The Hushenying (traditional Chinese :虎神營; simplified Chinese :虎神营; pinyin :Hǔshényíng) were a unit of 10,000 Manchu Bannermen under the command of Zaiyi during the Boxer Rebellion. Zaiyi himself created the unit in 1899, but it was decimated at the Battle of Peking in 1900 when the Eight-Nation Alliance captured Beijing to lift the Chinese siege of the foreign legations during the Boxer Uprising.
Hushenying has been translated variously as Tiger Spirit Division,Tiger and Divine Corps, and Tiger Spirit Battalion.
Zaiyi, also known as Prince Duan, created the Hushenying in June 1899, for which he gained the praise of Empress Dowager Cixi. The new division contained 10,000 troops, all recruited from the banner armies that garrisoned the capital.Some Chinese sources claim that Zaiyi chose the name Hushenying to convey his dislike of foreigners – since "tiger eats lamb (Yang, a pun on foreigners), and the divine tames the devil (Gui)" – but this claim cannot be verified in the documents of the time. The Hushenying became the third modern army guarding Beijing, the other two being the Guards Army (established shortly before the Hushenying in 1899) and the older Peking Field Force (created in 1862).
During the Boxer Uprising (1899–1901), the Hushenying was among the troops that besieged the Beijing Legation Quarter, where most foreigners lived. During that siege (summer 1900), the Hushenying led by the harshly anti-foreign Zaiyi often clashed with the Peking Field Force, which was commanded by the more moderate Yikuang (Prince Qing). Both armies were decimated in the Battle of Peking.
Several Chinese works of fiction have been written about the Hushenying.
The Boxer Rebellion (拳亂), Boxer Uprising or Yihetuan Movement (義和團運動), was an armed and violent xenophobic, anti-Christian and anti-imperialist insurrection in China between 1899 and 1901, towards the end of the Qing dynasty.
Manchu is a critically endangered East Asian Tungusic language native to the historical region of Manchuria in Northeast China. As the traditional native language of the Manchus, it was one of the official languages of the Qing dynasty (1636–1912) of China and in Inner Asia, though today the vast majority of Manchus now speak only Mandarin Chinese. Now, several thousand can speak Manchu as a second language through governmental primary education or free classes for adults in classrooms or online.
The Boxer Protocol was signed on September 7, 1901, between the Qing Empire of China and the Eight-Nation Alliance that had provided military forces ; after China's defeat in the intervention to put down the Boxer Rebellion. It is often regarded as one of the Unequal Treaties.
The Eight-Nation Alliance was a multinational military coalition that invaded North China in 1900 to relieve the foreign legations in Beijing besieged by the popular Boxer militia determined to expunge foreign influence and government troops determined to defend China. The Allied forces consisted of approximately 45,000 troops from the eight nations of Germany, Japan, Russia, Britain, France, the United States, Italy and Austria-Hungary. Neither the Chinese nor the foreign allies issued a formal declaration of war, and no treaty or formal agreement bound the Alliance together. The first phase of hostilities starting in August 1900 was more or less a civil war, but with the success of the invasion the later stages developed into a punitive expedition that pillaged Beijing and North China for over a year. The fighting ended with the signing of the Boxer Protocol.
Yikuang, formally known as Prince Qing, was a Manchu noble and politician of the Qing dynasty. He served as the first Prime Minister of the Imperial Cabinet, an office created in May 1911 to replace the Grand Council.
The Beijing Legation Quarter was the area in Beijing, China where a number of foreign legations were located between 1861 and 1959. In the Chinese language, the area is known as Dong Jiaomin Xiang, which is the name of the hutong through the area. It is located in the Dongcheng District, immediately to the east of Tiananmen Square. The city of Beijing was commonly called Peking by Europeans and Americans until the 1970s.
Ronglu, courtesy name Zhonghua, was a Manchu political and military leader of the late Qing dynasty. He was born in the Guwalgiya clan, which was under the Plain White Banner of the Manchu Eight Banners. Deeply favoured by Empress Dowager Cixi, he served in a number of important civil and military positions in the Qing government, including the Zongli Yamen, Grand Council, Grand Secretary, Viceroy of Zhili, Beiyang Trade Minister, Secretary of Defence, Nine Gates Infantry Commander, and Wuwei Corps Commander. He was also the maternal grandfather of Puyi, the last Emperor of China and the Qing dynasty.
Zaiyi, better known by his title Prince Duan, was a Manchu prince and statesman of the late Qing dynasty. He is best known as one of the leaders of the Boxer Rebellion of 1899–1901.
Dong Fuxiang (1839–1908), courtesy name Xingwu (星五), was a Chinese military general who lived in the late Qing dynasty. He was born in the Western Chinese province of Gansu. He commanded an army of Hui soldiers, which included the later Ma clique generals Ma Anliang and Ma Fuxiang. According to the Western calendar, his birth date is in 1839.
The Gansu Braves or Gansu Army was a unit of 10,000 Chinese Muslim troops from the northwestern province of Kansu (Gansu) in the last decades the Qing dynasty (1644–1912). Loyal to the Qing, the Braves were recruited in 1895 to suppress a Muslim revolt in Gansu. Under the command of General Dong Fuxiang (1839–1908), they were transferred to the Beijing metropolitan area in 1898, where they officially became the Rear Division of the Wuwei Corps, a modern army that protected the imperial capital. The Gansu Army included Hui Muslims, Salar Muslims, Dongxiang Muslims, and Bonan Muslims.
The Seymour Expedition was an attempt by a multi-national military force to march to Beijing and protect the diplomatic legations and foreign nationals in the city from attacks by Boxers in 1900. The Chinese army defeated the Seymour expedition and forced it to return to Tianjin (Tientsin).
The Battle of Beicang known also as the Battle of Peitsang, was fought August 5, 1900 during the Boxer Rebellion, between the Eight Nation Alliance and the Chinese army. The Chinese army was forced out of its prepared entrenchments and retreated to Yangcun. The Japanese contingent led the Alliance attack; with contingents also being present from Russia, Britain, America and France.
The Siege of the International Legations occurred in 1900 in Peking, the capital of the Qing Empire, during the Boxer Rebellion. Menaced by the Boxers, an anti-Christian, anti-foreign peasant movement, 900 soldiers, marines, and civilians, largely from Europe, Japan, and the United States, and about 2,800 Chinese Christians took refuge in the Peking Legation Quarter. The Qing government took the side of the Boxers. The foreigners and Chinese Christians in the Legation Quarter survived a 55-day siege by the Qing Army and Boxers. The siege was broken by an international military force which marched from the coast of China, defeated the Qing army, and occupied Peking. The siege was called by the New York Sun "the most exciting episode ever known to civilization."
The Imperial Decree of declaration of war against foreign powers was a 1900 Qing dynasty declaration of war against colonising powers: Russia, the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Austria-Hungary, Belgium, and the Netherlands simultaneously. This declaration of war was one of the direct causes of the Boxer Rebellion and Eight-Nation Alliance, which then led to Boxer Protocol. This Imperial decree was officially issued in the name of Guangxu Emperor, bearing his official Imperial seal. The Emperor of China was in effect under house arrest, ordered by Empress Dowager Cixi at that time, and the full administrative power was in the hand of the Empress Dowager.
The Imperial Decree on events leading to the signing of Boxer Protocol is an imperial decree issued by the government of the Qing dynasty in the name of the Guangxu Emperor, as an official imperial statement on historical events such as Boxer Rebellion, Eight-Nation Alliance and Battle of Peking and Siege of the International Legations, detailing instructions given to Prince Qing and Li Hongzhang as the full representatives of the imperial court in negotiating a peace treaty with the foreign powers, prior to the official signing of the Boxer Protocol on 7 September 1901. This Imperial Decree was officially issued in the name of the Guangxu Emperor, bearing his official Imperial Seal, who was in reality under house arrest, ordered by Empress Dowager Cixi at that time, as the full administrative power was in the hand of the Empress Dowager.
The Wuwei Corps or Guards Army was a modernised army unit of the Qing dynasty. Made up of infantry, cavalry and artillery, it was formed in May or June 1899 and trained by western military advisers. The guard took responsibility for the security of Peking (Beijing) and the Forbidden City, with Ronglu as its supreme commander. This move was an attempt by the Qing imperial court to create a western-style army equipped with modern weaponry following the Qing Empire's defeat in the First Sino-Japanese War. Three out of the five divisions of the Wuwei Corps were disbanded after two years due to attrition caused by the Boxer Rebellion.
The Mutual Protection of Southeast China was an agreement made in the summer of 1900 during the Boxer Rebellion by governors of the provinces in southern, eastern and central China when the Eight Power Expedition invaded North China. The governors, including Li Hongzhang, Xu Yingkui, Liu Kunyi, Zhang Zhidong and Yuan Shikai, refused to carry out the imperial decree promulgated by the Qing dynasty to declare war on 11 foreign nations, with the aim of preserving peace in their own provinces.
The Peking Field Force was a modern-armed military unit that defended the Chinese imperial capital Beijing in the last decades of the Qing dynasty (1644–1912).
The Boxers, also known by various other names in both Chinese and English, was a Chinese secret society known for having triggered the Boxer Rebellion from 1899 to 1901. It became a massive movement, counting anywhere between 50,000 and 100,000 members. Though the group originally supported the downfall of the Qing leadership of China for being "westernized", the group would later support the ruling Empress Dowager to try and eliminate groups the Boxers opposed, in particular the foreign Christian missionaries and Chinese converts, who they viewed to be detrimental to their efforts. The group was all but destroyed by the end of the Boxer Rebellion, with most of its leadership and structure eliminated, though some of its former members continued their actions in various other groups across China.
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