Hut Point Peninsula

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Hut Point Peninsula
Location of Hut Point Peninsula
Antarctica

Hut Point Peninsula ( 77°47′S166°51′E / 77.783°S 166.850°E / -77.783; 166.850 Coordinates: 77°47′S166°51′E / 77.783°S 166.850°E / -77.783; 166.850 ) is a long, narrow peninsula from 3 to 5 km (2 to 3 mi) wide and 24 km (15 mi) long, projecting south-west from the slopes of Mount Erebus on Ross Island, Antarctica. McMurdo Station (US) and Scott Base (NZ) are Antarctic research stations located on the Hut Point Peninsula.

Contents

History

George Vince's Cross George Vince's Cross.jpg
George Vince's Cross

The British National Antarctic Expedition (1901–04) under Robert Falcon Scott built its hut on Hut Point, a small point lying 1.5 km (1 mi) north-east of Cape Armitage, the southern headland of the peninsula. Members of the British Antarctic Expedition, 1910–13 (BAE), under Scott, wintering on Cape Evans and often using the hut during their journeys, came to refer to the whole peninsula as the Hut Point Peninsula. [1] [2]

Historic sites and monuments

Several features on Hut Point, including the cross memorial for George Vince and the store hut for the Scott expeditions, are protected under the Antarctic Treaty. [2] Both the cross (HSM 19) and the hut (HSM 18) have been designated Historic Sites or Monuments, following proposals by New Zealand and the United Kingdom to the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting. [3] The point is protected as Antarctic Specially Protected Area (ASPA) No.158 largely because of its historic significance as one of the principal sites of early human activity in Antarctica. [4]

Geography

A number of features on Hut Point Peninsula have been charted and named by various Antarctic expeditions.

On the west coast, south of the Erebus Ice Tongue, is Descent Cliff, charted and named by BAE members because they descended to the sea ice from it. [5] South of that are the Hutton Cliffs, named by the Discovery Expedition (DE) of 1901–04 for Captain Hutton of the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch, New Zealand. [6] To the south is Rodgers Point, named in 2000 by the New Zealand Geographic Board after Thelma Rodgers, the first woman to winter at Scott Base. [7] 2.5 nmi (4.6 km; 2.9 mi) south is Knob Point, a rounded coastal point. This name was adopted by the United States Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names (US-ACAN) as it was already in use by fieldworkers in the area. [7] [8] Just south is Danger Slopes, a steep ice slope terminating west in a sheer drop to Erebus Bay. It was named by DE personnel because Seaman George T. Vince of the expedition lost his life here in a blizzard when he slipped and fell into the sea. [9] The southernmost point of the peninsula is Cape Armitage, named by Scott's expedition for Lieutenant (later Captain) Albert B. Armitage, second in command and navigator on the Discovery. [10]

On the east coast, Pram Point sits about 1.5 nmi (2.8 km; 1.7 mi) northeast of Cape Armitage. It was discovered by DE personnel, and named because they kept a Norwegian 'pram' (dinghy) there to get to the Ross Ice Shelf during the summer months. [11] New Zealand Antarctic Scott Base is on Pram Point. North of Pram Point is ice-covered Polar Bear Point. The name, given by US-ACAN, is allusive; when viewed from the west, the appearance of the point is suggestive of the head, neck, and fore part of a polar bear. [12] Farther north is Ackley Point, named by US-ACAN for sea ice specialist Stephen F. Ackley. [13] Approximately 5.4 nmi (10.0 km; 6.2 mi) north of that is a rock spur called Sultans Head Rock, named by DE personnel. [14] 3.2 nmi (5.9 km; 3.7 mi) northeast of that is a headland called Tyree Head, named for U.S. Navy Admiral David Tyree. The headland rises to over 400 m (1,300 ft) and is ice-covered except for rock exposed on the lower east side. [15]

Geology

Hut Point Peninsula consists of a series of basaltic scoria cones, craters and domes that were formed in the last 1.34 million years. Named cones, domes, and craters on the peninsula include: [16]

Cones, domes, and other protrusions

Craters

See also

Related Research Articles

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Tower Island island

Tower Island is an Antarctic island 9 kilometres (5 nmi) long and 305 m (1,001 ft) high. It marks the north-east extent of Palmer Archipelago. It lies 37 kilometres (20 nmi) north-east of Trinity Island, separated by Gilbert Strait. Both islands are separated from the Davis Coast to the south by Orléans Strait, running northeast–southwest. The Pearl Rocks lie off the West Coast of Tower Island.

Bowman Peninsula is a peninsula, 46 kilometres (25 nmi) long in a north-south direction and 28 kilometres (15 nmi) wide in its northern and central portions, lying between Nantucket Inlet and Gardner Inlet on the east coast of Palmer Land. The peninsula is ice covered and narrows toward the south, terminating in Cape Adams. It was discovered by the Ronne Antarctic Research Expedition, 1947–48, under Finn Ronne, who named it for Isaiah Bowman.

Castle Rock (Antarctica) rock crag in Antarctica

Castle Rock is a bold rock crag, 415 metres (1,360 ft) high, standing 3 miles (5 km) northeast of Hut Point on the central ridge of Hut Point Peninsula, Ross Island. It was discovered by the British National Antarctic Expedition, 1901–04, under Robert Falcon Scott, who so named it because of its shape.

Cape Evans headland

Cape Evans is a rocky cape on the west side of Ross Island, Antarctica, forming the north side of the entrance to Erebus Bay.

Barff Peninsula is a peninsula forming the east margin of Cumberland East Bay, South Georgia Island. It is 8 miles (13 km) long and extends northwest from Sörling Valley to Barff Point, its farthest extremity. It was probably first seen by the British expedition under James Cook in 1775. The peninsula as a whole takes its name from Barff Point, which was named for Royal Navy Lieutenant A.D. Barff of HMS Sappho, who, assisted by Captain C.A. Larsen, sketched a map of Cumberland Bay in 1906. Barff Point is considered the eastern headland of East Cumberland Bay.

Zélée Glacier glacier in Antarctica

Zélée Glacier is a glacier about 6 kilometres (3 nmi) wide and 11 kilometres (6 nmi) long, flowing north-northwest from the continental ice along the west side of Lacroix Nunatak and terminating in a prominent tongue at the west side of Port Martin. Probably first sighted in 1840 by the French expedition under Captain Jules Dumont d'Urville, although no glaciers were noted on d'Urville's chart of this coast. Photographed from the air by U.S. Navy Operation Highjump, 1946–47. Charted by the French Antarctic Expedition under Liotard, 1949–51, and named for the Zélée, corvette which accompanied d'Urville's flagship, the Astrolabe.

Argentine Islands group of islands in the Wilhelm Archipelago of Antarctica, 9 km SW of Petermann Island, 7 km NW of Cape Tuxen, Kiev Peninsula, Graham Land; discovered by the French Antarctic Expedition 1903–05; so named to thank Argentinas support to the expedition

The Argentine Islands are a group of islands in the Wilhelm Archipelago of Antarctica, situated 9 km (5 nmi) southwest of Petermann Island, and 7 km (4 nmi) northwest of Cape Tuxen on Kiev Peninsula in Graham Land. They were discovered by the French Antarctic Expedition, 1903–05, under Jean-Baptiste Charcot, and named by him for the Argentine Republic, in appreciation of that government's support of to his expedition.

Williams Cliff is a prominent rock cliff that stands out from the ice-covered southwest slopes of Mount Erebus, situated 6 nautical miles (11 km) east of Cape Barne on Ross Island. This rock cliff was mapped by the British Antarctic Expedition under Scott, 1910–13, and identified simply as "Bold Cliff" on maps resulting from that expedition. It was named Williams Cliff by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names (US-ACAN) in 1964 to commemorate Richard T. Williams, who lost his life when his tractor broke through the ice at McMurdo Sound in January 1956.

Arrival Heights

Arrival Heights are clifflike heights which extend in a north-east–south-west direction along the west side of Hut Point Peninsula, just north of Hut Point in Ross Island, Antarctica. They were discovered and named by the British National Antarctic Expedition, 1901–04, under Robert Falcon Scott. The name suggests the expedition's arrival at its winter headquarters at nearby Hut Point.

The Boulder Cones are volcanic cones 0.9 nautical miles (1.7 km) southwest of Castle Rock on Hut Point Peninsula, Ross Island. The name, which is descriptive, was given by Frank Debenham of the British Antarctic Expedition, 1910–13, who made a plane table survey of the peninsula in 1912.

Cone Hill is a hill 2 nautical miles (4 km) northeast of Castle Rock on Hut Point Peninsula, Ross Island. The descriptive name Cone Hill I was used by the British Antarctic Expedition, 1910–13 under Robert Falcon Scott, but the form Cone Hill has come into general use.

Erebus Bay Antarctica

Erebus Bay is a bay about 24 kilometres (13 nmi) wide between Cape Evans and Hut Point Peninsula, on the west side of Ross Island. The bay was explored by the British National Antarctic Expedition, 1901–04, under Robert Falcon Scott. It was named by Scott's second expedition, the British Antarctic Expedition, 1910–13, which built its headquarters on Cape Evans; the feature is surmounted by Mount Erebus.

Evans Peninsula

Evans Peninsula is an ice-covered peninsula about 30 nautical miles (60 km) long, between Koether Inlet and Cadwalader Inlet in the northeast part of Thurston Island. Cape Braathen is an ice-covered cape at the northwest termination of Evans Peninsula. It was discovered in flights from the USS Burton Island and USS Glacier by personnel of the U.S. Navy Bellingshausen Sea Expedition in February 1960, and was named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names (US-ACAN) for Commander Griffith Evans, Jr., commander of the icebreaker Burton Island during this expedition.

First Crater is a volcanic crater on Arrival Heights, located 0.75 nautical miles (1.4 km) north of Hut Point on Ross Island. It was named by Frank Debenham in 1912 on his local survey of Hut Point Peninsula during the British Antarctic Expedition, 1910–13.

Ford Rock is a prominent rock which lies 1 nautical mile (2 km) northeast of Cone Hill on Hut Point Peninsula, Ross Island, Antarctica. Cone Hill and this rock were designated "Cone Hill I" and "Cone Hill II," respectively, by the British Antarctic Expedition, 1910–13, under Robert Falcon Scott. Cone Hill has been approved for Scott's "Cone Hill I," but a new name suggested by A.J. Heine has been substituted for this prominent rock. M.R.J. Ford, a New Zealand surveyor, established a survey beacon network for the McMurdo Ice Shelf Project, 1962–63. A survey beacon was established earlier on this rock by a U.S. Hydrographic Office survey team, 1955–56.

The Fortress Rocks are a cluster of low rock summits 0.5 nautical miles (1 km) north of the summit of Observation Hill on Hut Point Peninsula, Ross Island. The descriptive name was given by members of the British Antarctic Expedition, 1910–13, under Robert Falcon Scott.

Half Moon Crater is a volcanic crater 0.5 nautical miles (1 km) southwest of Castle Rock on Hut Point Peninsula, Ross Island, Antarctica. It was descriptively named for its shape by Frank Debenham of the British Antarctic Expedition, 1910–13, who made a plane table survey of the peninsula in 1912.

Twin Crater is a volcanic crater with twin nested cones that rises behind McMurdo Station and 0.5 nautical miles (0.9 km) west of Crater Hill on Hut Point Peninsula, Ross Island. This crater was named Middle Crater by Frank Debenham of the British Antarctic Expedition, 1910–13, apparently for its location in relation to First Crater and Crater Hill, but the name has fallen into disuse. Twin Crater, alluding to the nested cones in the crater, was applied as early as 1971 and the name has become established because of consistent use in current maps and reports. Black Knob, a big black rock outcrop lies 0.2 nautical miles east of Twin Crater.

Second Crater is a volcanic crater on Arrival Heights, situated 0.6 nautical miles (1.1 km) northeast of First Crater on Hut Point Peninsula, Ross Island. Named by F. Debenham in 1912 on his local survey of Hut Point Peninsula during the British Antarctic Expedition, 1910–13.

References

  1. "Hut Point Peninsula". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2012-07-05.
  2. 1 2 Stonehouse, Bernard. Encyclopedia of Antarctica and the Southern Oceans, John Wiley and Sons, 2002. ISBN   0-471-98665-8
  3. "List of Historic Sites and Monuments approved by the ATCM (2012)" (PDF). Antarctic Treaty Secretariat. 2012. Retrieved 2013-10-27.
  4. "Hut Point, Ross Island" (PDF). Management Plan for Antarctic Specially Protected Area No. 158: Measure 2, Annex K. Antarctic Treaty Secretariat. 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-01-21. Retrieved 2013-06-12.
  5. "Descent Cliff". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  6. "Hutton Cliffs". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  7. 1 2 "Rodgers Point". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  8. "Knob Point". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  9. "Danger Slopes". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  10. "Cape Armitage". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  11. "Pram Point". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  12. "Polar Bear Point". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  13. "Ackley Point". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  14. "Sultans Head Rock". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  15. "Tyree head". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  16. "Hut Point Peninsula". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 2018-01-18.