Hurricane Lane (2018)

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Hurricane Lane
Category 5 major hurricane (SSHWS/NWS)
Lane 2018-08-21 2350Z.jpg
Hurricane Lane near peak intensity southeast of Hawaii on August 21
FormedAugust 15, 2018
DissipatedAugust 29, 2018
Highest winds 1-minute sustained:160 mph (260 km/h)
Lowest pressure922 mbar (hPa); 27.23 inHg
Fatalities1 total
Damage$250 million (2018 USD)
Areas affected Hawaii
Part of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season

Hurricane Lane was the wettest tropical cyclone on record in Hawaii, with rainfall accumulations of 52.02 inches (1,321 mm) in Mountain View. It also ranked as the second-wettest tropical cyclone in the United States, after Hurricane Harvey of 2017. The first Category 5 Pacific hurricane since Patricia in 2015, Lane was the twelfth named storm, sixth hurricane, and fourth major hurricane of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season. It originated from a tropical wave that moved off the coast of Africa on July 31, and was eventually monitored for tropical cyclogenesis several hundred miles off the southern coast of Mexico on August 11. [1] Over the next four days, the disturbance gradually strengthened amid favorable atmospheric and thermodynamic conditions and became a tropical storm on August 15. Steady intensification occurred and Lane reached hurricane status by August 17, followed by rapid intensification that brought Lane to its initial peak intensity as a Category 4 hurricane on August 18. On August 19, Lane crossed into the Central Pacific basin, where increased wind shear weakened it. However, on August 20, Lane re-intensified into a Category 4 hurricane, and reached its peak intensity as a Category 5 hurricane early on August 22. As Lane approached the Hawaiian Islands, it began to weaken as vertical wind shear once again increased, dropping below hurricane status on August 25. Over the next few days, Lane followed a westwards course away from the Hawaiian Islands as influence from the easterly trade winds increased as Lane weakened. On August 29, Lane became a remnant low, and dissipated shortly afterward.

Tropical cyclone Is a rotating storm system

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones" or "severe cyclonic storms".

Hawaii State of the United States of America

Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959. Hawaii is the only U.S. state located in Oceania, the only U.S. state located outside North America, and the only one composed entirely of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean.

Mountain View, Hawaii Census-designated place in Hawaii, U.S.

Mountain View is a census-designated place (CDP) in Hawaiʻi County, Hawaiʻi, United States located in the District of Puna. The population was 3,924 at the 2010 census, up from 2,799 at the 2000 census.

Contents

Hurricane Lane was only the second Category 5 hurricane to pass within 350 miles (560 km) of South Point, Hawaii. The other one was John in 1994. [2] Lane prompted the issuance of hurricane watches and warnings for every island in Hawaii. From August 22 to 26, Lane brought heavy rain to much of the Hawaiian Windward Islands, which caused flash flooding and mudslides. Strong winds downed trees and power lines on Maui, and brush fires ignited on both Maui and Oahu. One fatality occurred on Kauai, and damage across the state reached $250 million (2018 USD).

Hurricane John (1994) Category 5 Pacific hurricane and typhoon in 1994

Hurricane John, also known as Typhoon John, was both the longest-lasting and the farthest-traveling tropical cyclone ever observed. John formed during the 1994 Pacific hurricane season, which had above-average activity due to the El Niño of 1994–95, and peaked as a Category 5 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale, the highest categorization for hurricanes.

1994 Pacific hurricane season hurricane season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1994 Pacific hurricane season was the final season of the eastern north Pacific's consecutive active hurricane seasons that unofficially started in 1982. The season officially started on May 15, 1994, in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1, 1994, in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1994. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. The first tropical cyclone formed on June 18, while the last system dissipated on October 26. This season, twenty-two tropical cyclones formed in the north Pacific Ocean east of the dateline, with all but two becoming tropical storms or hurricanes. A total of 10 hurricanes occurred, including five major hurricanes.

Maui island of the Hawaiian Islands in the Pacific Ocean

The island of Maui is the second-largest of the Hawaiian Islands at 727.2 square miles (1,883 km2) and is the 17th largest island in the United States. Maui is part of the State of Hawaii and is the largest of Maui County's four islands, which include Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, and unpopulated Kahoʻolawe. In 2010, Maui had a population of 144,444, third-highest of the Hawaiian Islands, behind that of Oʻahu and Hawaiʻi Island. Kahului is the largest census-designated place (CDP) on the island with a population of 26,337 as of 2010 and is the commercial and financial hub of the island. Wailuku is the seat of Maui County and is the third-largest CDP as of 2010. Other significant places include Kīhei, Lahaina, Makawao, Pukalani, Pāʻia, Kula, Haʻikū, and Hāna.

Meteorological history

Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir-Simpson scale Lane 2018 track.png
Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

On July 31, a tropical wave moved off the west coast of Africa. The tropical wave moved westward across the Atlantic with little to no convection, before entering the East Pacific on August 8. [1] Early on August 11, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) began monitoring a tropical wave that was producing disorganized thunderstorm activity several hundred miles off the southern coast of Mexico. [3] The disturbance moved generally westward for the next four days, before becoming much better organized late on August 14. [4] At 03:00 UTC on August 15, the NHC declared that Tropical Depression Fourteen-E had formed 1,115 miles (1,795 km) southwest of the southern tip of Baja California Peninsula. [5] Twelve hours later, the depression intensified to a tropical storm, receiving the name Lane, based on the development of banding features and a Dvorak intensity estimation. The NHC also forecast Lane to strengthen into a hurricane. [6]

Tropical wave type of atmospheric trough

Tropical waves, easterly waves, or tropical easterly waves, also known as African easterly waves in the Atlantic region, are a type of atmospheric trough, an elongated area of relatively low air pressure, oriented north to south, which moves from east to west across the tropics, causing areas of cloudiness and thunderstorms. West-moving waves can also form from the tail end of frontal zones in the subtropics and tropics, and may be referred to as easterly waves, but these waves are not properly called tropical waves; they are a form of inverted trough sharing many characteristics with fully tropical waves. All tropical waves form in the easterly flow along the equatorward side of the subtropical ridge or belt of high pressure which lies north and south of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Tropical waves are generally carried westward by the prevailing easterly winds along the tropics and subtropics near the equator. They can lead to the formation of tropical cyclones in the north Atlantic and northeastern Pacific basins. A tropical wave study is aided by Hovmöller diagrams, a graph of meteorological data.

Africa The second largest and second most-populous continent, mostly in the Northern and Eastern Hemispheres

Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent, being behind Asia in both categories. At about 30.3 million km2 including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The continent includes Madagascar and various archipelagos. It contains 54 fully recognised sovereign states (countries), nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition. The majority of the continent and its countries are in the Northern Hemisphere, with a substantial portion and number of countries in the Southern Hemisphere.

National Hurricane Center Division of the United States National Weather Service

The National Hurricane Center (NHC) is the division of the United States' National Weather Service responsible for tracking and predicting tropical weather systems between the Prime Meridian and the 140th meridian west poleward to the 30th parallel north in the northeast Pacific Ocean and the 31st parallel north in the northern Atlantic Ocean. The agency, which is co-located with the Miami branch of the National Weather Service, is situated on the campus of Florida International University in University Park, Florida.

Lane gradually strengthened for the next day or so, before becoming a hurricane early on August 17. [7] For the next several days, Lane was steered in a west to west-northwest direction by a subtropical ridge to the north. [8] Shortly after becoming a hurricane, Lane then began a period of rapid intensification, quickly becoming a strong Category 2 hurricane eighteen hours later. [9] Lane's wind field nearly doubled during this period, and the eye began to become less cloudy after a strong convective ring formed around the core of the hurricane. [10] Lane continued its rapid intensification, becoming the fourth major hurricane of this season six hours later. [11] On August 18, Lane strengthened further to a Category 4 hurricane. [12] The satellite presentation had also improved immensely overnight. At that time, the hurricane had a well-defined eye surrounded by very deep convection and symmetric outflow, which contributed to additional strengthening. [13] Six hours later, Lane reached its initial peak with maximum sustained winds of 140 mph (220 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 950  mbar (27.99  inHg). [1] [14] The NHC issued its final advisory on Lane late on August 18, as it approached 140°W, the boundary between the eastern and central Pacific basins. [15]

Rapid intensification

Rapid intensification is a meteorological condition that occurs when a tropical cyclone intensifies dramatically in a short period of time. The United States National Hurricane Center (NHC) defines rapid intensification as an increase in the maximum 1-min sustained winds of a tropical cyclone of at least 30 knots in a 24-hour period.

The Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS), formerly the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale (SSHS), classifies hurricanes – Western Hemisphere tropical cyclones – that exceed the intensities of tropical depressions and tropical storms – into five categories distinguished by the intensities of their sustained winds.

Eye (cyclone) region of mostly calm weather at the center of strong tropical cyclones

The eye is a region of mostly calm weather at the center of strong tropical cyclones. The eye of a storm is a roughly circular area, typically 30–65 km (20–40 miles) in diameter. It is surrounded by the eyewall, a ring of towering thunderstorms where the most severe weather and highest winds occur. The cyclone's lowest barometric pressure occurs in the eye and can be as much as 15 percent lower than the pressure outside the storm.

NOAA Hurricane Hunters flying through the eye of Lane early on August 22. Their measurements prompted the upgrade of Lane to a Category 5 hurricane

Early on August 19, Lane crossed over into the Central Pacific Basin, where the Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC) took over responsibility for issuing advisories on and monitoring the cyclone. [16] At that time, Lane began a weakening trend, as it encountered increasing wind shear from the west-southwest, falling to Category 3 status six hours later. [17] Despite repeated forecasts calling for the storm to continue weakening, [18] Lane maintained its intensity throughout on August 20. Later that day, it reattained Category 4 status. [19] Afterward, Lane continued to strengthen. On August 21, Lane began its turn to the northwest, as it moved between a weakening mid-level ridge to the east and a developing upper-level trough to the northwest. [20] Early on August 22, aircraft reconnaissance data indicated that Lane had intensified into a Category 5 hurricane, with 1-minute sustained winds of 160 mph (260 km/h). [21] [22] Several hours later, Lane weakened back to a high-end Category 4 hurricane. [23] On August 23, the northwest eyewall of Lane passed over a NOAA buoy located about 250 miles (400 km) southwest of the Big Island, which recorded peak winds of 107 mph (172 km/h). [24] Early on August 24, southwesterly wind shear weakened Lane to a Category 3 hurricane. [25] At the same time, the hurricane began travelling in a north-northwest motion because of a developing deep layer ridge to the east and southeast. [26] Lane then took a turn to the north and later to the north-northeast, as the ridge continued to develop. [27] Later that day, Lane dropped below the threshold of major hurricane as wind shear continued to impact the system. [28]

Central Pacific Hurricane Center

The Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC) of the United States National Weather Service is the official body responsible for tracking and issuing tropical cyclone warnings, watches, advisories, discussions, and statements for the Central Pacific region: from the equator northward, 140°W–180°W, most significantly for Hawai‘i. It is the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) for tropical cyclones in this region, and in this capacity is known as RSMC Honolulu.

Wind shear

Wind shear, sometimes referred to as wind gradient, is a difference in wind speed or direction over a relatively short distance in the atmosphere. Atmospheric wind shear is normally described as either vertical or horizontal wind shear. Vertical wind shear is a change in wind speed or direction with change in altitude. Horizontal wind shear is a change in wind speed with change in lateral position for a given altitude.

Buoy Floating structure or device

A buoy is a floating device that can have many purposes. It can be anchored (stationary) or allowed to drift with ocean currents. The etymology of the word is disputed.

The weakening trend accelerated as wind shear increased. Lane weakened to a Category 1 hurricane early on August 25, [29] and dropped below hurricane strength just three hours later, [30] based on the rapid degradation of the cloud pattern. The storm's center of circulation became exposed and the deep convection was sheared to the northeast. [31] Fifteen hours later, Lane made its closest approach to Hawaii, approximately 110 miles (175 km) south-southeast of Honolulu. [32] Starting from August 25, Lane's direction of travel fluctuated, and the storm's forward motion stalled. [33] Late on that day, Lane took a sharp turn to the west, [34] under the influence of the low-level easterlies. [28] On August 26, Lane weakened further into a tropical depression in a hostile environment, while continuing to head westward. [35] However, on the next day, Lane reintensified into a tropical storm once again, as convection burst in the eastern semicircle, and the convective banding in the southeast of the storm also increased. [36] Nonetheless, this strengthening trend was short-lived, and Lane weakened into a tropical depression once again early on August 28. [37] Later that day, Lane turned to the northwest under the influence of a developing low-level trough. [38] Early on August 29, Lane degenerated into a remnant low, while turning northward, as the center of the storm became elongated. [39] Later on the same day, the remnant cyclone was absorbed by a developing upper-level low, which later became a subtropical storm on August 31, near the International Date Line. [40]

Honolulu State capital city in Hawaii, United States

Honolulu is the capital and largest city of the U.S. state of Hawaii. It is an unincorporated part of and the county seat of the City and County of Honolulu along the southeast coast of the island of Oʻahu. The city is the main gateway to Hawaiʻi and a major portal into the United States. The city is also a major hub for international business, military defense, as well as famously being host to a diverse variety of east-west and Pacific culture, cuisine, and traditions.

International Date Line imaginary line that demarcates the change of one calendar day to the next

The International Date Line (IDL) is an imaginary line of demarcation on the surface of Earth that runs from the North Pole to the South Pole and demarcates the change of one calendar day to the next. It passes through the middle of the Pacific Ocean, roughly following the 180° line of longitude but deviating to pass around some territories and island groups.

Preparations

Morale, Welfare and Recreation employees going over the emergency preparation kits in Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam in advance of Hurricane Lane Personnel go over emergency preparation kits as Hurricane Lane approaches Hawaii. (42429994520).jpg
Morale, Welfare and Recreation employees going over the emergency preparation kits in Joint Base Pearl Harbor–Hickam in advance of Hurricane Lane

On August 21, as Lane approached the Hawaiian Islands, a hurricane watch was issued for Maui County and Hawaii County. [41] On the next day, the hurricane watch for Hawaii County and Maui County was upgraded to a hurricane warning, while a hurricane watch was issued for Oahu and Kauai County. [42] [23] The hurricane watch for Oahu was upgraded early on August 23 as Lane continued to approach the state. [43] The hurricane warning for Hawaii County was downgraded to a tropical storm warning early on August 24, because hurricane force winds were not expected to occur on the Big Island. [44] Later that day, the hurricane watch for Kauai County was lowered to a tropical storm watch, as Lane was forecasted to weaken to a tropical storm when it passed near the island. [45] Early on August 25, all the hurricane warning was lowered to tropical storm warning after Lane weakened to a tropical storm. [30] Later that day, all watches and warnings were discontinued as Lane weakened and moved away from the islands. [34]

University of Hawaii at Manoa students who were staying on the campus were advised to stay informed and download alert apps, and to store basic emergency supplies such as flashlights, first aid kits, food, and water. The University initiated emergency protocols on August 22, and a University spokesperson stated that there was two weeks worth of food and water stored in case of a severe emergency. [46] All school districts statewide closed on August 22 to 24, and all non-essential state employees on the Big Island and Maui were told to stay home for the same duration. Hawaiian Airlines waived the change fees for tickets to, from, within, and through Hawaii from August 21–26. [47] American Airlines, Hawaiian Airlines, and United Airlines cancelled more than two dozen domestic and international flights to and from Honolulu International Airport, Hilo International Airport, Kahului Airport, and Lihue Airport. [48] All commercial harbors in Hilo and Kawaihae suspended operations on August 23, while the remainder of harbors statewide remained one alert level below closure. [49] Numerous state parks and hiking trails closed for the duration of the storm under the threat of flooding and landslides. [50]

As Lane was the first tropical cyclone that threatened to make landfall in Hawaii as a hurricane in over two decades, Fort Shafter announced that all Navy vessels and Air Force planes were being moved out of state on August 22. [51] Vessels and aircraft stationed at Joint Base Pearl Harbor–Hickam, excluding those undergoing maintenance, also relocated. The National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific closed on August 24 and 25 and tours at the USS Arizona Memorial were suspended. [52] [53] President Donald Trump issued an emergency declaration for Hawaii. The Department of Homeland Security and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) were authorized to coordinate disaster relief beginning on August 22 and continuing indefinitely. [54] More than 3,900 FEMA personnel were deployed or already in the state to assist with recovery efforts. [55] The Hawaii National Guard placed 280 active duty members—including 120 already responding to the Kilauea volcano—on alert for relief efforts. A further 3,000 personnel from the state's Army National Guard and Air National Guard were available if requested. [56] The Red Cross opened 36 shelters statewide, with 825 people utilizing them by the hurricane's arrival. [57]

Impact

Hawaii

Damage from the hurricane near Hilo 180828-A-OK021-002 (43650817914).jpg
Damage from the hurricane near Hilo

Although Hurricane Lane remained west of the Big Island, tremendous amounts of rain battered eastern areas of the island from August 22 to 26. Hilo saw its wettest three-day period on record with 31.85 in (809 mm) of precipitation observed; 15 in (380 mm) fell on August 24 alone, marking the fifth-wettest day in the city's recorded history. [58] Accumulations were greatest along the volcanic slopes of Mauna Loa; 49.48 in (1,257 mm) fell in Waiākea-Uka near the city. [59] Precipitation peaked at 52.02 in (1,321.3 mm) in Mountain View. This made Lane the wettest tropical cyclone on record in the state of Hawaii, eclipsing the previous peak of 52 in (1,300 mm) during Hurricane Hiki in 1950. A private weather station observed 58.8 in (1,490 mm); however, this value is awaiting verification by meteorologists at the National Weather Service office in Honolulu. [59] Along the still-erupting Kīlauea volcano, the rain created excessive steam that caused whiteouts. Effects on the volcano itself were negligible and limited to minor rockfalls. The porous nature of volcanic rock and land in the Puna District also served to mitigate the amount of runoff. [60]

Flooding closed numerous roads island-wide, including portions of Route 11 and 19 along the Belt Road. [61] Multiple landslides covered portions of the Akoni Pule Highway. In and around Hilo, swollen rivers inundated homes and 100 people required rescue in the Reeds Island subdivision. [58] Six classrooms at Waiakea Elementary School also flooded. [62] Areas along the Hilo Bayfront were particularly affected. Residents in Hawaiian Acres were forced to abandon their cars on flooded roads. [58] Landslides in the town destroyed two homes. Excess water overwhelmed three sewage pumps, causing 9 million gallons of untreated wastewater to spill into Hilo Bay. [63] A small waterspout formed off the coast of Paukaa on August 23. [64] Across Hawaii County, 3 homes were destroyed, 23 homes and 3 businesses suffered major flood damage, while another 113 homes and 17 businesses experienced minor damage. [65] In Kurtistown, a bonsai tree nursery suffered an estimated $3–5 million in property damage with 100 trees lost. [66] Surveys by Hawaii County Civil Defense remained underway as of August 30, 2018. [65]

Maui and Molokaʻi

Large waves from Lane hitting the Hawaiian coast Storm Surge (29317162487).jpg
Large waves from Lane hitting the Hawaiian coast

As the storm passed south of Maui, strong winds downed tree and power lines. [67] Sustained winds reached 44 mph (71 km/h) in Makawao. [68] Some of the lines sparked fires in areas with dry brush, with winds from the hurricane causing them to spread rapidly. [67] The largest of the fires scorched 2,000 acres (8.1 km2) and injured two people, one due to burns and another due to smoke inhalation. [69] Residents observed fire whirls approximately 15 ft (4.6 m) tall. [70] At one point, a hurricane shelter had to be evacuated for encroaching flames while 600 people were evacuated overall. [60] [71] The fire destroyed 21 homes, including one worth $5.5 million, [70] leaving 60 people homeless, [69] and burned 27 vehicles. [67] Flames reached the field track at Lahainaluna High School. Once winds from Lane subsided on August 26, firefighters were able to contain the blaze. [69] A second fire ignited near the Lahaina Civic Center, [67] burning 800 acres (3.2 km2) and one home in Kaanapali. [67] [69] Twenty-six evacuees staying at Lahaina Intermediate School were forced to relocate due to the fire. The storm left approximately 11,450 customers without electricity across Maui and Molokai, including 4,000 in West Maui. [69] Downed power lines made many evacuated residents slow to return to their homes after the storm. [72]

Heavy rains later affected the island, accumulating to 25.58 in (650 mm) in West Wailuaiki. Hana Airport and Haiku both observed approximately 10.5 in (270 mm) of rain. [59] Precipitation predominately fell on August 25 and aided firefighters in containing the brushfires. [60] Multiple landslides occurred along the Hana Highway. [73] On August 24, a sinkhole estimated to be 25 to 30 ft (7.6 to 9.1 m) deep opened in Haiku. Three residences, each with families home, were left isolated. [74] Infrastructure damage from the sinkhole reached an estimated $2–2.5 million. [67]

Kauaʻi and Oʻahu

Torrential precipitation fell across Kauaʻi between August 27 and 28; accumulations peaked at 34.78 in (883 mm) on Mount Waialeale. [75] Rivers and streams swelled due to heavy rains, especially in the Wainiha and Hanalei Valleys; [75] waters submerged roads and taro ( Colocasia esculenta ) patches. In Koloa, a man drowned after jumping into a river to save a dog. [76] Water and debris forced road closures along Kūhiō Highway; flooding also affected Hanalei Elementary School and prompted early dismissal of students. Power outages affected households in Haena and Wainiha, [77] with wind gusts in the latter reaching 55 mph (89 km/h). [78] Residents reported similarities to historic flooding in April. [77]

The same rainbands that affected Kauaʻi reached Oʻahu during the morning hours of August 28; rainfall reached 9.81 in (249 mm) in Moanalua. The Kalihi Stream overflowed along the Kamehameha Highway. [75] Brush fires ignited on parts of Oʻahu but were not destructive. [60]

Aftermath

Volunteers from All Hands and Hearts, Team Rubicon, and Southern Baptist Disaster Relief assisted residents with cleaning flood damage and removal of mold. [79] On August 29, the Central Pacific Bank would provide natural disaster loans of $1,000–3,000 for any Maui residents who applied. [67] A brown water advisory was raised for areas between Hāmākua Coast and Laupāhoehoe in Hawaiʻi on September 4 as runoff and sewage spills entered Hilo Bay. Officials advised residents to stay out of coastal waters accordingly. [80] [81] On September 6, Governor David Ige requested President Trump declare a major disaster for Hawaii, with damages estimated to be US$250 million. [82]

See also

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Hurricane Hiki was the third-wettest tropical cyclone on record in the United States, behind Hurricane Lane in 2018, and Hurricane Harvey in 2017. It was also considered the first official hurricane in the vicinity of the Hawaiian Islands. The fourth tropical cyclone of the 1950 Pacific hurricane season, Hiki formed as a tropical depression to the southeast of Hawaii on August 12. On the following day, the depression headed northwestward and intensified into Tropical Storm Hiki. While paralleling the Hawaiian Islands on August 16, Hiki strengthened into a hurricane. Around that time, the storm peaked with maximum sustained winds of 85 mph (140 km/h). The following day, Hiki curved southwestward on August 17. Two days later, the hurricane resumed moving northwestward and weakened to a tropical storm shortly thereafter. Around midday on August 21, Hiki weakened to a tropical depression and dissipated about six hours later.

Tropical Storm Flossie (2013) Pacific tropical storm in 2013

Tropical Storm Flossie yielded stormy weather to Hawaii in late July 2013. The sixth tropical cyclone and named storm of the annual hurricane season, Flossie originated from a tropical wave that emerged off the western coast of Africa on July 9. Tracking westward across the Atlantic with little development, it passed over Central America and into the eastern Pacific Ocean on July 18, where favorable environmental conditions promoted steady organization. By 0600 UTC on July 25, the wave acquired enough organization to be deemed a tropical depression; it intensified into a tropical storm six hours later. Continuing westward, Flossie attained peak winds of 70 mph (110 km/h) on July 27 before entering the central Pacific Ocean. There, unfavorable upper-level winds established a weakening trend; on July 30, Flossie weakened to a tropical depression, and by 1200 UTC that same day, the storm degenerated into a remnant low, northeast of Kauai.

Timeline of the 2014 Pacific hurricane season

The 2014 Pacific hurricane season was an event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. It officially began on May 15 in the eastern Pacific—defined as the region east of 140°W—and began on June 1 in the central Pacific, defined as the region west of 140°W to the International Date Line; both ended on November 30.

Hurricane Genevieve (2014)

Hurricane Genevieve, also referred to as Typhoon Genevieve, was the fourth-most intense tropical cyclone of the North Pacific Ocean in 2014. A long-lasting system, Genevieve was the first one to track across all three northern Pacific basins since Hurricane Dora in 1999. Genevieve developed from a tropical wave into the eighth tropical storm of the 2014 Pacific hurricane season well east-southeast of Hawaii on July 25. However, increased vertical wind shear caused it to weaken into a tropical depression by the following day and degenerate into a remnant low on July 28. Late on July 29, the system regenerated into a tropical depression, but it weakened into a remnant low again on July 31, owing to vertical wind shear and dry air.

Hurricane Iselle 2014 tropical cyclone

Hurricane Iselle was the strongest tropical cyclone to make landfall on the Big Island of Hawaii in recorded history. The eleventh named storm of the annual hurricane season, Iselle developed from an area of disturbed weather southwest of Mexico on July 31, 2014. Assuming a west-northwest course that it would maintain throughout its existence, generally favorable atmospheric conditions allowed for gradual strengthening, with the cyclone attaining hurricane status a day after formation. Continued strengthening progressed for several days up until August 4, when Iselle reached peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 140 mph (220 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 947 mbar, making it a Category 4 hurricane. Thereafter, Iselle encountered hostile environmental conditions and quickly weakened before making landfall on the Big Island on August 8 as a moderate tropical storm. Its passage over the island disrupted the cyclone, and Iselle later dissipated on August 9.

Hurricane Darby (2016)

Hurricane Darby was a strong tropical cyclone which affected Hawaii as a tropical storm. The fifth named storm of the busy 2016 Pacific hurricane season, Darby originated from a low pressure area that developed in the Eastern Pacific well southwest of Mexico during July 2016. It gained sufficient organization to be declared a tropical depression on July 11, and was upgraded to Tropical Storm Darby the next day. Further intensification ensued, and Darby became a hurricane on July 13. Over the next three days, Darby slowly strengthened to Category 3 status on the Saffir–Simpson scale, becoming a major hurricane. Cool waters and dry air caused Darby to weaken over the next three days, although Darby managed to restrengthen slightly on July 21 before weakening once again as the storm neared Hawaii. Just after midnight on July 24, Darby made landfall on the Big Island, and weakened into a remnant low two days later.

2018 Pacific hurricane season Period of formation of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 2018

The 2018 Pacific hurricane season produced the highest accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) value on record in the Eastern Pacific basin. With 23 named storms, it was the fourth-most active season on record, tied with 1982. The season officially began on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin, as illustrated when the first tropical depression formed on May 10.

Hurricane Hector (2018) Category 4 hurricane

Hurricane Hector was a powerful and long-lived tropical cyclone that was the first to traverse all three North Pacific basins since Genevieve in 2014. The eighth named storm, fourth hurricane, and third major hurricane of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season, Hector originated from an area of low pressure that formed a couple hundred miles west-southwest of Mexico on July 28. Amid favorable weather conditions, a tropical depression formed a few days later on July 31. The depression continued strengthening and became Tropical Storm Hector on the next day. Hector became a hurricane on August 2, and rapidly intensified into a strong Category 2 hurricane later in the day. After weakening while undergoing an eyewall replacement cycle, Hector quickly strengthened into a Category 4 hurricane late on August 5. Over the next week, Hector fluctuated in intensity multiple times due to eyewall replacement cycles and shifting wind shear. Hector achieved its peak intensity on August 6, as a high-end Category 4 hurricane with winds of 155 mph (250 km/h). On the following day, the hurricane bypassed Hawaii approximately 200 mi (320 km) to the south. Increasing wind shear resulted in steady weakening of the storm, beginning on August 11. At that time, Hector accumulated the longest continuous stretch of time as a major hurricane in the northeastern Pacific since reliable records began. Eroding convection and dissipation of its eye marked its degradation to a tropical storm on August 13. The storm subsequently traversed the International Dateline that day. Hector later weakened into a tropical depression on August 15, before dissipating late on August 16.

Hurricane Olivia (2018)

Hurricane Olivia was the first tropical cyclone to make landfall on Maui and Lanai in recorded history. The fifteenth named storm, ninth hurricane, and sixth major hurricane of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season, Olivia formed southwest of Mexico on September 1. The depression slowly organized and strengthened into Tropical Storm Olivia on the next day. Olivia then began a period of rapid intensification on September 3, reaching its initial peak on September 5. Soon after, Olivia began a weakening trend, before re-intensifying on September 6. On the next day, Olivia peaked as a Category 4 hurricane, with winds of 130 mph and a minimum central pressure of 951 mbar. Six hours later, Olivia began another weakening trend that resulted in the hurricane being downgraded to Category 1 status on September 8, east of the 140th meridian west. On September 9, Olivia entered the Central Pacific Basin. Over the next couple of days, Olivia prompted the issuance of Tropical Storm Watches and Warnings for Hawaii County, Oahu, Maui County, and Kauai County. Olivia weakened into a tropical storm on September 11, before making brief landfalls in northwest Maui and Lanai on the next day, becoming the first tropical cyclone to impact the islands in recorded history. Tropical storm-force winds mainly affected Maui County and Oahu. Torrential rains affected the same area from September 11 to 13, causing flash flooding. Olivia caused a total of US$25 million in damages. Olivia was downgraded to a tropical depression on September 13 while continuing to head west. Due to wind shear disrupting Olivia's convection, the system weakened into a remnant low on September 14. Olivia crossed into the West Pacific Basin on September 19 as a remnant low, before dissipating later that day.

Hurricane Walaka Category 5 hurricane Eastern Pacific in 2018

Hurricane Walaka was one of the most intense Pacific hurricanes on record. By minimum pressure, Walaka is the second-strongest tropical cyclone in central Pacific, alongside Hurricane Gilma in 1994, and is only surpassed by Hurricane Ioke in 2006. The nineteenth named storm, twelfth hurricane, eighth major hurricane, and second Category 5 hurricane of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season, Walaka originated from an area of low pressure that formed over a thousand miles south-southeast of Hawaii on September 25. The National Hurricane Center tracked the disturbance for another day or so before it moved into the Central Pacific Basin. The Central Pacific Hurricane Center monitored the disturbance from that time until September 29, when the system organized into Tropical Storm Walaka. Walaka gradually strengthened, becoming a hurricane on October 1. Walaka then began to rapidly intensify, reaching Category 5 intensity by early on October 2. An eyewall replacement cycle caused some weakening of the hurricane, though it remained a powerful storm for the next day or so. Afterward, less favorable conditions caused a steady weakening of the hurricane, and Walaka became extratropical on October 6, well to the north of the Hawaiian Islands.

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