July through November in the North Atlantic. Bertha became the longest-lived July tropical cyclone on record for the basin, the first of several long-lived systems during 2008.

1886 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1886 Atlantic hurricane season ran through the early summer and the first half of fall in 1886. This is the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. It was a very active year, with ten hurricanes, six of which struck the United States, an event that would not occur again until 1985 and 2020. Four hurricanes became major hurricanes. However, in the absence of modern satellite and other remote-sensing technologies, only storms that affected populated land areas or encountered ships at sea are known, so the actual total could be higher. An undercount bias of zero to six tropical cyclones per year between 1851 and 1885 and zero to four per year between 1886 and 1910 has been estimated. Of the known 1886 cyclones, Hurricane Seven and Tropical Storm Eleven were first documented in 1996 by Jose Fernandez-Partagas and Henry Diaz. They also proposed large alterations to the known tracks of several other 1886 storms.

1875 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1875 Atlantic hurricane season featured three landfalling tropical cyclones. However, in the absence of modern satellite and other remote-sensing technologies, only storms that affected populated land areas or encountered ships at sea were recorded, so the actual total could be higher. An undercount bias of zero to six tropical cyclones per year between 1851 and 1885 has been estimated. There were five recorded hurricanes and one major hurricane – Category 3 or higher on the modern-day Saffir–Simpson scale.

1875 Indianola hurricane Category 3 Atlantic hurricane in 1875

The 1875 Indianola hurricane brought a devastating and deadly storm surge to the coast of Texas. The third known system of the 1875 Atlantic hurricane season, the storm was first considered a tropical cyclone while located east of the Lesser Antilles on September 8. While passing through the Windward Islands. After entering the Caribbean Sea, the cyclone gradually began to move more northwestward and brushed the Tiburon Peninsula of Haiti late on September 12. On the following day, the storm made a few landfalls on the southern coast of Cuba before moving inland over Sancti Spíritus Province. The system emerged into the Gulf of Mexico near Havana and briefly weakened to a tropical storm. Thereafter, the storm slowly re-intensified and gradually turned westward. On September 16, the hurricane peaked as a Category 3 hurricane with winds of 115 mph (185 km/h). Later that day, the hurricane made landfall near Indianola, Texas. The storm quickly weakened and turned northeastward, before dissipating over Mississippi on September 18.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 The Hurricane Season Of 1958 (PDF) (Report). United States Weather Bureau. December 1958. pp. 480–482. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
  2. 1 2 3 4 "Atlantic hurricane best track (HURDAT version 2)" (Database). United States National Hurricane Center. May 25, 2020.
  3. 1 2 3 Howard C. Sumner (1958). North Atlantic Tropical Storms, September 1958 (Report). United States Weather Bureau. p. 399. Retrieved March 5, 2013.
  4. "Hurricane Ella warnings issued". Star-News . Associated Press. September 1, 1958. Retrieved February 7, 2011.
  5. Hurricane Ella And Its Passage To The South Of The Dominican Republic. Oficina Nacional de Meteorologiá (Report). National Hurricane Center. October 21, 1958. p. 2. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
  6. "Ella Enters Gulf; Florida Threat Fades". Miami Herald . National Hurricane Center. September 4, 1958. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
  7. "Ella Hits Cuba; Gale And Rain On Florida Keys". Meriden Journal. United Press International. September 3, 1958. p. 7. Retrieved March 5, 2013.
  8. Jean Cormier (1995). Che Guevara (in French). Editions du Rocher.
  9. "Cameron Residents Flea Ella". United Press International. September 9, 1958. Retrieved March 3, 2013.
  10. "Squalls Rake Louisiana, Texas Coasts". The Miami News. September 4, 1958. p. 22. Retrieved March 2, 2013.
  11. Denne Petitclerc (September 1958). "Ella churns in Gulf". Miami Herald. Retrieved February 7, 2011.
  12. 1 2 Preliminary Report on Hurricane Ella: August 30–September 6, 1958 (PDF). United States Weather Bureau (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. p. 2. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
  13. Roth, David M. (October 18, 2017). "Tropical Cyclone Point Maxima". Tropical Cyclone Rainfall Data. United States Weather Prediction Center. Retrieved November 26, 2017.
  14. Ernest Carson (1958). Preliminary Report on Tropical Storm Ella. Weather Bureau Office Galveston, Texas (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved March 6, 2013.