Hurricane Olivia (2018)

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Hurricane Olivia
Category 4 major hurricane (SSHWS/NWS)
Olivia 2018-09-06 2210Z.jpg
Hurricane Olivia near peak intensity with annular characteristics on September 6
FormedSeptember 1, 2018
DissipatedSeptember 19, 2018
( Remnant low after September 13)
Highest winds 1-minute sustained:130 mph (215 km/h)
Lowest pressure951 mbar (hPa); 28.08 inHg
FatalitiesNone
Damage$25 million (2018 USD)
Areas affected Hawaii
Part of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season

Hurricane Olivia was the first tropical cyclone to make landfall on Maui and Lanai in recorded history. The fifteenth named storm, ninth hurricane, and sixth major hurricane of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season, Olivia formed southwest of Mexico on September 1. The depression slowly organized and strengthened into Tropical Storm Olivia on the next day. Olivia then began a period of rapid intensification on September 3, reaching its initial peak on September 5. Soon after, Olivia began a weakening trend, before re-intensifying on September 6. On the next day, Olivia peaked as a Category 4 hurricane, with winds of 130 mph (215 km/h) and a minimum central pressure of 951 mbar (28.08 inHg). Six hours later, Olivia began another weakening trend that resulted in the hurricane being downgraded to Category 1 status on September 8, east of the 140th meridian west. On September 9, Olivia entered the Central Pacific Basin. Over the next couple of days, Olivia prompted the issuance of Tropical Storm Watches and Warnings for Hawaii County, Oahu, Maui County, and Kauai County. Olivia weakened into a tropical storm on September 11, before making brief landfalls in northwest Maui and Lanai on the next day, becoming the first tropical cyclone to impact the islands in recorded history. Tropical storm-force winds mainly affected Maui County and Oahu. Torrential rains affected the same area from September 11 to 13, causing flash flooding. Olivia caused a total of US$25 million in damages. Olivia was downgraded to a tropical depression on September 13 while continuing to head west. Due to wind shear disrupting Olivia's convection, the system weakened into a remnant low on September 14. Olivia crossed into the West Pacific Basin on September 19 as a remnant low, before dissipating later that day.

Tropical cyclone Is a rotating storm system

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones" or "severe cyclonic storms".

Maui island of the Hawaiian Islands in the Pacific Ocean

The island of Maui is the second-largest of the Hawaiian Islands at 727.2 square miles (1,883 km2) and is the 17th largest island in the United States. Maui is part of the State of Hawaii and is the largest of Maui County's four islands, which include Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, and unpopulated Kahoʻolawe. In 2010, Maui had a population of 144,444, third-highest of the Hawaiian Islands, behind that of Oʻahu and Hawaiʻi Island. Kahului is the largest census-designated place (CDP) on the island with a population of 26,337 as of 2010 and is the commercial and financial hub of the island. Wailuku is the seat of Maui County and is the third-largest CDP as of 2010. Other significant places include Kīhei, Lahaina, Makawao, Pukalani, Pāʻia, Kula, Haʻikū, and Hāna.

Lanai The sixth-largest of the Hawaiian Islands

Lānaʻi is the sixth-largest of the Hawaiian Islands and the smallest publicly accessible inhabited island in the chain. It is colloquially known as the Pineapple Island because of its past as an island-wide pineapple plantation. The island's only settlement of note is the small town of Lānaʻi City. As of 2012, the island was 97% owned by Larry Ellison, with the remaining 3% owned by the state of Hawaiʻi and privately owned homes.

Contents

Meteorological history

Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir-Simpson scale Olivia 2018 track.png
Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

Olivia originated from a disturbance that formed over the southwest Caribbean Sea on August 26. The disturbance tracked westward and crossed over Central America, where it entered the Northeastern Pacific Ocean a few days later. [1] A broad area of low pressure formed several hundred miles southwest of Mexico on August 30. [2] The National Hurricane Center (NHC) continued to monitor the disturbance as it moved west-northwest for the next couple of days and gradually became more organized. [3] At 00:00 UTC on September 1, the NHC declared that the low had become Tropical Depression Seventeen-E approximately 425 miles (680 km) southwest of Manzanillo, Mexico. [1] Initially, due to north-northeasterly vertical wind shear, the nascent depression only strengthened slowly. The depression intensified into Tropical Storm Olivia on September 2, after obtaining gale-force sustained winds [4] [1] For the next several days, the system would travel west to west-northwest under the influence of a subtropical ridge that extended from central Mexico across the eastern Pacific. [5]

Caribbean Sea A sea of the Atlantic Ocean bounded by North, Central, and South America

The Caribbean Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere. It is bounded by Mexico and Central America to the west and south west, to the north by the Greater Antilles starting with Cuba, to the east by the Lesser Antilles, and to the south by the north coast of South America.

Central America central geographic region of the Americas

Central America is located on the southern tip of North America, or is sometimes defined as a subcontinent of the Americas, bordered by Mexico to the north, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and the Pacific Ocean to the west and south. Central America consists of seven countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama. The combined population of Central America has been estimated to be 41,739,000 and 42,688,190.

Pacific Ocean Ocean between Asia and Australia in the west, the Americas in the east and Antarctica or the Southern Ocean in the south.

The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west and the Americas in the east.

Over the next day and a half, Olivia changed little in strength as wind shear continued to impinge on the system. [6] Late on September 3, however, a central dense overcast developed over Olivia's center of circulation and an inner core began to form, preceding a period of rapid intensification. [7] By 00:00 UTC on September 4, Olivia had strengthened into a hurricane, and reached Category 2 status on the Saffir–Simpson scale twelve hours later. [1] At 18:00 UTC on September 4, Olivia reached Category 3 status and thus became the sixth major hurricane of the season. [1] Six hours later, Olivia reached its initial peak intensity, with maximum sustained winds of 125 mph (195 km/h). [1] Shortly after, however, Olivia began a weakening trend, falling below Category 3 status at 12:00 UTC on September 5. Eventually, Olivia bottomed out as a low-end Category 2 hurricane, before beginning to re-intensify on September 6. [1] Olivia regained major hurricane status by 12:00 UTC that day, [8] and peaked as a Category 4 hurricane at 00:00 UTC on September 7, with winds of 130 mph (215 km/h) and a minimum pressure of 951  mbar (hPa; 28.08  inHg). [1] At that time, the NHC noted that Olivia was "an outstanding example of an annular hurricane", with a sharp eye surrounded by a single ring of intense convection. [9] Six hours later, Olivia began another weakening trend as sea surface temperatures decreased and cloud tops around the eye warmed. [10] By 06:00 UTC on September 8, Olivia had weakened to a Category 1 hurricane. [1] At 03:00 UTC on September 9, the Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC) took over the responsibility of monitoring and issuing advisories on Olivia after the hurricane crossed the 140th meridian west and entered the central Pacific. [11]

Central dense overcast

The central dense overcast, or CDO, of a tropical cyclone or strong subtropical cyclone is the large central area of thunderstorms surrounding its circulation center, caused by the formation of its eyewall. It can be round, angular, oval, or irregular in shape. This feature shows up in tropical cyclones of tropical storm or hurricane strength. How far the center is embedded within the CDO, and the temperature difference between the cloud tops within the CDO and the cyclone's eye, can help determine a tropical cyclone's intensity. Locating the center within the CDO can be a problem for strong tropical storms and with systems of minimal hurricane strength as its location can be obscured by the CDO's high cloud canopy. This center location problem can be resolved through the use of microwave satellite imagery.

The Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS), formerly the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale (SSHS), classifies hurricanes – Western Hemisphere tropical cyclones that exceed the intensities of tropical depressions and tropical storms – into five categories distinguished by the intensities of their sustained winds.

2018 Pacific hurricane season Period of formation of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 2018

The 2018 Pacific hurricane season produced the highest accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) value on record in the Eastern Pacific basin. With 23 named storms, it was the fourth-most active season on record, tied with 1982. The season officially began on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific; they both ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin, as illustrated when the first tropical depression formed on May 10.

Infrared satellite loop of Olivia making landfall in Maui and Lanai on September 12 Olivia RB 20180912 1430 UTC.gif
Infrared satellite loop of Olivia making landfall in Maui and Lanai on September 12

Early on September 11, Olivia weakened to a tropical storm, after encountering strong wind shear. [12] Late on the same day, Olivia's low level circulation center separated from the deep convection, resulting in a significant increase in forward speed. [13] Olivia rapidly weakened as it approached Hawaii, before making brief landfalls over Maui and Lanai, the first such instance in recorded history, [14] on September 12, at 19:10 UTC and 19:54 UTC respectively, with sustained winds of 45 mph (75 km/h). [15] At 09:00 UTC on September 13, as Olivia was pulling away from Hawaii, the system weakened into a tropical depression. [16] After wind shear continually disrupted Olivia's convection, the system degenerated into a post-tropical remnant low on September 14. [17] On September 19, Olivia's remnant low crossed the International Date Line, entering the West Pacific Basin. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) stated that there was a possibility of redevelopment. [18] Soon afterward, Olivia quickly lost all of its convection and dissipated, due to wind shear. [19]

International Date Line imaginary line that demarcates the change of one calendar day to the next

The International Date Line (IDL) is an imaginary line of demarcation on the surface of Earth that runs from the North Pole to the South Pole and demarcates the change of one calendar day to the next. It passes through the middle of the Pacific Ocean, roughly following the 180° line of longitude but deviating to pass around some territories and island groups.

Joint Typhoon Warning Center

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) is a joint United States Navy – United States Air Force command located in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The JTWC is responsible for the issuing of tropical cyclone warnings in the North-West Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Ocean, and Indian Ocean for all branches of the U.S. Department of Defense and other U.S. government agencies. Their warnings are intended for the protection of primarily military ships and aircraft as well as military installations jointly operated with other countries around the world.

Preparations and impact

Hawaii National Guard delivering supporting material in advance of Hurricane Olivia Hawaii National Guard (30767262028).jpg
Hawaii National Guard delivering supporting material in advance of Hurricane Olivia

On September 10, in anticipation of Olivia's landfall in Hawaii, tropical storm watches were issued for Hawaii County, Oahu, and Maui County including the islands of Maui, Molokai, Lanai, and Kahoolawe. [20] At 15:00 UTC, the tropical storm watches for Hawaii County and Maui were changed to tropical storm warnings. [21] At 03:00 UTC on September 11, the watch for Oahu was changed to a tropical storm warning. Additionally, tropical storm watches were issued for Kauai County including the islands of Kauai and Niihau due to the uncertainty of the track. [22] At 21:00 UTC the watches for Kauai and Niihau were changed to tropical storm warnings after the track shifted northward. [23] At 09:00 UTC on September 12, as the path of Olivia became clearer, the warnings for Kauai and Niihau were discontinued. [24] On September 9, Governor David Ige signed an emergency proclamation declaring the counties of Hawaii, Maui, Kalawao, Kauai, and Honolulu as disaster areas. [25] On September 12, all public schools and post offices were closed in Maui with numerous schools and universities closed elsewhere. [26]

Hawaii State of the United States of America

Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959. Hawaii is the only U.S. state located in Oceania, the only U.S. state located outside North America, and the only one composed entirely of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean.

Hawaii County, Hawaii County in the United States

Hawaiʻi County is a county in the U.S. state of Hawaii in the Hawaiian Islands. It is coterminous with the Island of Hawaiʻi, often called the "Big Island" to distinguish it from the state as a whole. As of the 2010 Census the population was 185,079. The county seat is Hilo. There are no incorporated cities in Hawaiʻi County. The Hilo Micropolitan Statistical Area includes all of Hawaiʻi County. Hawaiʻi County has a mayor-council form of government. Hawaii County is the largest county in the state in terms of geography.

Oahu The third-largest of the Hawaiian Islands and site of the state capital Honolulu

Oʻahu, known as "The Gathering Place", is the third-largest of the Hawaiian Islands. It is home to roughly one million people—about two-thirds of the population of the U.S. state of Hawaiʻi. The state capital, Honolulu, is on Oʻahu's southeast coast. Including small associated islands such as Ford Island and the islands in Kāneʻohe Bay and off the eastern (windward) coast, its area is 596.7 square miles (1,545.4 km2), making it the 20th-largest island in the United States.

Olivia was the second tropical cyclone to affect Hawaii in 2018, with Hurricane Lane having affected the state a few weeks earlier. [27] Tropical storm-force winds mainly affected Maui County and Oahu. Peak winds of 55 mph (89 km/h) were observed in Lanai Airport, and peak winds of 46 mph (74 km/h) were observed in Kuaokala. [28] Many trees were downed and numerous power outages occurred in Maui. [29] Widespread rains in Maui County and Oahu from September 1113 caused numerous instances of flash flooding, with the worst felt in areas along the slopes of the West Maui Mountains. Brief road closures occurred in Oahu on the night of September 12 as a result of the flash floods. In Maui County, rainfall totals reached a maximum of 12.93 in (328 mm) in West Wailuaiki, while on Oahu, rainfall totals peaked at 10.31 in (262 mm) at the Lyon Arboretum in Manoa. [30] In Honolulu, the water level of a dam rose by about 4 to 5 feet after heavy rainfall from Olivia affected the area, prompting officials to consider evacuations. Additionally, a sewage pipe overflowed, sending over 30,000 gallons (113,562 L) of raw sewage into Kapalama Stream and Honolulu Harbor. [29] Overall, Olivia caused a total of US$25 million in damages. [31]

Hurricane Lane (2018) Category 5 hurricane in 2018

Hurricane Lane was the wettest tropical cyclone on record in Hawaii, with rainfall accumulations of 52.02 inches (1,321 mm) in Mountain View. It also ranked as the second-wettest tropical cyclone in the United States, after Hurricane Harvey of 2017. The first Category 5 Pacific hurricane since Patricia in 2015, Lane was the twelfth named storm, sixth hurricane, and fourth major hurricane of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season. It originated from a tropical wave that began producing disorganized thunderstorm activity several hundred miles off the southern coast of Mexico on August 11. Over the next four days, the disturbance gradually strengthened amid favorable atmospheric and thermodynamic conditions and became a tropical depression early on August 15. Twelve hours later, the depression intensified into Tropical Storm Lane. Gradual strengthening occurred for the next day and a half, which resulted in Lane reaching hurricane status by August 17, followed by rapid intensification that brought Lane to its initial peak intensity as a Category 4 hurricane on August 18. On August 19, Lane crossed into the Central Pacific basin, where increased wind shear weakened it. However, on August 20, Lane re-intensified into a Category 4 hurricane, and reached Category 5 intensity early on August 22. As Lane approached the Hawaiian Islands, it began to weaken as vertical wind shear once again increased, dropping below hurricane status on August 25. Over the next few days, Lane began a westwards course away from the Hawaiian Islands as influence from the easterly trade winds increased as Lane weakened. On August 29, Lane became a remnant low, and dissipated shortly afterward.

Maui County, Hawaii County in the United States

Maui County, officially the County of Maui, is a county in the U.S. state of Hawaii. It consists of the islands of Maui, Lanai, Molokai, Kahoolawe, and Molokini. The latter two are uninhabited. As of the 2010 census, the population was 154,834. The county seat is Wailuku.

Lanai Airport commercial airport serving the island of Lanai, Hawaii, USA

Lanai Airport, also written as Lānaʻi Airport, is a state owned, public use airport located three nautical miles (6 km) southwest of the central business district of Lanai City, in Maui County, Hawaii. The airport began regular operations in 1930. It is the only airport serving the island of Lanai (Lānaʻi).

See also

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Hurricane Madeline (2016)

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Hurricane Hector (2018) Category 4 hurricane

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Hurricane Walaka Category 5 hurricane Eastern Pacific in 2018

Hurricane Walaka was one of the most intense Pacific hurricanes on record. By minimum pressure, Walaka is the second-strongest tropical cyclone in central Pacific, alongside Hurricane Gilma in 1994, and is only surpassed by Hurricane Ioke in 2006. The nineteenth named storm, twelfth hurricane, eighth major hurricane, and second Category 5 hurricane of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season, Walaka originated from an area of low pressure that formed over a thousand miles south-southeast of Hawaii on September 25. The National Hurricane Center tracked the disturbance for another day or so before it moved into the Central Pacific Basin. The Central Pacific Hurricane Center monitored the disturbance from that time until September 29, when the system organized into Tropical Storm Walaka. Walaka gradually strengthened, becoming a hurricane on October 1. Walaka then began to rapidly intensify, reaching Category 5 intensity by early on October 2. An eyewall replacement cycle caused some weakening of the hurricane, though it remained a powerful storm for the next day or so. Afterward, less favorable conditions caused a steady weakening of the hurricane, and Walaka became extratropical on October 6, well to the north of the Hawaiian Islands.

References

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