|Typhoon (JMA scale)|
|Category 5 super typhoon (SSHWS)|
|Formed||August 20, 2006|
|Dissipated||September 12, 2006|
|( Extratropical after September 7)|
|Duration||2 weeks and 4 days|
|Highest winds|| 10-minute sustained:195 km/h (120 mph)|
1-minute sustained:260 km/h (160 mph)
|Lowest pressure||915 hPa (mbar); 27.02 inHg |
(Sixth–most intense Pacific hurricane on record, record low in the Central Pacific)
|Damage||$88 million (2006 USD)|
|Areas affected||Johnston Atoll, Wake Island, Minamitorishima, Kamchatka Peninsula, Alaska|
|Part of the 2006 Pacific hurricane and typhoon seasons|
Hurricane Ioke, also referred to as Typhoon Ioke, was the most intense hurricane ever recorded in the Central Pacific. The first storm to form in the Central Pacific in the 2006 Pacific hurricane season, Ioke was a record breaking, long-lived and extremely powerful storm that traversed the Pacific for 17 days, reaching the equivalent of Category 5 status on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale on three different occasions.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west and the Americas in the east.
The 2006 Pacific hurricane season was the most active since 2000, producing 19 tropical storms or hurricanes. Eighteen developed within the National Hurricane Center (NHC) area of warning responsibility, which is east of 140°W, and one storm formed between 140°W and the International Date Line, which is under the jurisdiction of the Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC). Of the 19 total storms, eleven became hurricanes, of which six attained major hurricane status. Within the NHC portion of the basin, the season officially began on May 15, and in the CPHC portion, it started on June 1; the season officially ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the eastern Pacific basin.
The Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS), formerly the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale (SSHS), classifies hurricanes – Western Hemisphere tropical cyclones that exceed the intensities of tropical depressions and tropical storms – into five categories distinguished by the intensities of their sustained winds.
The cyclone developed in the Intertropical Convergence Zone on August 20 far to the south of Hawaii. Encountering warm waters, little wind shear, and well-defined outflow, Ioke intensified from a tropical depression to Category 4 status within 48 hours. Late on August 22 it rapidly weakened to Category 2 status before crossing over Johnston Atoll. Two days later favorable conditions again allowed for rapid strengthening, and Ioke attained Category 5 status on August 25 before crossing the International Date Line. As it continued westward its intensity fluctuated, and on August 31 it passed near Wake Island with winds of 155 mph (250 km/h). Ioke gradually weakened as it turned northwestward and northward, and by September 6 it had transitioned into an extratropical cyclone. The remnants of Ioke accelerated northeastward and ultimately crossed into the Bering Sea, and then the Gulf of Alaska.
The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), known by sailors as the doldrums or the calms, is the area encircling Earth near the Equator, where the northeast and southeast trade winds converge.
Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959. Hawaii is the only U.S. state located in Oceania, the only U.S. state located outside North America, and the only one composed entirely of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean.
Wind shear, sometimes referred to as wind gradient, is a difference in wind speed or direction over a relatively short distance in the atmosphere. Atmospheric wind shear is normally described as either vertical or horizontal wind shear. Vertical wind shear is a change in wind speed or direction with change in altitude. Horizontal wind shear is a change in wind speed with change in lateral position for a given altitude.
Ioke did not affect any permanently-populated areas in the Central Pacific or Western Pacific basins as a hurricane or a typhoon. A crew of 12 people rode out the hurricane in a hurricane-proof bunker on Johnston Atoll; the crew estimated winds reached over 100 mph (160 km/h), which damaged trees on the island but did not impact the island's bird population. The typhoon left moderate damage on Wake Island totaling $88 million (2006 USD, equivalent to $100 million in 2016 ), including blown off roofs and damaged buildings, though the infrastructure of the island was left intact; all military personnel were evacuated from the island. Later, the extratropical remnants of Ioke produced a severe storm surge along the Alaskan coastline, causing beach erosion.
Johnston Atoll, also known as Kalama Atoll to Native Hawaiians, is an unincorporated territory of the United States currently administered by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Johnston Atoll is a National Wildlife Refuge and is closed to public entry. Limited access for management needs is only by Letter of Authorization from the U.S. Air Force and Special Use Permit from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
Wake Island is a coral atoll in the western Pacific Ocean in the northeastern area of the Micronesia subregion, 1,501 miles east of Guam, 2,298 miles west of Honolulu, 1,991 miles southeast of Tokyo, and 898 miles north of Majuro. The island is an unorganized, unincorporated territory of the United States that is also claimed by the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Wake Island is one of the most isolated islands in the world and the nearest inhabited island is Utirik Atoll in the Marshall Islands, 592 miles to the southeast.
Alaska is a U.S. state in the northwest extremity of North America, just across the Bering Strait from Asia. The Canadian province of British Columbia and territory of Yukon border the state to the east and southeast. Its most extreme western part is Attu Island, and it has a maritime border with Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas—southern parts of the Arctic Ocean. The Pacific Ocean lies to the south and southwest. It is the largest U.S. state by area and the seventh largest subnational division in the world. In addition, it is the 3rd least populous and the most sparsely populated of the 50 United States; nevertheless, it is by far the most populous territory located mostly north of the 60th parallel in North America: its population—estimated at 738,432 by the United States Census Bureau in 2015— is more than quadruple the combined populations of Northern Canada and Greenland. Approximately half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska's economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, and oil industries, resources which it has in abundance. Military bases and tourism are also a significant part of the economy.
The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) spawned a tropical disturbance with a low-level circulation far to the southeast of Hawaiʻi in the middle of August 2006. Under the influence of a strong westward-moving subtropical ridge to its north, the disturbance tracked nearly due westward, with deep convection in the region increasing and decreasing on a daily basis. It slowly became better organized, and early on August 20 the disturbance developed into Tropical Depression One-C while located about 775 mi (1,245 km) south of Honolulu, Hawaii. At the time, there was no convection associated with the ITCZ within 10° Longitude. With wind shear practically non-existent and sea surface temperatures of around 82 °F (28 °C), conditions favored strengthening, and operationally the cyclone was forecast to reach minimal hurricane status within four days before beginning to weaken. The depression attained tropical storm status within six hours of developing. The Central Pacific Hurricane Center designated the system with the name Ioke // , Hawaiian for the name Joyce. Subsequently, Ioke quickly strengthened, and by late on August 20 the storm developed a central dense overcast and the beginnings of an eyewall; early on August 21 the storm intensified into a hurricane, just 24 hours after first developing.
Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east–west position of a point on the Earth's surface, or the surface of a celestial body. It is an angular measurement, usually expressed in degrees and denoted by the Greek letter lambda (λ). Meridians connect points with the same longitude. By convention, one of these, the Prime Meridian, which passes through the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, England, was allocated the position of 0° longitude. The longitude of other places is measured as the angle east or west from the Prime Meridian, ranging from 0° at the Prime Meridian to +180° eastward and −180° westward. Specifically, it is the angle between a plane through the Prime Meridian and a plane through both poles and the location in question.
The Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC) of the United States National Weather Service is the official body responsible for tracking and issuing tropical cyclone warnings, watches, advisories, discussions, and statements for the Central Pacific region: from the equator northward, 140°W–180°W, most significantly for Hawai‘i. It is the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) for tropical cyclones in this region, and in this capacity is known as RSMC Honolulu.
Hurricane Ioke steadily deepened as it continued west-northwestward, with better definition of the eye and deepening of the eyewall convection. 135 mph (215 km/h) early on August 22 while located about 280 mi (450 km) southeast of Johnston Atoll. After maintaining Category 4 status on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale for about 18 hours, southwesterly wind shear slightly disrupted the inner core of the hurricane, and Ioke quickly weakened to winds of about 105 mph (169 km/h). Late on August 22, the hurricane passed about 30 mi (48 km) south of Johnston Atoll, with the northeastern portion of the eyewall crossing the atoll early on August 23. After turning westward later in the day, wind shear began to decrease, allowing a second period of rapid deepening. By August 24 the hurricane maintained a 23 mi (37 km) closed eyewall, and on August 25 Ioke attained Category 5 status on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale while located about 970 mi (1,560 km) west-southwest of the Hawaiian Island of Kauaʻi.Near the International Date Line a frontal trough turned the hurricane to the northwest, and after a period of rapid deepening Ioke attained winds of
The International Date Line (IDL) is an imaginary line of demarcation on the surface of Earth that runs from the North Pole to the South Pole and demarcates the change of one calendar day to the next. It passes through the middle of the Pacific Ocean, roughly following the 180° line of longitude but deviating to pass around some territories and island groups.
A trough is an elongated (extended) region of relatively low atmospheric pressure, often associated with fronts. Troughs may be at the surface, or aloft, or both under various conditions. Most troughs bring clouds, showers, and a wind shift, particularly following the passage of the trough. This results from convergence or "squeezing" which forces lifting of moist air behind the trough line.
Kauaʻi, anglicized as Kauai, is geologically the oldest of the main Hawaiian Islands. With an area of 562.3 square miles (1,456.4 km2), it is the fourth-largest of these islands and the 21st largest island in the United States. Known also as the "Garden Isle", Kauaʻi lies 105 miles (169 km) across the Kauaʻi Channel, northwest of Oʻahu. This island is the site of Waimea Canyon State Park.
After maintaining Category 5 status for about 18 hours, Hurricane Ioke weakened slightly due to an eyewall replacement cycle. Completing the cycle on August 26, the hurricane restrengthened to Category 5 status. The trough to its west tracked further away from the hurricane, allowing the subtropical ridge to build ahead of the hurricane which turned Ioke to the southwest. The overall environment remained very favorable for sustainment of the powerful cyclone. Strong upper-level cyclones far to its northwest provided outflow channels and light wind shear, with warm water temperatures along its path. With the conditions, the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory hurricane model predicted Ioke to reach winds of 220 mph (350 km/h), with a predicted minimum pressure of 860 mbar (25 inHg). Early on August 27, the pressure dropped to 915 mbar (27.0 inHg), and shortly thereafter Ioke crossed the International Date Line, becoming a 160 mph (255 km/h) typhoon.
Eyewall replacement cycles, also called concentric eyewall cycles, naturally occur in intense tropical cyclones, generally with winds greater than 185 km/h (115 mph), or major hurricanes. When tropical cyclones reach this intensity, and the eyewall contracts or is already sufficiently small, some of the outer rainbands may strengthen and organize into a ring of thunderstorms—an outer eyewall—that slowly moves inward and robs the inner eyewall of its needed moisture and angular momentum. Since the strongest winds are in a cyclone's eyewall, the tropical cyclone usually weakens during this phase, as the inner wall is "choked" by the outer wall. Eventually the outer eyewall replaces the inner one completely, and the storm may re-intensify.
The Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) is a laboratory in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). The current director is Dr. Venkatachalam Ramaswamy. It is one of seven NOAA Research Laboratories (RLs).
Unofficially referred as a super typhoon by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC), Ioke remained at the equivalence of a Category 5 hurricane for about 12 hours after crossing the Date Line. It then began a slight weakening trend on August 28, due to increased inflow from the ridge to its north. On August 29, the cyclone turned to the west and west-northwest while tracking around the periphery of the subtropical ridge, and Ioke again reached the equivalence of Category 5 status. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) assessed Ioke as attaining peak 10‑minute sustained winds of 120 mph (195 km/h) on August 30. Later that day, the typhoon weakened to the equivalent of a Category 4 hurricane for the final time, and on August 31 Ioke passed very near Wake Island with winds of about 155 mph (250 km/h).
By September 1, increased wind shear and drier air caused the eye of Ioke to become cloud-filled and elongated, 50 mi (80 km) north of Minami-Tori-shima with winds of about 125 mph (200 km/h). Gradual weakening continued, and the typhoon steadily shifted its track to the northwest around the subtropical ridge. A deepening trough turned Ioke to the north-northwest and north, and the cyclone weakened to a tropical storm a few hundred miles east of Japan. After accelerating northeastward, the cyclone began losing tropical characteristics, and the JTWC declared Ioke as an extratropical cyclone on September 6. The JMA maintained Ioke as a typhoon until a day later, and maintained Ioke as a tropical cyclone until it was declared extratropical midday on September 6. The extratropical remnants of Ioke were tracked by the JMA until September 7, when it was located near the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. The storm deepened as it approached the Aleutians, and re-developed winds of hurricane-force. The storm entered the Bering Sea on September 8, and after turning eastward, crossed the Aleutian Islands and entered the Gulf of Alaska. The extratropical remnants of Ioke dissipated near southeastern Alaska on September 12.and by September 2 Ioke was undergoing another eyewall replacement cycle. On September 2, Ioke passed about
Late on August 21, about 24 hours prior to its closest approach, the Central Pacific Hurricane Center issued a hurricane warning for uninhabited territory of Johnston Island, due to the uncertainty of whether anyone was on the island. A United States Air Force vessel and a 12-person crew were on the island, and after securing their ship the crew took shelter in a hurricane-proof concrete bunker. There were no meteorological observations on the island, but the crew estimated tropical storm force winds lasted for about 27 hours with hurricane-force winds lasting six to eight hours; peak wind gusts were estimated at 110 to 130 mph (175 to 210 km/h). The crew sustained no injuries, and their ship received only minor damage. Hurricane Ioke, with a portion of its eye crossing the atoll, left an estimated 15% of the palm trees on the island with their tops blown off, with some ironwood trees blown over; the island bird population was unaffected. The hurricane produced rough surf which washed away a portion of a sea wall and an adjacent road.
Under the threat of the typhoon for several days, two C-17 Globemaster III airlifters evacuated between 188–200 military personnel from Wake Island to Hawaii, the first full-scale evacuation of the island since Typhoon Sarah in 1967. 921.5 mbar (27.21 inHg) as Ioke crossed directly over it. Before the typhoon passed just north of the island, an anemometer recorded hurricane-force winds with a peak wind gust of 100 mph (160 km/h) before the instrument stopped reporting. Sustained winds were estimated to have reached 155 mph (250 km/h), with gusts to 190 mph (310 km/h). The minimum central pressure recorded on the island was 934 mbar at 0906 UTC on August 31. The typhoon was expected to produce a storm surge of 18 ft (5.5 m) and wave heights of 40 ft (12 m) along Wake Island, where the highest point is 20 ft (6.1 m). Additionally, heavy rainfall from the typhoon left buildings flooded, with 2 ft (0.61 m) of standing water found several days after its passage.A buoy just east of the island recorded a pressure of
The powerful winds of Typhoon Ioke caused extensive damage to the island's power grid, leaving most power lines to buildings and backup generators damaged. The combination of the winds and storm surge flooding damaged 70% of the buildings in the territory, many of which with moderate roof damage. All low-lying areas were described as being covered with sea water or sand, and the territory was left without running water. million (2006 USD).Communications were downed on the island, with satellite dishes and cables destroyed. Damage to the infrastructure was extensive, though repairable and less than expected. Damage on the island was estimated at $88
On September 1, the Japan Meteorological Agency ordered the temporary evacuation of its staff on Minami-Tori-shima, under threat of the typhoon. The agency expected high waves and winds on the island.Facilities on the island were damaged, although it was repaired and fully operational within three weeks after the storm.
The extratropical remnant of Ioke produced a storm surge and high surf in excess of 30 ft (9.1 m) along the southwestern coastline of Alaska, which coincided with the astronomical high tide; the combination led to minor flooding along Bristol Bay and Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta. Wind gusts peaked at 84 mph (135 km/h) in Unalaska. The system produced moderate to heavy rainfall across the western portion of Alaska, including daily rainfall records of 1.15 inches (29 mm) at Bethel and 0.67 in (17 mm) at Kotzebue. Rainfall continued into the southeastern portion of the state, contributing to above-normal rainfall totals near Juneau.
Hurricane Ioke became one of only seven hurricanes to reach Category 5 status on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale in the Central North Pacific Ocean. The others were Patsy in 1959, Emilia, Gilma, and John in 1994, as well as Lane and Walaka in 2018. With an estimated minimum central pressure of 915 mbar (27.019 inHg), the cyclone attained the lowest estimated surface pressure for any hurricane within the basin, surpassing the previous minimum set by Hurricane Gilma in 1994. Ioke maintained at least Category 4 status for 198 consecutive hours, which was the longest continuous time period at that intensity ever observed for any tropical cyclone anywhere on Earth. Additionally, the cyclone remained at the equivalence of a super typhoon for 174 consecutive hours, which was also a record. As a result of its extended duration and intensity, Hurricane/Typhoon Ioke accrued an accumulated cyclone energy index of 82, which set a new worldwide record.
The United States Coast Guard first performed an aerial assessment of damage on Wake Island on September 2, three days after the typhoon struck. The flight indicated an overall damage smaller than expected, and reported a lack of oil spill or hazardous material leak. The U.S. Coast Guard arrived by boat with a team on September 7, with a preliminary damage assessment completed four days later; the team repaired a generator to provide power.The United States Navy's combat stores ship, the USNS San Jose (T-AFS-7), and sixteen members United States Air Force's 36th Contingency Response Group at Andersen AFB, Guam arrived on September 8 and analyzed the stability of the airfield along with assisting in clean-up efforts, and after core tests workers cleared the runway to allow flights onto the territory. On September 13, a group of engineers restored power on the island. About two weeks after the cyclone, several buildings were operational.
The Central Pacific Hurricane Center requested the retirement of the name, and in April 2007, the name Ioke was retired, and replaced with Iopa.
Typhoon Tip, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Warling, was the largest and most intense tropical cyclone ever recorded. The forty-third tropical depression, nineteenth tropical storm, and twelfth typhoon of the 1979 Pacific typhoon season, Tip developed out of a disturbance within the monsoon trough on October 4 near Pohnpei. Initially, a tropical storm to the northwest hindered the development and motion of Tip, though after the storm tracked farther north, Tip was able to intensify. After passing Guam, Tip rapidly intensified and reached peak sustained winds of 305 km/h (190 mph) and a worldwide record-low sea-level pressure of 870 mbar on October 12. At its peak strength, Tip was the largest tropical cyclone on record, with a wind diameter of 2,220 km (1,380 mi). Tip slowly weakened as it continued west-northwestward and later turned to the northeast, in response to an approaching trough. The typhoon made landfall in southern Japan on October 19, and became an extratropical cyclone shortly thereafter. Typhoon Tip's extratropical remnants continued moving east-northeastward, until they dissipated near the Aleutian Islands on October 24.
Hurricane John, also known as Typhoon John, was both the longest-lasting and the farthest-traveling tropical cyclone ever observed. John formed during the 1994 Pacific hurricane season, which had above-average activity due to the El Niño of 1994–95, and peaked as a Category 5 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale, the highest categorization for hurricanes.
The 2006 Pacific typhoon season was a near-average season that produced a total of 23 named storms, 15 typhoons, and six super typhoons. The season ran throughout 2006, though most tropical cyclones typically develop between May and October. The season's first named storm, Chanchu, developed on May 9, while the season's last named storm, Trami, dissipated on December 20. Also, this season was more active, costly, and deadly than the previous season.
The 1997 Pacific typhoon season was a record-breaking season featuring 11 tropical cyclones reaching super typhoon intensity, tying the record with 1965 with the most violent tropical cyclones globally. It has no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1997, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.
The 1992 Pacific typhoon season had no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1992. Despite this, most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.
The 1991 Pacific typhoon season has no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1991, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.
The 1976 Pacific typhoon season has no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1976, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between June and December. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.
The 1967 Pacific typhoon season has no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1967, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between June and December. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.
The 1957 Pacific typhoon season has no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1957, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between June and December. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.
Tropical cyclone windspeed climatology is the study wind distribution amongst tropical cyclones, a significant threat to land and people. Since records began in 1851, winds from hurricanes, typhoons and cyclones have been responsible for fatalities and damage in every basin. Major hurricanes usually cause the most wind damage. Hurricane Andrew for example caused $45 billion in damage, most of it wind damage.
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones" or "severe cyclonic storms".
Traditionally, areas of tropical cyclone formation are divided into seven basins. These include the north Atlantic Ocean, the eastern and western parts of the northern Pacific Ocean, the southwestern Pacific, the southwestern and southeastern Indian Oceans, and the northern Indian Ocean. The western Pacific is the most active and the north Indian the least active. An average of 86 tropical cyclones of tropical storm intensity form annually worldwide, with 47 reaching hurricane/typhoon strength, and 20 becoming intense tropical cyclones, super typhoons, or major hurricanes.
Hurricane Guillermo was the ninth-most intense Pacific hurricane on record, attaining peak winds of 160 mph (260 km/h) and a barometric pressure of 919 hPa (27.14 inHg). Forming out of a tropical wave on July 30, 1997, roughly 345 mi (555 km) south of Salina Cruz, Mexico, Guillermo tracked in a steady west-northwestward direction while intensifying. The system reached hurricane status by August 1 before undergoing rapid intensification the following day. At the end of this phase, the storm attained its peak intensity as a powerful Category 5 hurricane. The storm began to weaken during the afternoon of August 5 and was downgraded to a tropical storm on August 8. Once entering the Central Pacific Hurricane Center's area of responsibility, Guillermo briefly weakened to a tropical depression before re-attaining tropical storm status. On August 15, the storm reached an unusually high latitude of 41.8°N before transitioning into an extratropical cyclone. The remnants persisted for more than a week as they tracked towards the northeast and later south and east before being absorbed by a larger extratropical system off the coast of California on August 24.
Typhoon Olive was the strongest Pacific typhoon in 1952. The thirteenth tropical storm and the ninth typhoon of the season, it developed about 1,600 mi (2,600 km) southwest of Honolulu, Hawaii on September 13. The next day, the system attained tropical storm intensity. Beginning to rapidly intensify, Olive attained typhoon intensity on September 15. Olive reached Category 5 intensity on the modern-day Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale on September 16.
Cyclone Nancy was the second in a series of four severe tropical cyclones to impact the Cook Islands during February 2005. Forming out of an area of low pressure on February 10, Nancy quickly organized into a small, but intense, cyclone. By February 14, the storm explosively intensified into a Category 4 severe tropical cyclone with winds peaking at 175 km/h and a minimum barometric pressure of 935 hPa (mbar). Over the following day, increasing wind shear rapidly weakened the cyclone and by February 17, it transitioned into an extratropical cyclone shortly before being absorbed by Cyclone Olaf.
Typhoon Oliwa was one of a record eleven super typhoons in the 1997 Pacific typhoon season. It formed in the central Pacific Ocean on September 2 to the southwest of Hawaii, but it became a typhoon in the western Pacific. Oliwa explosively intensified on September 8, increasing its winds from 85 mph to 160 mph in a 24‑hour period. Afterward, it slowly weakened, and after passing east of Okinawa, Oliwa turned northeast and struck Japan with winds of 85 mph (140 km/h). There, it affected 30,000 people and killed 12; thousands of houses were flooded, and some were destroyed. Offshore South Korea, the winds and waves wrecked 28 boats, while one boat went missing with a crew of 10 people. Typhoon Oliwa dissipated on September 19 in northern Pacific Ocean near the International Date Line.
This timeline documents all of the events of the 2013 Pacific typhoon season. Most of the tropical cyclones formed between May and November. The scope of this article is limited to the Pacific Ocean, north of the equator between 100°E and the International Date Line. Tropical storms that form in the entire Western Pacific basin are assigned a name by the Japan Meteorological Agency. Tropical depressions that form in this basin are given a number with a "W" suffix by the United States' Joint Typhoon Warning Center. In addition, the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) assigns names to tropical cyclones that enter or form in the Philippine area of responsibility. These names, however, are not in common use outside of the Philippines.
Hurricane Hector was a powerful and long-lived tropical cyclone that was the first to traverse all three North Pacific basins since Genevieve in 2014. The eighth named storm, fourth hurricane, and third major hurricane of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season, Hector originated from an area of low pressure that formed a couple hundred miles west-southwest of Mexico on July 28. Amid favorable weather conditions, a tropical depression formed a few days later on July 31. The depression continued strengthening and became Tropical Storm Hector on the next day. Hector became a hurricane on August 2, and rapidly intensified into a strong Category 2 hurricane later in the day. After weakening while undergoing an eyewall replacement cycle, Hector quickly strengthened into a Category 4 hurricane late on August 5. Over the next week, Hector fluctuated in intensity multiple times due to eyewall replacement cycles and shifting wind shear. Hector achieved its peak intensity on August 6, as a high-end Category 4 hurricane with winds of 155 mph (250 km/h). On the following day, the hurricane bypassed Hawaii approximately 200 mi (320 km) to the south. Increasing wind shear resulted in steady weakening of the storm, beginning on August 11. At that time, Hector accumulated the longest continuous stretch of time as a major hurricane in the northeastern Pacific since reliable records began. Eroding convection and dissipation of its eye marked its degradation to a tropical storm on August 13. The storm subsequently traversed the International Dateline that day. Hector later weakened into a tropical depression on August 15, before dissipating late on August 16.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hurricane Ioke .|