|Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS/NWS)|
|Formed||September 18, 1982|
|Dissipated||September 30, 1982|
|Highest winds|| 1-minute sustained:110 mph (175 km/h)|
|Fatalities||1,625 total, 668 missing|
|Damage||$520 million (USD)|
|Areas affected||Guatemala, El Salvador, Baja California, Northwest Mexico, United States|
|Part of the 1982 Pacific hurricane season|
Hurricane Paul was a particularly deadly and destructive Pacific hurricane which killed a total of 1,625 people and caused $520 million in damage. The sixteenth named storm and tenth hurricane of the 1982 Pacific hurricane season, Paul developed as a tropical depression just offshore Central America on September 18. The depression briefly moved inland two days later just before heading westward out to sea. The storm changed little in strength for several days until September 25, when it slowly intensified into a tropical storm. Two days later, Paul attained hurricane status, and further strengthened to Category 2 intensity after turning northward. The hurricane then accelerated toward the northeast, reaching peak winds of 110 mph (175 km/h). Paul made landfall over Baja California Sur on September 29, and subsequently moved ashore in Sinaloa the next day.
A Pacific hurricane is a mature tropical cyclone that develops within the eastern and central Pacific Ocean to the east of 180°W, north of the equator. For tropical cyclone warning purposes, the northern Pacific is divided into three regions: the eastern, central, and western, while the southern Pacific is divided into 2 sections, the Australian region and the southern Pacific basin between 160°E and 120°W. Identical phenomena in the western north Pacific are called typhoons. This separation between the two basins has a practical convenience, however, as tropical cyclones rarely form in the central north Pacific due to high vertical wind shear, and few cross the dateline.
Tropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones are named by various warning centers to provide ease of communication between forecasters and the general public regarding forecasts, watches, and warnings. The names are intended to reduce confusion in the event of concurrent storms in the same basin. Generally once storms produce sustained wind speeds of more than 33 knots, names are assigned in order from predetermined lists depending on which basin they originate. However, standards vary from basin to basin: some tropical depressions are named in the Western Pacific, while tropical cyclones must have a significant amount of gale-force winds occurring around the centre before they are named in the Southern Hemisphere.
The 1982 Pacific hurricane season, with 23 named storms, ranks as the fourth-most active Pacific hurricane season on record, tied with 2018. It was at that time the most active season in the basin until it was later surpassed by the 1992 season. It officially started June 1, 1982, in the eastern Pacific, and June 1, 1982, in the central Pacific, and lasted until October 31, 1982, in the central Pacific and until November 15, 1982, in the Eastern Pacific. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. At that time, the season was considered as the most active season within the basin; however, the 1992 season surpassed these numbers a decade later.
Prior to making landfall near the El Salvador – Guatemala border as a tropical depression, the precursor disturbance dropped heavy rainfall over the region, which later continued after landfall. Many rivers in the region burst their banks after five days of rainfall, causing severe flooding and multiple mudslides. Throughout Central America, at least 1,363 people were killed, with most of the fatalities occurring in El Salvador, although some occurred in Guatemala. Another 225 deaths were attributed to floods from the depression in southern Mexico. In addition, Paul was responsible for moderate damage and 24 fatalities in northwestern Mexico, where it made landfall at hurricane strength.
El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador, is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America. It is bordered on the northeast by Honduras, on the northwest by Guatemala, and on the south by the Pacific Ocean. El Salvador's capital and largest city is San Salvador. As of 2016, the country had a population of approximately 6.34 million.
Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala, is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, Belize and the Caribbean to the northeast, Honduras to the east, El Salvador to the southeast and the Pacific Ocean to the south. With an estimated population of around 16.6 million, it is the most populated country in Central America. Guatemala is a representative democracy; its capital and largest city is Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción, also known as Guatemala City.
The precursor disturbance to Paul originated from an area of low barometric pressure and disorganized thunderstorms, which was first noted near the Pacific coast of Nicaragua on September 15. Several days later, satellite imagery indicated it had developed a center of cyclonic circulation; on 1800 UTC September 20, the Eastern Pacific Hurricane Center initiated advisories on the system and classified it as Tropical Depression Twenty-Two. At that time, it was located 200 mi (320 km) west of Managua, Nicaragua and supported winds of 35 mph (50 km/h). The depression turned northward in response to a weak steering flow between two high pressure systems—one near Cabo San Lucas and the other west of Central America. It then moved inland near the El Salvador–Guatemala border, and dissipated overland.
A low-pressure area, low, depression or cyclone is a region on the topographic map where the atmospheric pressure is lower than that of surrounding locations. Low-pressure systems form under areas of wind divergence that occur in the upper levels of the troposphere. The formation process of a low-pressure area is known as cyclogenesis. Within the field of meteorology, atmospheric divergence aloft occurs in two areas. The first area is on the east side of upper troughs, which form half of a Rossby wave within the Westerlies. A second area of wind divergence aloft occurs ahead of embedded shortwave troughs, which are of smaller wavelength. Diverging winds aloft ahead of these troughs cause atmospheric lift within the troposphere below, which lowers surface pressures as upward motion partially counteracts the force of gravity.
A thunderstorm, also known as an electrical storm or a lightning storm, is a storm characterized by the presence of lightning and its acoustic effect on the Earth's atmosphere, known as thunder. Relatively weak thunderstorms are sometimes called thundershowers. Thunderstorms occur in a type of cloud known as a cumulonimbus. They are usually accompanied by strong winds, and often produce heavy rain and sometimes snow, sleet, or hail, but some thunderstorms produce little precipitation or no precipitation at all. Thunderstorms may line up in a series or become a rainband, known as a squall line. Strong or severe thunderstorms include some of the most dangerous weather phenomena, including large hail, strong winds, and tornadoes. Some of the most persistent severe thunderstorms, known as supercells, rotate as do cyclones. While most thunderstorms move with the mean wind flow through the layer of the troposphere that they occupy, vertical wind shear sometimes causes a deviation in their course at a right angle to the wind shear direction.
The weather satellite is a type of satellite that is primarily used to monitor the weather and climate of the Earth. Satellites can be polar orbiting, covering the entire Earth asynchronously, or geostationary, hovering over the same spot on the equator.
Under the influence of a persistent stationary trough near California, the remains of the depression retraced westward back over the open waters of the Pacific. Advisories on the system were resumed late on September 20. Though it was reconsidered a tropical cyclone, its wind circulation was poorly defined; the depression again degenerated into an open trough at 0000 UTC September 22. Its forward motion remained relatively unchanged for several days, and by September 24 the system was reclassified as a tropical cyclone. After briefly drifting northward, the system began tracking toward the west-northwest. It gradually organized into a tropical storm at 0000 UTC September 25. Since it was then situated over favorable sea surface temperatures between 28 °C (82 °F) and 29 °C (84 °F), Paul underwent a phase of rapid intensification. This allowed it to reach Category 1 hurricane strength on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS) just two days after its naming.
A trough is an elongated (extended) region of relatively low atmospheric pressure, often associated with fronts. Troughs may be at the surface, or aloft, or both under various conditions. Most troughs bring clouds, showers, and a wind shift, particularly following the passage of the trough. This results from convergence or "squeezing" which forces lifting of moist air behind the trough line.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U.S. state and the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento. The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, and the country's second-most populous, after New York City. California also has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs.
Sea surface temperature (SST) is the water temperature close to the ocean's surface. The exact meaning of surface varies according to the measurement method used, but it is between 1 millimetre (0.04 in) and 20 metres (70 ft) below the sea surface. Air masses in the Earth's atmosphere are highly modified by sea surface temperatures within a short distance of the shore. Localized areas of heavy snow can form in bands downwind of warm water bodies within an otherwise cold air mass. Warm sea surface temperatures are known to be a cause of tropical cyclogenesis over the Earth's oceans. Tropical cyclones can also cause a cool wake, due to turbulent mixing of the upper 30 metres (100 ft) of the ocean. SST changes diurnally, like the air above it, but to a lesser degree. There is less SST variation on breezy days than on calm days. In addition, ocean currents such as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), can effect SST's on multi-decadal time scales, a major impact results from the global thermohaline circulation, which affects average SST significantly throughout most of the world's oceans.
Upon becoming a hurricane, Paul turned to the north and continued to develop. mph (180 km/h). From 1800 to 2100 UTC on September 29, the eye of the hurricane made landfall along Baja California Sur, moving ashore less than 100 mi (160 km) south of La Paz near San José del Cabo. After weakening slightly inland, Paul briefly reemerged over water and subsequently made its final landfall near Los Mochis, Sinaloa with winds of 100 mph (165 km/h). Tropical cyclone advisories were discontinued shortly thereafter, though exact information on the storm after it moved inland is unavailable due to a lack of data completion in the hurricane database.As the storm neared Baja California Sur, it reached Category 2 intensity. An upper-level trough forced the hurricane to accelerate towards the northeast, at which point it had reached peak wind speeds of 110
Baja California Sur, officially the Estado Libre y Soberano de Baja California Sur, is the second-smallest Mexican state by population and the 31st admitted state of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, make up the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
A tropical upper tropospheric trough (TUTT), also known as the mid-oceanic trough,or commonly called as Western Hemisphere or "upper cold low" is a trough situated in upper-level tropics. Its formation is usually caused by the intrusion of energy and wind from the mid-latitudes into the tropics. It can also develop from the inverted trough adjacent to an upper level anticyclone. TUTTs are different from mid-latitude troughs in the sense that they are maintained by subsidence warming near the tropopause which balances radiational cooling. When strong, they can present a significant vertical wind shear to the tropics and subdue tropical cyclogenesis. When upper cold lows break off from their base, they tend to retrograde and force the development, or enhance, surface troughs and tropical waves to their east. Under special circumstances, they can induce thunderstorm activity and lead to the formation of tropical cyclones.
The eye is a region of mostly calm weather at the center of strong tropical cyclones. The eye of a storm is a roughly circular area, typically 30–65 km (20–40 miles) in diameter. It is surrounded by the eyewall, a ring of towering thunderstorms where the most severe weather and highest winds occur. The cyclone's lowest barometric pressure occurs in the eye and can be as much as 15 percent lower than the pressure outside the storm.
An alert was issued for the Mexican states of Sonora and Sinaloa and Baja California Sur; army and navy units were on standby in case of an emergency.Roughly 50,000 people evacuated to storm shelters and thousands of others sought refuge in public buildings, such as schools and churches. Across La Paz, officials evacuated 3,000 families from hurricane-prone areas. In the towns of Altata and Guamúchil alone, army officials evacuated 5,000 coastal residents.
Tropical cyclone warnings and watches are two levels of alert issued by national weather forecasting bodies to coastal areas threatened by the imminent approach of a tropical cyclone of tropical storm or hurricane intensity. They are notices to the local population and civil authorities to make appropriate preparation for the cyclone, including evacuation of vulnerable areas where necessary. It is important that interests throughout the area of an alert make preparations to protect life and property, and do not disregard it on the strength of the detailed forecast track. Tropical cyclones are not points, and forecasting their track remains an uncertain science.
Sonora, officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora, is one of 31 states that, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 federal entities of United Mexican States. It is divided into 72 municipalities; the capital city is Hermosillo. Sonora is bordered by the states of Chihuahua to the east, Baja California to the northwest and Sinaloa to the south. To the north, it shares the U.S.–Mexico border with the states of Arizona and New Mexico, and on the west has a significant share of the coastline of the Gulf of California.
La Paz is the capital city of the Mexican state of Baja California Sur and an important regional commercial center. The city had a 2015 census population of 244,219 inhabitants, making it the most populous city in the state. Its metropolitan population is somewhat larger because of the surrounding towns, such as El Centenario, Chametla and San Pedro. It is in La Paz Municipality, which is the fourth-largest municipality in Mexico in geographical size and reported a population of 290,286 inhabitants on a land area of 20,275 km2 (7,828 sq mi).
The tropical depression that later became Paul produced the worst natural disaster in El Salvador history since 1965. 42 mi (68 km) west of San Salvador. Rescue workers searched through rocks and mud to find missing victims. About 25,000–30,000 people were left homeless. Much of San Salvador was submerged by flood waters of up to 8 ft (2.4 m) high, and even after their recession hundreds of homes remained buried under trees, debris, and 10 ft (3.0 m) of mud. In all, property damage from the storm amounted to $100 million in the country; while crop damage amounted to $250 million.Although the death toll was initially believed to be lower it rose to a final toll of 761 after new victims were confirmed on September 28. Of these deaths, 312 occurred in the capital city of San Salvador, which had also sustained the worst damage. Another 40 people perished in Actoo, a very small village located
In Guatemala, widespread catastrophic floods claimed 615 lives and left 668 others missing. More than 10,000 people were left homeless in the wake of the disaster. million (1982 USD) were reported in the country. Throughout southern Mexico, floods from the precursor depression to Paul killed another 225 people.According to the highway department, the storm destroyed 16 bridges which left 200 communities isolated from surrounding areas. Overall, economic losses of $100
Hurricane Paul produced heavy rainfall along its path through Baja California Sur. At least 85 homes in La Paz sustained damage, and many telephone lines in the region were down at the height of the storm. mph (195 km/h) swept through San José del Cabo, causing property damage and subsequently leaving 9,000 homeless. Despite the damage, no deaths were reported in the wake of Paul.Wind gusts estimated at 120
Upon making its final landfall in Sinaloa, Paul produced hurricane-force winds recorded at 100 mph (160 km/h) in Los Mochis. The winds demolished numerous homes in the region, leaving 140,000 residents homeless and another 400,000 people isolated. The greatest damage occurred 70 miles (110 km) south of Los Mochis in the city of Guamuchil; some houses suffered total destruction, while many other had their roof blown off. A total of 24 people were killed by the storm, although it produced beneficial rains over the region.
The worst flooding occurred near the Rio Sinaloa; 7.9 in (200 mm) to 12 in (300 mm) of rain fell in some locations. Over 25,000 homes were damaged. Agricultural damage was severe in the state of Sinaloa, with up to 40 percent of the soybean crop destroyed. Sugar cane, tomato, and rice crops also sustained damage from the hurricane, and in its wake the state's corn production was down by 26 percent from the previous year. Total storm damage in Mexico amounted to $4.5 billion (1982 MXN; $70 million USD).
The remnants of Paul moved into the United States, producing heavy rainfall in southern New Mexico and extreme West Texas. Inclement weather was observed as far inland as the Great Plains. 6 in (150 mm) of snow was expected in Wyoming, thus winter storm warnings were required for parts of the state.A combination of rain and snow moved into Colorado;
In the aftermath of the storm, the Government of El Salvador was criticized for failing to keep the public well informed. It provided over $300,000 in aid and declared a state of emergency;additionally, a state of mourning was declared. The United Nations World Food program began distributing food set aside for victims of the El Salvador Civil War. The U.S. Embassy in Guatemala provided $25,000 in aid for the country. Mexican authorities rushed to supply food and water to the homeless.
The 1983 Pacific hurricane season was the longest season ever recorded at that time, which was later surpassed by the 2015 and 2016 seasons. The 1983 Pacific hurricane season started on May 15, 1983 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1, 1983 in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1983. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. During the 1983 season, there were 21 named storms, which was slightly less than the previous season. Furthermore, eight storms reached major hurricane status, or Category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS). The decaying 1982–83 El Niño event likely contributed to this level of activity. That same El Niño influenced a very quiet Atlantic hurricane season.
Hurricane Lane was the thirteenth named storm, ninth hurricane, and sixth major hurricane of the 2006 Pacific hurricane season. The strongest Pacific hurricane to make landfall in Mexico since Hurricane Kenna of 2002, Lane developed on September 13 from a tropical wave to the south of Mexico. It moved northwestward, parallel to the coast of Mexico, and steadily intensified in an area conducive to further strengthening. After turning to the northeast, Lane attained peak winds of 125 mph (205 km/h), and made landfall in the state of Sinaloa at peak strength. It rapidly weakened and dissipated on September 17, and later brought precipitation to southern part of the U.S. state of Texas.
Hurricane Paul was a hurricane that ultimately struck Mexico as a tropical depression in October 2006. It developed from an area of disturbed weather on October 21, and slowly intensified as it moved into an area of warm waters and progressively decreasing wind shear. Paul attained hurricane status on October 23, and later that day it reached its peak intensity of 105 mph (165 km/h), a strong Category 2 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale. A strong trough turned the hurricane to the north and northeast into an area of strong vertical shear, and Paul weakened to a tropical storm on October 24. It accelerated northeastward, and after passing a short distance south of Baja California Sur the low level circulation became decoupled from the rest of the convection. Paul weakened to a tropical depression on October 25 a short distance off the coast of Mexico, and after briefly turning away from the coast it made landfall on northwestern Sinaloa on October 26.
Hurricane Isis was the only hurricane to make landfall during the 1998 Pacific hurricane season. The ninth tropical storm and sixth hurricane of the season, Isis developed on September 1 from an interaction between a tropical wave and a large surface circulation to the southwest of Mexico. It moved northward, striking the extreme southeastern portion of the Baja California peninsula before attaining hurricane status in the Gulf of California. Isis made landfall at Topolobampo in the Mexican state of Sinaloa on September 3, and quickly lost its low-level circulation. The remnants persisted for several days before dissipating in the U.S. state of Idaho.
Tropical Storm Julio was a tropical storm that made landfall on the southern tip of Baja California Sur in August 2008. The tenth named storm of the 2008 Pacific hurricane season, it developed from a tropical wave on August 23 off the coast of Mexico. It moved parallel to the coast, reaching peak winds of 50 mph (85 km/h) before moving ashore and weakening. On August 26 it dissipated in the Gulf of California. Julio was the third tropical cyclone to make landfall in the Pacific Ocean basin during the season, after Tropical Storm Alma, which struck Nicaragua in May, and Tropical Depression Five-E, which moved ashore along southwestern Mexico in July. The storm brought locally heavy rainfall to southern Baja California, killing one person and leaving several towns isolated. Moisture from Julio reached Arizona, producing thunderstorms, including one which damaged ten small planes in Chandler.
The 1943 Mazatlán hurricane was a powerful tropical cyclone that lashed the southern coast of Sinaloa on the morning of 9 October 1943. The hurricane went essentially undetected before it made landfall just south of Mazatlán on 9 October with a pressure below 958.6 millibars (28.31 inHg) and maximum sustained winds of at least 136 miles per hour (219 km/h). The hurricane destroyed two small towns and half of Mazatlán, killing at least 106 persons, injuring 102, and leaving over 1,000 homeless. Total damage was estimated at $4.5 million. The hurricane was the strongest on record to strike Mazatlán.
Hurricane Norbert is tied with Hurricane Jimena as the strongest tropical cyclone to strike the west coast of Baja California Sur in recorded history. The fifteenth named storm, seventh hurricane, and second major hurricane of the 2008 hurricane season, Norbert originated as a tropical depression from a tropical wave south of Acapulco on October 3. Strong wind shear initially prevented much development, but the cyclone encountered a more favorable environment as it moved westward. On October 5, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) upgraded the depression to Tropical Storm Norbert, and the system intensified further to attain hurricane intensity by October 6. After undergoing a period of rapid deepening, Norbert reached its peak intensity as a Category 4 on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale, with maximum sustained winds of 135 mph (215 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 945 mbar. As the cyclone rounded the western periphery of a subtropical ridge over Mexico, it began an eyewall replacement cycle which led to steady weakening. Completing this cycle and briefly reintensifying into a major hurricane, a Category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale, Norbert moved ashore Baja California Sur as a Category 2 hurricane late on October 11. After a second landfall at a weaker intensity the following day, the system quickly weakened over land and dissipated that afternoon.
Tropical Storm Lowell was a moderate tropical storm that developed during the 2008 Pacific hurricane season. The fourteenth tropical cyclone and thirteen named storm of the season, Lowell formed out of a western side of a trough on September 6. It quickly intensified into Tropical Storm Lowell, peaking as a moderate tropical storm. It pass directly over Socorro Island and began a weakening trend. It weakened into depression before landfall in Baja California Sur and dissipated before striking Sonora. It later joined with a frontal boundary and Hurricane Ike which caused severe damage as far inland as Chicago. In all, the storm had caused 6 deaths and $15.5 million damage.
Tropical Depression One-E was the earliest known tropical cyclone to impact the Mexican state of Sinaloa. The first system of the 2009 Pacific hurricane season, One-E formed out of an area of disturbed weather on June 18, 2009, and initially tracked slowly northwards. Throughout the day, convection developed around the center of circulation and the system was anticipated to become a tropical storm. Late on June 18, the National Hurricane Center noted that the system was on the verge of becoming a tropical storm; it would have been named Andres had this occurred. However, the following day, strong wind shear caused the depression to rapidly degenerate into a trough of low pressure before dissipating off the coast of Sinaloa.
Tropical Storm Agatha was a weak but catastrophic tropical cyclone that brought widespread floods to much of Central America, and was the deadliest tropical cyclone in the eastern Pacific since Hurricane Pauline in 1997. The first storm of the 2010 Pacific hurricane season, Agatha originated from the Intertropical Convergence Zone, a region of thunderstorms across the tropics. It developed into a tropical depression on May 29 and tropical storm later, it was dissipated on May 30, reaching top winds of 45 mph and a lowest pressure of 1000 mbar. It made landfall near the Guatemala–Mexico border on the evening of May 29. Agatha produced torrential rain all across Central America, which resulted in the death of one person in Nicaragua. In Guatemala, 152 people were killed and 100 left missing by landslides. Thirteen deaths also occurred in El Salvador. Agatha soon dissipated over Guatemala. As of June 15, officials in Guatemala have stated that 165 people were killed and 113 others are missing.
The 2013 Pacific hurricane season was the costliest Pacific hurricane season on record, with a total of about $4.2 billion in damages. The season produced above normal activity; however, the majority of the storms were weak. The season officially began on May 15, 2013 in the Eastern Pacific and started on June 1, 2013 in the Central Pacific. Both ended on November 30, 2013. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the eastern Pacific basin. However, the formation of a storm is possible at any time.
Tropical Storm Lidia was a deadly, destructive tropical cyclone that occurred during the 1981 Pacific hurricane season. It resulted in more casualties and caused greater damage than Hurricane Norma, which took place later that season. On October 6, a tropical depression formed and strengthened into a tropical storm six hours later. Lidia brushed the Gulf of California coast of Baja California Sur and made landfall just south of Los Mochis in Sinaloa on October 8. Tropical Storm Lidia rapidly weakened and dissipated the same day. Lidia killed at least 73 people and caused at least $80 million which is equivalent to $193 million in damage. It inflicted heavy rain and flooding throughout parts of northwestern Mexico, especially Sinaloa.
Tropical Storm Beatriz of 1993 was a strong tropical storm that made landfall in Mexico during the moderately active 1993 Pacific hurricane season. The storm caused $1.7 billion in damages throughout Mexico.
Hurricane Manuel was the most destructive eastern Pacific tropical cyclone on record. Manuel brought widespread flooding across much of Mexico in September 2013, along with Hurricane Ingrid, which hit the opposite side of the nation the same day as Manuel, the first such occurrence since 1958. The fifteenth named storm and seventh hurricane of the annual hurricane season, Manuel originated from a strong area of low pressure south of Acapulco on September 13. Within favorable conditions aloft, the storm intensified into a tropical storm as it tracked northward. The following day, Manuel curved westward and strengthened to a point just shy of hurricane intensity before making its first landfall at that intensity on September 15. Due to interaction with land, the tropical storm quickly weakened, and its center dissipated over western Mexico on September 16. However, the storm's remnants continued to track northwestward into the Gulf of California, where they reorganized into a tropical cyclone the next day. Manuel regained tropical storm status on September 18 as it began to curve northeastward. Shortly thereafter, Manuel attained Category 1 hurricane intensity, before making its final landfall just west of Culiacán at peak intensity. Over land, Manuel quickly weakened due to interaction with Mexico's high terrain, and the storm dissipated early on September 20.
Hurricane Odile is tied for the most intense landfalling tropical cyclone on the Baja California Peninsula during the satellite era. Sweeping across the peninsula in September 2014, Odile inflicted widespread damage, particularly in the state of Baja California Sur, in addition to causing lesser impacts on the Mexican mainland and Southwestern United States. The precursor to Odile developed into a tropical depression south of Mexico on September 10 and quickly reached tropical storm strength. After meandering for several days, Odile began to track northwestward, intensifying to hurricane status before rapidly reaching its Category 4 hurricane peak intensity on September 14. The cyclone slightly weakened before making landfall near Cabo San Lucas with winds of 125 mph (205 km/h). Odile gradually weakened as it tracked across the length of the Baja California Peninsula, briefly crossing into the Gulf of California before degenerating into a remnant system on September 17. These remnants tracked northeastward across the Southwestern United States before they were no longer identifiable on September 19.
Hurricane Newton was the first hurricane to make landfall on the Baja California Peninsula since Odile in 2014. The fifteenth named storm and the ninth hurricane of the 2016 Pacific hurricane season, Newton formed as a tropical depression out of an area of low pressure off of the coast of Mexico on September 4. Despite only moderately favorable conditions, the storm quickly intensified while moving north and became a hurricane roughly a day after being designated. Attaining peak intensity early on September 6, Newton then proceeded to make landfall on the Baja California Peninsula shortly afterwards. It quickly weakened and degenerated into a remnant low on September 7, before dissipating the next day.
Tropical Depression Nineteen-E was a weak tropical cyclone that caused flooding throughout Northwestern Mexico and several states within the United States. Nineteen-E originated from a tropical wave that left the west coast of Africa on August 29 to 30. It continued westward, crossed over Central America, and entered the northeastern Pacific Ocean by September 7. It then meandered to the southwest of Mexico for the next several days as it interacted with a mid-to-upper level trough. The National Hurricane Center (NHC) continued to track the disturbance for the next several days as it traveled northward. A surface trough developed over the Baja California peninsula on September 18. Despite disorganization and having close proximity to land, the disturbance developed into a tropical depression in the Gulf of California on September 19, after having developed a circulation center and more concentrated convection. The system peaked with maximum sustained winds of 35 mph (55 km/h) and a minimum central pressure of 1002 mbar.
Hurricane Willa was the strongest tropical cyclone to make landfall in the Mexican state of Sinaloa since Lane in 2006. The twenty-second named storm, thirteenth hurricane, tenth major hurricane, and record-tying third Category 5 hurricane of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season, Willa originated from a tropical wave that the National Hurricane Center (NHC) first began monitoring for tropical cyclogenesis in the southwestern Caribbean Sea, on October 14. The system subsequently crossed over Central America into the East Pacific, without significant organization. The NHC continued to track the disturbance until it developed into a tropical depression on October 20, off the coast of southwestern Mexico. Later in the day, the system became a tropical storm as it began to rapidly intensify. On October 21, Willa became a Category 4 major hurricane, before strengthening further to Category 5 intensity on the next day. Afterward, a combination of an eyewall replacement cycle and increasing wind shear weakened the hurricane, and early on October 24, Willa made landfall as a marginal Category 3 hurricane, in Sinaloa of the northwestern Mexico. Following landfall, Willa rapidly weakened, dissipating later on the same day over northeastern Mexico.