Husband E. Kimmel

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Husband E. Kimmel
Husband Kimmel.jpg
Birth nameHusband Edward Kimmel
Nickname(s)"Kim", "Hubbie", and "Mustapha"
BornFebruary 26, 1882
Henderson, Kentucky, U.S.
DiedMay 14, 1968(1968-05-14) (aged 86)
Groton, Connecticut, U.S.
AllegianceFlag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States of America
Service/branchFlag of the United States Navy (1864-1959).svg  United States Navy
Years of service1904–1942
Rank US-O8 insignia.svg Rear admiral (Reduced from US-O10 insignia.svg Admiral)
Commands held United States Pacific Fleet
Battles/wars Mexican Revolution

World War I


World War II

Awards Mexican Service Medal
World War I Victory Medal
World War II Victory Medal

Husband Edward Kimmel (February 26, 1882 – May 14, 1968) was a United States Navy officer. At the time of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, he was commander in chief of the United States Fleet (CINCUS) and the U.S. Pacific Fleet (CINCPACFLT). He was removed from command after the December 1941 attack and reduced from four-star to the two-star rank of rear admiral. He retired from the Navy in early 1942.

United States Navy Naval warfare branch of the United States Armed Forces

The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U.S. allies or partner nations. with the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, and two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches. It has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force.

Attack on Pearl Harbor Surprise attack by the Imperial Japanese Navy on the U.S. Pacific Fleet in Pearl Harbor in Hawaii

The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service upon the United States against the naval base at Pearl Harbor in Honolulu, Hawaii on Sunday morning, December 7, 1941. The attack led to the United States' formal entry into World War II the next day. The Japanese military leadership referred to the attack as the Hawaii Operation and Operation AI, and as Operation Z during its planning.

The United States Fleet was an organization in the United States Navy from 1922 until after World War II. The acronym CINCUS, pronounced "sink us", was used for Commander in Chief, United States Fleet. This was replaced by COMINCH in December 1941, under Executive Order 8984, when it was redefined and given operational command over the Atlantic, Pacific, and Asiatic Fleets, as well as all naval coastal forces. Executive Order 9096 authorized the offices of the CNO and COMINCH to be held by a single officer; Admiral Ernest J. King was first to do so, and 1944 was promoted to the five-star rank of fleet admiral.

Contents

Life and career

Early life

Kimmel was born in Henderson, Kentucky, [1] on February 26, 1882, to Sibella "Sibbie" Lambert Kimmel (1846–1919) and Major Manning Marius Kimmel (1832–1916), a graduate of West Point who fought with the Union side during the American Civil War, then later switched allegiance to the Confederate States Army to fight alongside his neighbors. [2]

Henderson, Kentucky City in Kentucky, United States

Henderson is a home rule-class city along the Ohio River in Henderson County in western Kentucky in the United States. The population was 28,757 at the 2010 U.S. census. It is part of the Evansville Metropolitan Area, locally known as the "Kentuckiana" or the "Tri-State Area".

Manning M. Kimmel

Manning Marius Kimmel was a military officer who served on both sides of the American Civil War. He entered the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1853 and graduated in 1857. After initially fighting for the Union, he switched sides to the Confederacy, one of four West Point graduates to fight on both sides during the war. In the Confederate Army, he served as adjutant general and assistant adjutant general on the staff of generals Benjamin McCulloch and Earl Van Dorn, and as inspector general on John Magruder's staff. He was the father of Admiral Husband E. Kimmel, who commanded the United States Pacific Fleet during the Attack on Pearl Harbor.

American Civil War Civil war in the United States from 1861 to 1865

The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U.S. history. Primarily as a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States. The loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery.

Husband Kimmel was nicknamed variously "Kim", "Hubbie" and "Mustapha". [3] Kimmel married Dorothy Kinkaid (1890–1975), sister of Admiral Thomas C. Kinkaid, with whom he had three sons: Manning, Thomas K. Kimmel and Edward R. Kimmel. [4]

Thomas C. Kinkaid United States Navy admiral

Thomas Cassin Kinkaid served as an admiral in the United States Navy during World War II. He built a reputation as a "fighting admiral" in the aircraft carrier battles of 1942 and commanded the Allied forces in the Aleutian Islands Campaign. He was Commander Allied Naval Forces and the Seventh Fleet under General of the Army Douglas MacArthur in the Southwest Pacific Area, where he conducted numerous amphibious operations, and commanded an Allied fleet during the Battle of Leyte Gulf, largest naval battle of World War II and the last naval battle between battleships in history.

Manning Kimmel Recipient of the Purple Heart medal

Manning Marius Kimmel was a United States Navy submarine officer in World War II and the son of Admiral Husband E. Kimmel. He served as both junior and Executive Officer on several submarines, and finally assumed command of USS Robalo as a Lieutenant Commander. Kimmel was reportedly killed when Robalo was sunk off the island of Palawan. However, the specific circumstances surrounding his death remain unclear.

Kimmel graduated in 1904 from the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland. [1] From 1906 to 1907 he served on several battleships in the Caribbean. [1] In 1907 he was assigned to the USS Georgia during its participation in the circumnavigatory cruise of the Great White Fleet. [1] Kimmel then served in the U.S. occupation of Veracruz, Mexico, during which he was wounded in April 1914. [1]

United States Naval Academy The U.S. Navys federal service academy

The United States Naval Academy is a four-year coeducational federal service academy adjacent to Annapolis, Maryland. Established on 10 October 1845, under Secretary of the Navy George Bancroft, it is the second oldest of the United States' five service academies, and educates officers for commissioning primarily into the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps. The 338-acre (137 ha) campus is located on the former grounds of Fort Severn at the confluence of the Severn River and Chesapeake Bay in Anne Arundel County, 33 miles (53 km) east of Washington, D.C. and 26 miles (42 km) southeast of Baltimore. The entire campus is a National Historic Landmark and home to many historic sites, buildings, and monuments. It replaced Philadelphia Naval Asylum, in Philadelphia, that served as the first United States Naval Academy from 1838 to 1845 when the Naval Academy formed in Annapolis.

Maryland State of the United States of America

Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east. The state's largest city is Baltimore, and its capital is Annapolis. Among its occasional nicknames are Old Line State, the Free State, and the Chesapeake Bay State. It is named after the English queen Henrietta Maria, known in England as Queen Mary.

USS <i>Georgia</i> (BB-15) Virginia-class pre-dreadnought battleship of the United States Navy

USS Georgia (BB-15) was a United States Navy Virginia-class battleship, the third of five ships of the class. She was built by the Bath Iron Works in Maine, with her keel laid in August 1901 and her launching in October 1904. The completed battleship was commissioned into the fleet in September 1906. The ship was armed with an offensive battery of four 12-inch (305 mm) guns and eight 8-inch (203 mm) guns, and she was capable of a top speed of 19 knots.

In 1915 he was briefly appointed as an aide to Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt. [1] During World War I, Kimmel served as a squadron gunnery officer in U.S. Battleship Division Nine which served as the Sixth Battle Squadron of the British Grand Fleet. [1] After the war he served as Executive Officer aboard the battleship USS Arkansas, then in Washington D.C. and the Philippines, as well as commanding two destroyer divisions before attaining the rank of captain in 1926 upon completion of the senior course at the Naval War College. [1]

Assistant Secretary of the Navy

Assistant Secretary of the Navy (ASN) is the title given to certain civilian senior officials in the United States Department of the Navy.

Franklin D. Roosevelt 32nd president of the United States

Franklin Delano Roosevelt, often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A Democrat, he won a record four presidential elections and became a central figure in world events during the first half of the 20th century. Roosevelt directed the federal government during most of the Great Depression, implementing his New Deal domestic agenda in response to the worst economic crisis in U.S. history. As a dominant leader of his party, he built the New Deal Coalition, which realigned American politics into the Fifth Party System and defined American liberalism throughout the middle third of the 20th century. His third and fourth terms were dominated by World War II. Roosevelt is widely considered to be one of the most important figures in American history, as well as among the most influential figures of the 20th century. Though he has also been subject to much criticism, he is generally rated by scholars as one of the three greatest U.S. presidents, along with George Washington and Abraham Lincoln.

World War I 1914–1918 global war originating in Europe

World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.

From 1926 to 1937 Kimmel held a number of positions in the Navy Department as well as the commands of a destroyer squadron and of the battleship USS New York. [1]

United States Department of the Navy

The United States Department of the Navy (DoN) was established by an Act of Congress on April 30, 1798, to provide a government organizational structure to the United States Navy, the United States Marine Corps and, when directed by the President, the United States Coast Guard, as a service within the Department of the Navy, though each remain independent service branches. The Department of the Navy was an Executive Department and the Secretary of the Navy was a member of the President's cabinet until 1949, when amendments to the National Security Act of 1947 changed the name of the National Military Establishment to the Department of Defense and made it an Executive Department. The Department of the Navy then became, along with the Department of the Army and Department of the Air Force, a Military Department within the Department of Defense: subject to the authority, direction and control of the Secretary of Defense.

Destroyer Type of warship

In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, maneuverable long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy or battle group and defend them against smaller powerful short-range attackers. They were originally developed in the late 19th century by Fernando Villaamil for the Spanish Navy as a defense against torpedo boats, and by the time of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, these "torpedo boat destroyers" (TBDs) were "large, swift, and powerfully armed torpedo boats designed to destroy other torpedo boats". Although the term "destroyer" had been used interchangeably with "TBD" and "torpedo boat destroyer" by navies since 1892, the term "torpedo boat destroyer" had been generally shortened to simply "destroyer" by nearly all navies by the First World War.

A squadron, or naval squadron, is a significant group of warships which is nonetheless considered too small to be designated a fleet. A squadron is typically a part of a fleet. Between different navies there are no clear defining parameters to distinguish a squadron from a fleet, and the size and strength of a naval squadron varies greatly according to the country and time period. Groups of small warships, or small groups of major warships, might instead be designated flotillas by some navies according to their terminology. Since the size of a naval squadron varies greatly, the rank associated with command of a squadron also varies greatly.

In 1937 he was promoted to the flag rank of rear admiral. In this capacity he commanded Cruiser Division Seven on a diplomatic cruise to South America and in 1939 became Commander of Battle Force Cruisers. [1] [5] [6]

Pearl Harbor

After Admiral James O. Richardson was removed from command in February 1941, Kimmel was appointed in his place as Commander in Chief, United States Fleet (CINCUS). Kimmel was also appointed Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Fleet (CINCPACFLT), a position re-established on 1 February 1941 when General Order 143 was issued, and Kimmel assumed command with the temporary rank of admiral starting on that date. [7] Kimmel earned a reputation as a hard worker who inspired subordinates, but some later criticized him for over-attention to detail, claiming it betrayed a lack of self-confidence. These critics asserted that Kimmel constantly revisited minute tasks he had done previously when he could have delegated the work to others. [5]

When one considers the testimony of Kimmel's men, such criticisms do not seem to hold up to scrutiny. Kimmel's Fleet gunnery officer Willard Kitts, for example, later testified that under Kimmel's leadership, "the efficiency and training of the Fleet was at its highest level." [8] William "Bull" Halsey, who in 1941 commanded one of the Pacific Fleet's carrier task forces and rose during the War to five-star Fleet Admiral, described Kimmel as "the ideal man for the job". [9]

The base for the fleet had been moved from its traditional home at San Diego, California, to Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, in May 1940. Richardson had been relieved of command for his vocal opposition to this move and about the fleet's vulnerability. [10] On 18 February 1941, Kimmel wrote to the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO), Admiral Harold Rainsford Stark:

I feel that a surprise attack (submarine, air, or combined) on Pearl Harbor is a possibility, and we are taking immediate practical steps to minimize the damage inflicted and to ensure that the attacking force will pay. [11]

On 18 April 1941, Kimmel wrote to the CNO requesting additional resources for base construction at Wake Island and for a US Marine Corps defense battalion to be stationed there. [5] On 19 August the first permanent Marine garrison was assigned. Naval Air Station Midway was commissioned in August after the completion of runways and support structures, and a Marine garrison assigned shortly afterwards. [12] In November Kimmel ordered USS Enterprise to ferry Marine fighters and pilots to Wake Island to reinforce the garrison, and for USS Lexington to depart Pearl Harbor on 5 December to ferry Marine dive bombers to Midway. Because of these missions both aircraft carriers were not in Pearl Harbor during the later Japanese attack.

Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor occurred on December 7, 1941, and resulted in the deaths of 2,403 U.S. military and 68 civilians. Edwin T. Layton related that during the attack:

Kimmel stood by the window of his office at the submarine base, his jaw set in stony anguish. As he watched the disaster across the harbor unfold with terrible fury, a spent .50 caliber machine gun bullet crashed through the glass. It brushed the admiral before it clanged to the floor. It cut his white jacket and raised a welt on his chest. "It would have been merciful had it killed me," Kimmel murmured to his communications officer, Commander Maurice "Germany" Curts. [13] [14]

In The World at War , a naval serviceman—who had been alongside Admiral Kimmel during the attack—recalled that as Kimmel watched the destruction of the fleet, he tore off his four-star shoulder boards, in apparent recognition of the impending end of his command. [15]

After Pearl Harbor

Kimmel was relieved of his command ten days after the attack. At the time he was planning and executing retaliatory moves, including an effort to relieve and reinforce Wake Island that could have led to an early clash between American and Japanese carrier forces. Vice Admiral William S. Pye (Commander, Battle Force, Pacific Fleet) became acting CINCPACFLT on 17 December. He had reservations about Kimmel's plan and finally decided the Wake Island operation was too risky and recalled the relief force. Admiral Chester W. Nimitz took over as CINCPACFLT on 31 December and by that time Wake Island had been invaded and occupied by the Japanese. Kimmel's CINCUS command was reassigned to Admiral Ernest J. King (at that time Commander in Chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet (CINCLANTFLT)) in a wartime expanded role of Commander in Chief, United States Fleet (with the new acronym of COMINCH), which would also be combined with King's subsequent appointment as the Chief of Naval Operations.

The Roberts Commission appointed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt to investigate the attack determined that Kimmel and his counterpart, Army Lieutenant General Walter Short, were guilty of errors of judgment and dereliction of duty in the events leading up to the attack. Kimmel defended his decisions at several hearings, testifying that important information had not been made available to him.

Kimmel retired in early 1942, and worked for the military contractor Frederic R. Harris, Inc. after the war. Kimmel died at Groton, Connecticut, on May 14, 1968. [5]

His son, Manning, died after the submarine he commanded (USS Robalo) was sunk near Palawan on or around July 26, 1944. The Kimmel family at the time was informed that Manning had gone down with his ship. Though it was widely believed that Manning Kimmel died on board his boat, several sources (including Admiral Ralph Waldo Christie, commander of submarine operations at Fremantle at the time) stated after the war that Manning was one of a handful of survivors from his submarine, having been swept overboard as the boat sank after hitting a mine. Manning was captured by the Japanese and with several other survivors was pushed into a ditch, doused with gasoline and burned alive by his Japanese captors, who were enraged over a recent American air attack. [16]

Posthumous reputation and debate

Historians agree that the United States was unprepared for the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor at all levels. Japanese military forces enjoyed clear superiority in training, equipment, experience and planning over the Americans. The extent to which Kimmel himself bore responsibility for the unreadiness of his Pacific Fleet has been a matter of debate.

Some, such as submarine Captain Edward L. "Ned" Beach, concluded that Admiral Kimmel and General Short, who was also dismissed from command, were made scapegoats for the failures of superiors in Washington. Kimmel's supporters point to a series of bureaucratic foul-ups and circumstances beyond anyone's control that led to the fleet's lack of preparedness, including poor atmospheric conditions that blocked a radio warning from the War Department to Pearl Harbor of a possible attack, forcing it to be sent as a telegram, [17] which delayed it long enough for the attack to start before Kimmel could get it.

Edwin T. Layton (later Rear Admiral Layton), chief intelligence officer for Kimmel and one of the officers who knew Kimmel best, provided support for Kimmel's position. Layton argued Kimmel had not been provided complete information and that Kimmel deployed the few reconnaissance resources at his disposal in the most logical way, given the available information. [18]

On the other hand, Kimmel's critics point out that he had been ordered 10 days prior to the attack to initiate a "defensive deployment" of the fleet. Kimmel, thinking the main threat to the fleet was sabotage, kept much of the fleet in port and did not place the fleet on alert. When his intelligence unit lost track of Japan's aircraft carriers, he did not order long-range air or naval patrols to assess their positions. [19] He had a poor working arrangement with his Army counterpart, General Short, who was charged with defending the fleet while in port. [20] [ page needed ]

Historians generally recognize that American forces would have fared poorly even if Kimmel had reacted differently. In a 1964 interview, Admiral Chester Nimitz, who took over as commander of the Pacific Fleet three weeks after the attack, concluded that, "It was God's mercy that our fleet was in Pearl Harbor on December 7." [21] If Kimmel had, "...had advance notice that the Japanese were coming, he most probably would have tried to intercept them. With the difference in speed between Kimmel's battleships and the faster Japanese carriers, the former could not have come within rifle range of the enemy's flattops. As a result, we would have lost many ships in deep water and also thousands more in lives." [21] Instead, at Pearl Harbor, the crews were easily rescued, and six of eight front-line battleships ultimately raised. [22] This was also the assessment of Joseph Rochefort, head of the US Navy's Station HYPO, who remarked the attack was cheap at the price. [23]

In 1994 Kimmel's family, including his grandson, South Carolina broadcaster Manning Kimmel IV, attempted for the third time to have Kimmel's four-star rank reinstated. President Bill Clinton denied the request, as had Presidents Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan. A 1995 Pentagon study concluded other high-ranking officers were also responsible for the failure at Pearl Harbor but did not exonerate Kimmel.

On May 25, 1999, the United States Senate, by a vote of 52–47, passed a non-binding resolution to exonerate Kimmel and Short and requested that the President of the United States posthumously restore both men to full rank. [19] Senator Strom Thurmond, one of the sponsors of the resolution, called Kimmel and Short "the two final victims of Pearl Harbor." The Senate enquiry in 2000 issued a lengthy exoneration of Kimmel's conduct. [24] President Clinton did not act on the resolution, nor has any of his successors.

Portrayals

In the 1965 film In Harm's Way , Kimmel was portrayed as a victim of unfortunate circumstance by actor Franchot Tone. The 1970 film Tora! Tora! Tora! portrays Kimmel, played by actor Martin Balsam, in a sympathetic light: a capable commander operating in an environment plagued by poor communication, inadequate training and systemic unreadiness. Canadian actor Colm Feore portrayed Kimmel in the 2001 movie Pearl Harbor . Andrew Duggan played Kimmel in the 1983 miniseries The Winds of War .

Military Awards

 
Army of Cuban Pacification service ribbon.png Mexican Service Medal ribbon.svg World War I Victory Medal ribbon.svg
American Defense Service Medal ribbon.svg American Campaign Medal ribbon.svg Asiatic-Pacific Campaign ribbon.svg World War II Victory Medal ribbon.svg
Cuban Pacification Medal Mexican Service Medal World War I Victory Medal
American Defense Service Medal
with "BASE" clasp
American Campaign Medal Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal World War II Victory Medal

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Axelrod, Alan (2007). Encyclopedia of World War Two. New York: Facts on File. p. 490. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
  2. Summers & Swan 2016, p. 29.
  3. Summers & Swan 2016, pp. 29,43.
  4. Summers & Swan 2016, pp. 37ff.
  5. 1 2 3 4 http://ww2db.com/person_bio.php?person_id=93
  6. Summers & Swan 2016, pp. 38ff.
  7. "A Brief History Of U.S. Fleet Forces Command". US Fleet Forces Command . Retrieved 8 June 2017.
  8. Summers & Swan 2016, pp. 66.
  9. Halsey, William; Bryan, J (1947). Admiral Halsey's Story. New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 70.
  10. http://www.antiwar.com/rep/flynn1.html
  11. "INTELLIGENCE AT PEARL HARBOR". Central Intelligence Agency. July 4, 1946. Archived from the original on December 3, 2016. Retrieved December 2, 2016.
  12. "Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge and Battle of Midway National Memorial". U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service . Retrieved 8 June 2017.
  13. Leckie, Robert (1988). Delivered from Evil: The Saga of World War II. Perennial Library. pp. 340–41. ISBN   0-06-091535-8.
  14. Edwin T. Layton, And I Was There: Pearl Harbor and Midway -- Breaking the Secrets (1985), p. 315 (the scene was recreated by Martin Balsam, as Kimmel, in the 1970 film Tora! Tora! Tora!)
  15. Arnold-Forster, Mark (2001). The World at War (3rd ed.). London: Pimlico. p. 161.
  16. Clay Blair (2001). Silent Victory: The U.S. Submarine War Against Japan. Naval Institute Press. p.  688. ISBN   978-1-55750-217-9.
  17. "Pearl Harbor Review". NSA.gov. National Security Agency. May 3, 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2017. Army communications to Hawaii were down due to technical problems, and the warning was sent -- via Western Union telegram!
  18. Edwin T. Layton, And I Was There: Pearl Harbor and Midway, Breaking the Secrets (1985), pp. 222-226: "Jaluit Atoll, in the Marshall Islands lay 2,000 nautical miles (3,700 km) to the southwest and traffic analysis indicated a powerful submarine force there. It was also thought at least one carrier division was making for Japanese bases in the Marshalls, and photo reconnaissance was ordered to settle a difference in analysis..... Kimmel had to make his plans on the assumption that the main danger to Pearl Harbor in the event of war was an enemy task force steaming out to make a surprise attack from the southwest.... At no time did Kimmel receive any intelligence, or hint, that there was any threat to Pearl Harbor from any direction but from the southwest."
  19. 1 2 "Military, lawmakers want Pearl Harbor commanders pardoned". Syracuse Herald-Journal . Syracuse, New York. December 1, 1999. p. A-9.
  20. Prange, Gordon W., Goldstein, Donald M., & Dillon, Katherine V. December 7, 1941: The Day the Japanese Attacked Pearl Harbor (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1988).
  21. 1 2 Mueller, John. "Pearl Harbor: Military Inconvenience, Political Disaster". International Security. The MIT Press. 16 (3 (Winter, 1991–1992)): 176–177. doi:10.2307/2539091. JSTOR   2539091.
  22. Gordon Prange, Miracle at Midway , 1983, paperback, p.9
  23. Holmes, W. J. Double-Edged Secrets[ page needed ]
  24. Congressional Record, V. 146, Pt. 7, May 24, 2000 to June 12 2000

Bibliography

Military offices
Preceded by
James O. Richardson
Commander in Chief of the United States Pacific Fleet
1941
Succeeded by
William S. Pye
Preceded by
James O. Richardson
Commander in Chief, United States Fleet
5 January 1941 – December 1941
Succeeded by
Ernest King