Huw David Dixon
|Institution|| Cardiff Business School |
University of York
|New Keynesian Economists|
|Alma mater|| Balliol College, Oxford |
Nuffield College, Oxford
|Influences||James Mirrlees, Don Patinkin, Robert Axelrod, Herbert Simon|
|Contributions||Price Micro-data in Macroeconomic Models, Introducing Imperfect Competition in Macroeconomics,  Equilibria in Bertrand–Edgeworth models with Convex Costs,  The Evolution of Consistent Conjectures |
|Information at IDEAS / RePEc|
Huw David Dixon (/hju: devəd dɪksən/),  born 1958, is a British economist. He has been a professor at Cardiff Business School since 2006,  having previously been Head of Economics at the University of York (2003–2006) after being a professor of economics there (1992–2003),  and the University of Swansea (1991–1992),  a Reader at Essex University (1987–1991) and a lecturer at Birkbeck College (University of London) 1983–1987.
He graduated from his first degree in Philosophy and Economics from Balliol College, University of Oxford in 1980, and he went on to do his PhD at Nuffield College, University of Oxford under the supervision of Nobel Laureate Sir James Mirrlees  graduating in 1984.
Dixon was a fellow of the CEPR from 1991–2001,  a member of the Royal Economic Society council (1996–2001), and a fellow of the Ces-ifo institute since 2000.  He has been on the Editorial Board of the Review of Economic Studies (1986–1993),  the Journal of Industrial Economics. He edited the Controversies section of the Economic Journal (1994-9) and has been the Chair of the Royal Economic Society Conference 1992. 
Dixon has a wide scope in terms of the areas of economics he has researched and published in and he has been described as one of Europe's leading economists.  The topics include:
Other topics include imperfect competition in macroeconomics, nominal rigidity. Most of his work is New Keynesian. Dixon supports the High Speed 2 development for the United Kingdom, and expressed his support in a Financial Times article on 6 January 2012, along with other leading economists.  He has contributed to The Times Higher Education Supplement multiple times regarding economics.  
He has authored a book Surfing Economics, which explores New Keynesian economics, the Natural Rate, Bounded Rationality, Social Learning and the meaning of Economics.
An oligopoly is a market structure in which a market or industry is dominated by a small number of large sellers or producers. Oligopolies often result from the desire to maximize profits, leading to collusion between companies. This reduces competition, leading to higher prices for consumers and lower wages for employees.
In economics, general equilibrium theory attempts to explain the behavior of supply, demand, and prices in a whole economy with several or many interacting markets, by seeking to prove that the interaction of demand and supply will result in an overall general equilibrium. General equilibrium theory contrasts to the theory of partial equilibrium, which analyzes a specific part of an economy while its other factors are held constant. In general equilibrium, constant influences are considered to be noneconomic, therefore, resulting beyond the natural scope of economic analysis. The noneconomic influences is possible to be non-constant when the economic variables change, and the prediction accuracy may depend on the independence of the economic factors.
New Keynesian economics is a school of macroeconomics that strives to provide microeconomic foundations for Keynesian economics. It developed partly as a response to criticisms of Keynesian macroeconomics by adherents of new classical macroeconomics.
This aims to be a complete article list of economics topics:
In economics and commerce, the Bertrand paradox — named after its creator, Joseph Bertrand — describes a situation in which two players (firms) reach a state of Nash equilibrium where both firms charge a price equal to marginal cost ("MC"). The paradox is that in models such as Cournot competition, an increase in the number of firms is associated with a convergence of prices to marginal costs. In these alternative models of oligopoly, a small number of firms earn positive profits by charging prices above cost. Suppose two firms, A and B, sell a homogeneous commodity, each with the same cost of production and distribution, so that customers choose the product solely on the basis of price. It follows that demand is infinitely price-elastic. Neither A nor B will set a higher price than the other because doing so would yield the entire market to their rival. If they set the same price, the companies will share both the market and profits.
The natural rate of unemployment is the name that was given to a key concept in the study of economic activity. Milton Friedman and Edmund Phelps, tackling this 'human' problem in the 1960s, both received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for their work, and the development of the concept is cited as a main motivation behind the prize. A simplistic summary of the concept is: 'The natural rate of unemployment, when an economy is in a steady state of "full employment", is the proportion of the workforce who are unemployed'. Put another way, this concept clarifies that the economic term "full employment" does not mean "zero unemployment". It represents the hypothetical unemployment rate consistent with aggregate production being at the "long-run" level. This level is consistent with aggregate production in the absence of various temporary frictions such as incomplete price adjustment in labor and goods markets. The natural rate of unemployment therefore corresponds to the unemployment rate prevailing under a classical view of determination of activity.
In economics, effective demand (ED) in a market is the demand for a product or service which occurs when purchasers are constrained in a different market. It contrasts with notional demand, which is the demand that occurs when purchasers are not constrained in any other market. In the aggregated market for goods in general, demand, notional or effective, is referred to as aggregate demand. The concept of effective supply parallels the concept of effective demand. The concept of effective demand or supply becomes relevant when markets do not continuously maintain equilibrium prices.
Bertrand competition is a model of competition used in economics, named after Joseph Louis François Bertrand (1822–1900). It describes interactions among firms (sellers) that set prices and their customers (buyers) that choose quantities at the prices set. The model was formulated in 1883 by Bertrand in a review of Antoine Augustin Cournot's book Recherches sur les Principes Mathématiques de la Théorie des Richesses (1838) in which Cournot had put forward the Cournot model. Cournot's model argued that each firm should maximise its profit by selecting a quantity level and then adjusting price level to sell that quantity. The outcome of the model equilibrium involved firms pricing above marginal cost; hence, the competitive price. In his review, Bertrand argued that each firm should instead maximise its profits by selecting a price level that undercuts its competitors' prices, when their prices exceed marginal cost. The model was not formalized by Bertrand; however, the idea was developed into a mathematical model by Francis Ysidro Edgeworth in 1889.
In economics, the menu cost is a cost that a firm incurs due to changing its prices. It is one microeconomic explanation of the price-stickiness of the macroeconomy put by New Keynesian economists. The term originated from the cost when restaurants print new menus to change the prices of items. However economists have extended its meaning to include the costs of changing prices more generally. Menu costs can be broadly classed into costs associated with informing the consumer, planning for and deciding on a price change and the impact of consumers potential reluctance to buy at the new price. Examples of menu costs include updating computer systems, re-tagging items, changing signage, printing new menus, mistake costs and hiring consultants to develop new pricing strategies. At the same time, companies can reduce menu costs by developing intelligent pricing strategies, thereby reducing the need for changes.
Martin Shubik was an American economist, who was Professor Emeritus of Mathematical Institutional Economics at Yale University.
The Kinked-Demand curve theory is an economic theory regarding oligopoly and monopolistic competition. Kinked demand was an initial attempt to explain sticky prices.
Dynamic stochastic general equilibrium modeling is a macroeconomic method which is often employed by monetary and fiscal authorities for policy analysis, explaining historical time-series data, as well as future forecasting purposes. DSGE econometric modelling applies general equilibrium theory and microeconomic principles in a tractable manner to postulate economic phenomena, such as economic growth and business cycles, as well as policy effects and market shocks.
Microfoundations are an effort to understand macroeconomic phenomena in terms of economic agents' behaviors and their interactions. Research in microfoundations explores the link between macroeconomic and microeconomic principles in order to explore the aggregate relationships in macroeconomic models.
New classical macroeconomics, sometimes simply called new classical economics, is a school of thought in macroeconomics that builds its analysis entirely on a neoclassical framework. Specifically, it emphasizes the importance of rigorous foundations based on microeconomics, especially rational expectations.
Macroeconomic theory has its origins in the study of business cycles and monetary theory. In general, early theorists believed monetary factors could not affect real factors such as real output. John Maynard Keynes attacked some of these "classical" theories and produced a general theory that described the whole economy in terms of aggregates rather than individual, microeconomic parts. Attempting to explain unemployment and recessions, he noticed the tendency for people and businesses to hoard cash and avoid investment during a recession. He argued that this invalidated the assumptions of classical economists who thought that markets always clear, leaving no surplus of goods and no willing labor left idle.
Robert Wayne Clower was an American economist. He is credited with having largely created the field of stock-flow analysis in economics and with seminal works on the microfoundations of monetary theory and macroeconomics.
Don Patinkin was an American-born Israeli monetary economist, and the President of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Disequilibrium macroeconomics is a tradition of research centered on the role of disequilibrium in economics. This approach is also known as non-Walrasian theory, equilibrium with rationing, the non-market clearing approach, and non-tâtonnement theory. Early work in the area was done by Don Patinkin, Robert W. Clower, and Axel Leijonhufvud. Their work was formalized into general disequilibrium models, which were very influential in the 1970s. American economists had mostly abandoned these models by the late 1970s, but French economists continued work in the tradition and developed fixprice models.
In microeconomics, the Bertrand–Edgeworth model of price-setting oligopoly looks at what happens when there is a homogeneous product where there is a limit to the output of firms which are willing and able to sell at a particular price. This differs from the Bertrand competition model where it is assumed that firms are willing and able to meet all demand. The limit to output can be considered as a physical capacity constraint which is the same at all prices, or to vary with price under other assumptions.
Stephanie Schmitt-Grohé is a German economist who currently works as a professor of economics at Columbia University. Schmitt-Grohé's research has been focused on macroeconomics as well as fiscal and monetary policy in open and closed economies. In 2004 she was awarded the Bernacer prize, for her research of monetary stabilization policies.
Chapter 8 of Surfing Economics