|Category 4 major hurricane (SSHWS/NWS)|
|Formed||September 5, 1992|
|Dissipated||September 13, 1992|
|Highest winds|| 1-minute sustained:145 mph (230 km/h)|
|Lowest pressure||938 mbar (hPa); 27.7 inHg|
|Damage||$3.1 billion (1992 USD)|
|Areas affected||Hawaii (particularly Kauaʻi)|
|Part of the 1992 Pacific hurricane season|
Hurricane Iniki ( // ee-NEE-kee; Hawaiian: ʻiniki meaning "strong and piercing wind") was the most powerful hurricane to strike the U.S. state of Hawaii in recorded history. Forming on September 5, 1992, during the strong 1990–1995 El Niño, Iniki was one of eleven Central Pacific tropical cyclones during that season. It attained tropical storm status on September 8 and further intensified into a hurricane the next day. After turning north, Iniki struck the island of Kauaʻi on September 11 at peak intensity; it had winds of 145 mph and reached Category 4 status on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale. It had recorded wind gusts of 225 as evidenced by an anemometer that was found blown into the forest during clean up. It was the first hurricane to hit the state since Hurricane Iwa in the 1982 season, and the first major hurricane since Hurricane Dot in 1959. Iniki dissipated on September 13 about halfway between Hawaii and Alaska.
Iniki caused around $3.1 billion (1992 USD) in damage and six deaths, making it the costliest natural disaster on record in the state, and the second-costliest Pacific hurricane on record. At the time, Iniki was among the costliest United States hurricanes. The storm struck just 18 days after Hurricane Andrew, the costliest tropical cyclone ever at the time, struck Florida.
The Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC) failed to issue tropical cyclone warnings and watches 24 hours in advance. Despite the lack of early warning, only six deaths ensued. Damage was greatest on Kauaʻi, where the hurricane destroyed more than 1,400 houses and severely damaged more than 5,000. Though not directly in the path of the eye, Oʻahu experienced moderate damage from wind and storm surge.
The origin of Iniki is unclear, but it possibly began as a tropical wave that exited the African coast on August 18. It moved westward across the unfavorable Atlantic Ocean and crossed Central America into the Pacific on August 28. The wave continued rapidly westward and remained disorganized. Conditions slowly became more favorable, and, as the convection concentrated around a center, the wave was classified Tropical Depression Eighteen-E on September 5. At this time, the wave was located 1700 miles (2700 km) southwest of Cabo San Lucas or 1550 miles (2500 km) east-southeast of Hilo. Initially, the thunderstorm activity was not concentrated towards the center and thus the depression was not expected to intensify beyond minimal tropical storm strength. The depression continued quickly westward and remained weak until September 8, when it slowed enough to strengthen to a tropical storm. Located at the southern periphery of a subtropical ridge, Iniki continued westward and strengthened over the unusually favorable central Pacific; it reached hurricane status on September 9 while 470 miles (760 km) south-southeast of Hilo. The subtropical ridge, which typically keeps hurricanes well away from the Hawaiian Islands, weakened due to an approaching upper level-trough and allowed Iniki to turn to the northwest. With very favorable upper-level outflow and warm water temperatures, Iniki steadily intensified, and attained major hurricane status on September 10 while south-southwest of the island chain.
As Iniki turned to the north, it continued to strengthen, reaching a peak of 145 mph (235 km/h) winds on September 11 while 170 miles (270 km) south-southwest of Poʻipū on the island of Kauaʻi. It continued rapidly to the north-northeast, and made landfall on south-central Kauai early on the 11th with sustained winds of 145 mph (235 km/h), making Iniki a Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. The National Weather Service reported wind gusts of up to 175 mph (280 km/h). The highest recorded wind speed from Hurricane Iniki was a 227 mph (365 km/h) reading from the Navy's Makaha Ridge radar station. According to the Honolulu Advertiser, that remarkable figure was recorded at a digital weather station whose wind gauging equipment blew off after taking the measurement during the storm. After crossing the island, Iniki rapidly accelerated north-northeastward, weakened rapidly, and was absorbed by a cold front as it lost tropical characteristics and became extratropical, on September 13, about halfway between Alaska and Hawaiʻi.
The Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC) failed to issue tropical cyclone warnings and watches for the hurricane well in advance. For several days prior to the disaster, the CPHC and the news media forecast Iniki to remain well south of the island chain, with the only effect being some high surf conditions. Some of the standard international computer models were indicating a northward turn towards the populated Hawaiian Islands, but these were rejected by the CPHC forecasters. As late as early September 10, the CPHC suggested that Iniki would remain well to the south of the island group. It was not until a special bulletin was issued by the CPHC less than 24 hours before landfall—that any warning was given to the public.
A hurricane watch was issued for Kauaʻi early on September 11 and was upgraded to a hurricane warning later that day. Prior to Iniki's arrival in Kauaʻi, 8,000 people were housed in shelters, many of whom remembered Hurricane Iwa 10 years prior. Because schools were canceled, traffic was light during the evacuation, and streets were clear by mid-morning. Rather than sending tourists to public shelters, two major hotels kept their occupants in the buildings during the storm's passage.
The CPHC issued a tropical storm warning for Oʻahu on September 11 which was upgraded to a hurricane warning later that day. Though not hit by the hurricane, Iniki's large wind field caused nearly 30,000 people to evacuate to 110 public shelters in Oʻahu. Public school buildings acted as shelters, and were for refuge only, meaning they did not provide food, cots, blankets, medications or other comfort items. Roughly one-third of Oʻahu's population participated in the evacuation, though many others went to the house of a family member or friend for shelter. The execution of the evacuations went well, beginning with the vulnerable coastal area. For those in need, vans and buses gave emergency transportation, while police manned certain overused intersections. The two main problems that occurred during the evacuation were lack of parking at shelters and exit routes for the coastlines.
Hurricane Iniki was the costliest hurricane to strike the state of Hawaiʻi, causing $3.1 billion in damage. Most damage was on the island of Kauaʻi, where the storm destroyed thousands of homes and left a large amount of the island without power, although Oʻahu also suffered significant damage. Iniki also was responsible for six deaths.
The hurricane nearly struck the Central Pacific Hurricane Center in Honolulu. Had it hit there, Iniki, along with Hurricane Andrew and Typhoon Omar, would have struck each of the three National Weather Service offices responsible for tropical cyclone warnings within a two-month period.
Hurricane Iniki made landfall on the south-central portion of Kauaʻi island, bringing its dangerous inner core to the entire island. Upon making landfall the hurricane produced storm tides of 4.5–6 feet (1.4–1.8 m), with some portions of the coastlines having high-water marks of up to 18 feet (5.5 m). In addition, strong waves of up to 35 feet (10.5 m) in height crashed along the southern coastline for several hours, causing a debris line of more than 800 feet (250 m) inland. Because it moved quickly through the island, there were no reports of significant rainfall.
Hurricane Iniki's making landfall during daylight hours, combined with the popularity of camcorders, led many Kauaʻi residents to record much of the damage as it was occurring. The footage was later used to create an hour-long video documentary. Commercial air service was suspended.
Hurricane Iniki's high winds caused extensive damage in Kauaʻi. 1,421 houses were destroyed, and 63 were lost from the storm surge and wave action. A total of 5,152 homes were severely damaged, while 7,178 received minor damage. On the south coast, hotels and condominiums received severe damage as well. A few were restored quickly, though some took several years to be rebuilt. One hotel—the Coco Palms Resort famous for Elvis Presley's Blue Hawaii —never reopened after the hurricane. Destroyed housing across the island left more than 7,000 people homeless after the storm's passage.
Iniki's high winds also downed 26.5% of the island's transmission poles, 37% of its distribution poles, and 35% of its 800-mile (1300 km) distribution wire system. The entire island lacked electricity and television service for an extended period of time. Electric companies restored only 20% of the island's power service within four weeks of Iniki, while other areas were without power for up to three to four months. Also affected by the storm was the agricultural sector. Though much of the sugar cane was already harvested, what was left was severely damaged. The winds destroyed tender tropical plants like bananas and papayas and uprooted or damaged fruit and nut trees.
Most of Iniki's damage occurred in Kauaʻi. On the island, one person died when struck by debris, while another lost her life when a portion of her house fell on her. Offshore, two Japanese nationals died when their boat capsized. The reduced death toll was likely due to well-executed warnings and preparation. More than 100 injuries can be attributed to Iniki, though most occurred in the aftermath of the hurricane.
Among those on Kauaʻi was filmmaker Steven Spielberg, who was preparing for the final day of on-location shooting of the film Jurassic Park . He and the 130 of his cast and crew remained safely in a hotel during Iniki's passage. According to Spielberg, "every single structure was in shambles; roofs and walls were torn away; telephone poles and trees were down as far as the eye could see." Spielberg included footage of Iniki battering the Kaua'i coastal walls as part of the completed film, where a tropical storm makes up a pivotal part of the plot. Members of the film's crew helped to clear some of the debris off of nearby roads.
Upon passing by Oʻahu, Iniki produced tides of 1.7–3 feet (0.5–0.9 m) above normal. Prolonged periods of high waves severely eroded and damaged the southwestern coast of Oʻahu, with the areas most affected being Barbers Point through Kaʻena. The Waiʻanae coastline experienced the most damage, with waves and storm surge flooding the second floor of beachside apartments. In all, Hurricane Iniki caused several million dollars in property damage, and two deaths on Oʻahu.
Damage on the Island of Hawai‘i was minor. Seas of 10 ft (3.0 m) were reported, along with 40 mph (65 km/h) winds. In Honokōhau Harbor, three or four sailboats were tossed onto the rocks and one trimaran at another harbor was sunk. A beach near Napoʻopoʻo on Kealakekua Bay lost some sand and to this day has never been the same.
|Patricia||2015||150 mph (240 km/h)|
|Madeline||1976||145 mph (230 km/h)|
|Twelve||1957||140 mph (220 km/h)|
|Olivia||1967||125 mph (205 km/h)|
|Olivia||1975||115 mph (185 km/h)|
Immediately after the storm, many were relieved to have survived the worst of the Category 4 hurricane; their complacency turned to apprehensiveness due to lack of information, as every radio station was out and there was no news available for several days. Because Iniki knocked out electrical power for most of the island, communities held parties to necessarily consume perishable food from unpowered refrigerators and freezers. Though food markets allowed those affected to take what they needed, many Kauaʻi citizens insisted on paying. In addition, entertainers from all of Hawaiʻi, including Graham Nash (who owns a home on the north shore of Kauaʻi) and the Honolulu Symphony, provided free concerts to the victims.
The film Jurassic Park was being filmed at the time; the sets used for the deleted scene where Mr. Arnold goes to the shed to turn the power on were destroyed, and the cast and crew took shelter in a hotel. Shots of Iniki made it in to the final film. Looting occurred in the aftermath of Iniki, though it was very minor. A group of Army Corps of Engineers, who experienced the looting of Hurricane Andrew just weeks before, were surprised at the overall calmness and lack of violence on the island. Although electrical power was restored to most of the island approximately six weeks following the hurricane, students returned to Kauaʻi public schools two weeks after the disaster. Kauaʻi citizens remained hopeful for monetary aid from the government or insurance companies, though after six months they felt annoyed with the lack of help. The military effectively provided aid for their immediate needs, though, and help arrived before local officials requested aid.
Amateur radio proved to be extremely helpful during the three weeks after the storm, with volunteers coming from the neighboring islands as well as from around the Pacific to assist in the recovery. There was support of local government communications in Lihue in the first week of recoveryas well as a hastily organized effort by local operators to assist with the American Red Cross and their efforts to provide shelters and disaster relief centers across Kauaʻi.
In the months after the storm, many insurance companies left Hawaiʻi. To combat this, State Governor John D. Waihee III enacted the Hurricane Relief Fund in 1993 to help unprotected Hawaiʻi residents. The fund was never needed for another Hawaiʻi hurricane, and it was stopped in 2000 when insurance companies returned to the island.
It is thought that Hurricane Iniki blew apart many chicken coops, some possibly used to house fighting chickens; this caused a dramatic increase in the numbers of feral chickens roaming Kauaʻi.
The name Iniki was retired due to this storm's impacts, and was replaced with Iolana in the Central North Pacific tropical storm list.Less than three days after Iniki struck, Hurricane Orlene struck the Big Island as a tropical depression, hampering relief efforts.
Hurricane Iwa, taken from the Hawaiian language name for the frigatebird, was at the time the costliest hurricane to affect the state of Hawaiʻi. Iwa was the twenty-third tropical storm and the twelfth and final hurricane of the 1982 Pacific hurricane season. It developed from an active trough of low pressure near the equator on November 19. The storm moved erratically northward until becoming a hurricane on November 23 when it began accelerating to the northeast in response to strong upper-level flow from the north. Iwa passed within 25 miles of the island of Kauaʻi with peak winds of 90 mph (145 km/h) on November 23, and the next day it became extratropical to the northeast of the state.
The 1992 Pacific hurricane season is the most active Pacific hurricane season on record, featuring 27 named storms. It was at the time the costliest Pacific hurricane season in history, until the record was surpassed 21 years later. The season also produced the highest ACE value on record at the time, until the record was surpassed 26 years later. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. However, these bounds were easily exceeded when Hurricane Ekeka formed on January 28 and again a couple months later with Tropical Storm Hali.
Hurricane Dot of August 1959 was at its time the costliest tropical cyclone in Hawaiian history. Dot was first identified as a strong tropical storm southeast of Hawaiʻi on August 1. The storm was potentially a continuation of a previously unnamed tropical cyclone that was monitored west of the Baja California Peninsula from July 24–27, but was never confirmed due to a lack of ship reports. Dot was quick to intensify, reaching hurricane intensity six hours after naming. By August 3, Dot reached its peak intensity, with maximum sustained winds reaching 150 mph (240 km/h). Intensity leveled off afterwards as Dot tracked westward before making a curve towards the northwest on August 5, after which the hurricane weakened at a faster clip. Dot made landfall the next day on Kauai as a minimal hurricane before dissipating west of the Hawaiian Islands on August 8.
Hurricane Jimena was the tenth named storm and second hurricane of the 2003 Pacific hurricane season. Jimena formed on August 28 in the far Eastern Pacific Ocean as a tropical depression and moved westward where it rapidly became a hurricane the following day. The storm moved westward into the Central Pacific Ocean where it became a Category 2 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale. After reaching its peak strength as a Category 2 hurricane, the storm began to weaken due to increasing wind shear. Jimena brushed past the Hawaiian Islands before becoming a tropical depression on September 3. The weakening storm then crossed the international dateline before dissipating on September 5, becoming one of the few storms to cross both 140ºW and International Date Line.
Hurricane Nina was the final tropical storm and hurricane of the 1957 Pacific hurricane season and the last storm to form during the active Central Pacific hurricane season this year. This storm was named "Nina" because during this time, hurricanes in this basin were given names from the typhoon naming lists. This storm was the last to form during a series of typhoons to form in the Pacific in November.
Hurricane Felicia was the third strongest tropical cyclone of the 2009 Pacific hurricane season, as well as the strongest storm to exist in the eastern Pacific at the time since Hurricane Daniel in 2006. Forming as a tropical depression on August 3, the storm supported strong thunderstorm activity and quickly organized. It became a tropical storm over the following day, and subsequently underwent rapid deepening to attain hurricane status. Later that afternoon, Felicia featured a well-defined eye as its winds sharply rose to major hurricane-force on the Saffir–Simpson scale. Further strengthening ensued, and Felicia peaked in intensity as a Category 4 hurricane with sustained winds of 145 mph (230 km/h) and a barometric pressure of 935 mbar. After reaching this strength, unfavorable conditions, such as wind shear, began to impact the storm while it took on a northwestward path. Henceforth, Felicia slowly weakened for several days; by August 8 it had been downgraded to a Category 1 hurricane, once again becoming a tropical storm the next day. It retraced westward towards Hawaii on August 10, all the while decreasing in organization. On August 11, Felicia weakened to tropical depression status, and soon degenerated into remnant low just prior to passing over the islands.
Hurricane Fernanda in 1993 was the first significant hurricane threat to Hawaii since Hurricane Iniki struck in September 1992. The seventh named storm and fourth major hurricane of the 1993 Pacific hurricane season, Fernanda developed on August 9 off the coast of Mexico from a tropical wave. Throughout its life, it was a large system, and the hurricane reached peak winds of 145 mph (230 km/h). After weakening slightly, Fernanda restrengthened and was expected to move across the Hawaiian Islands. Instead, the hurricane slowed its forward motion and turned away from the state, although it still produced high waves along the eastern shore of the islands. Several homes were damaged, and the surf damaged coastal roads. The storm also contributed to rainfall across the state, and minor flooding occurred in Kauai. Fernanda became extratropical on August 19, and after turning to the northeast became absorbed by a cold front.
Hurricane Hiki was the third-wettest tropical cyclone on record in the United States, behind Hurricane Lane in 2018, and Hurricane Harvey in 2017. It was also considered the first official hurricane in the vicinity of the Hawaiian Islands. The fourth tropical cyclone of the 1950 Pacific hurricane season, Hiki formed as a tropical depression to the southeast of Hawaii on August 12. On the following day, the depression headed northwestward and intensified into Tropical Storm Hiki. While paralleling the Hawaiian Islands on August 16, Hiki strengthened into a hurricane. Around that time, the storm peaked with maximum sustained winds of 85 mph (140 km/h). The following day, Hiki curved southwestward on August 17. Two days later, the hurricane resumed moving northwestward and weakened to a tropical storm shortly thereafter. Around midday on August 21, Hiki weakened to a tropical depression and dissipated about six hours later.
Hurricane Uleki, also referred as Typhoon Uleki, was a long-lived tropical cyclone in August–September 1988 that had minimal effects on land. Originating from a disturbance in the Intertropical Convergence Zone in late-August, Uleki was identified as a tropical depression well to the southeast of Hawaii on August 28. Steady organization ensued as it moved west, becoming a tropical storm on August 30 and a hurricane on August 31. Rapid intensification took place thereafter and the storm reached its peak intensity on September 2 as a Category 3 on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale. Hurricane Hunters investigating the cyclone found peak winds of 125 mph (205 km/h) and a barometric pressure of 957 mbar. Thereafter, Uleki stalled for two days to the southwest of Hawaii, resulting in heavy surf across the state. The dangerous swells killed two people on Oahu.
The 1951 Pacific hurricane season ran through the summer and fall of 1951. Nine tropical systems were observed during the season.
Hurricane Gil was the first of several tropical cyclones to affect Hawaii during the 1983 Pacific hurricane season. Gil originated from a tropical depression that developed near Clipperton Island on July 23. Steadily intensifying, it attained tropical storm status six hours later and was upgraded to a hurricane on July 26. After attaining peak intensity on July 27, Gil encountered cooler sea surface temperatures and began to weaken. Moving west-northwest, the weakening system also accelerated and on July 31, was downgraded to a tropical depression. However, Gil began to re-intensify on August 1, becoming a tropical storm again later that day. Initially expected to veer north of Hawaii, it continued west-northwest and began to approach the Hawaiian group on August 3. While passing through the island group, Gil reached its secondary peak intensity. Subsequently, Gil began to weaken once again as it threatened the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. After passing through the islands, Gil was downgraded to a tropical depression on August 5. Several hours later, the storm dissipated. The remnants of the storm moved into the West Pacific late on August 6 and were last noted the next morning while passing south of Midway Island.
Tropical Storm Flossie yielded stormy weather to Hawaii in late July 2013. The sixth tropical cyclone and named storm of the annual hurricane season, Flossie originated from a tropical wave that emerged off the western coast of Africa on July 9. Tracking westward across the Atlantic with little development, it passed over Central America and into the eastern Pacific Ocean on July 18, where favorable environmental conditions promoted steady organization. By 0600 UTC on July 25, the wave acquired enough organization to be deemed a tropical depression; it intensified into a tropical storm six hours later. Continuing westward, Flossie attained peak winds of 70 mph (110 km/h) on July 27 before entering the central Pacific Ocean. There, unfavorable upper-level winds established a weakening trend; on July 30, Flossie weakened to a tropical depression, and by 1200 UTC that same day, the storm degenerated into a remnant low, northeast of Kauai.
Hurricane Genevieve, also referred to as Typhoon Genevieve, was the fourth-most intense tropical cyclone of the North Pacific Ocean in 2014. A long-lasting system, Genevieve was the first one to track across all three northern Pacific basins since Hurricane Dora in 1999. Genevieve developed from a tropical wave into the eighth tropical storm of the 2014 Pacific hurricane season well east-southeast of Hawaii on July 25. However, increased vertical wind shear caused it to weaken into a tropical depression by the following day and degenerate into a remnant low on July 28. Late on July 29, the system regenerated into a tropical depression, but it weakened into a remnant low again on July 31, owing to vertical wind shear and dry air.
Hurricane Iselle was the strongest tropical cyclone to make landfall on the Big Island of Hawaii in recorded history. The eleventh named storm of the annual hurricane season, Iselle developed from an area of disturbed weather southwest of Mexico on July 31, 2014. Assuming a west-northwest course that it would maintain throughout its existence, generally favorable atmospheric conditions allowed for gradual strengthening, with the cyclone attaining hurricane status a day after formation. Continued strengthening progressed for several days up until August 4, when Iselle reached peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 140 mph (220 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 947 mbar, making it a Category 4 hurricane. Thereafter, Iselle encountered hostile environmental conditions and quickly weakened before making landfall on the Big Island on August 8 as a moderate tropical storm. Its passage over the island disrupted the cyclone, and Iselle later dissipated on August 9.
Hurricane Ana was the second tropical cyclone in 2014 to threaten the U.S. state of Hawaii with a direct hit, after Iselle in August. The twenty-first named storm and fifteenth hurricane of the 2014 Pacific hurricane season, Ana formed from a disturbance that formed in the Central Pacific in mid-October. It rapidly consolidated, and a tropical depression developed by October 13. Aided by favorable conditions, Ana gradually strengthened while moving westward, threatening to pass over the island chain of Hawaii once or several times as indicated by early forecasts. By October 17, it had strengthened to a hurricane south of Hawaii and reached its peak intensity shortly afterwards while also making its closest approach. Afterwards, Ana weakened and began to fluctuate in intensity as it turned to the north and eventually northeast as it rounded a subtropical ridge and interacted with a cold front before becoming a hurricane briefly again on October 25. Ana transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on October 26, and raced across the northwest Pacific before dissipating by October 28 after it came ashore in Western Canada.
Hurricane Darby was a strong tropical cyclone which affected Hawaii as a tropical storm. The fifth named storm of the busy 2016 Pacific hurricane season, Darby originated from a low pressure area that developed in the Eastern Pacific well southwest of Mexico during July 2016. It gained sufficient organization to be declared a tropical depression on July 11, and was upgraded to Tropical Storm Darby the next day. Further intensification ensued, and Darby became a hurricane on July 13. Over the next three days, Darby slowly strengthened to Category 3 status on the Saffir–Simpson scale, becoming a major hurricane. Cool waters and dry air caused Darby to weaken over the next three days, although Darby managed to restrengthen slightly on July 21 before weakening once again as the storm neared Hawaii. Just after midnight on July 24, Darby made landfall on the Big Island, and weakened into a remnant low two days later.
Hurricane Lane was the wettest tropical cyclone on record in Hawaii, with rainfall accumulations of 58 in (1,500 mm) at Kahūnā Falls. Lane was the twelfth named storm, sixth hurricane, fourth major hurricane, and the first of three Category 5 hurricanes of the record-breaking 2018 Pacific hurricane season. The cyclone originated from an area of low pressure that formed well southwest of Mexico on August 13. Traversing west through a region of favorable atmospheric and oceanic conditions, the system steadily intensified over the following days. It reached an initial peak as a Category 4 hurricane on August 18. Temporarily inhibited by more hostile conditions, the hurricane weakened slightly before regaining strength and reaching Category 5 status on August 22 to the south of Hawaii. Lane peaked with winds of 160 mph (260 km/h) and a barometric pressure of 926 mbar. Thereafter, the hurricane turned north and slowed. During this period, torrential rains battered much of the Hawaiian Islands. Unfavorable conditions again affected the hurricane, and it eventually degraded to a tropical depression by August 28 before dissipating the following day.
Hurricane Olivia was the first tropical cyclone to make landfall on Maui and Lanai in recorded history. The fifteenth named storm, ninth hurricane, and sixth major hurricane of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season, Olivia formed southwest of Mexico on September 1. The depression slowly organized and strengthened into Tropical Storm Olivia on the next day. Olivia then began a period of rapid intensification on September 3, reaching its initial peak on September 5. Soon after, Olivia began a weakening trend, before re-intensifying on September 6. On the next day, Olivia peaked as a Category 4 hurricane, with winds of 130 mph and a minimum central pressure of 951 mbar. Six hours later, Olivia began another weakening trend that resulted in the hurricane being downgraded to Category 1 status on September 8, east of the 140th meridian west. On September 9, Olivia entered the Central Pacific Basin. Over the next couple of days, Olivia prompted the issuance of Tropical Storm Watches and Warnings for Hawaii County, Oahu, Maui County, and Kauai County. Olivia weakened into a tropical storm on September 11, before making brief landfalls in northwest Maui and Lanai on the next day, becoming the first tropical cyclone to impact the islands in recorded history. Tropical storm-force winds mainly affected Maui County and Oahu. Torrential rains affected the same area from September 11 to 13, causing flash flooding. Olivia caused a total of US$25 million in damages. Olivia was downgraded to a tropical depression on September 13 while continuing to head west. Due to wind shear disrupting Olivia's convection, the system weakened into a remnant low on September 14. Olivia crossed into the West Pacific Basin on September 19 as a remnant low, before dissipating later that day.
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