Hybla Heraea

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Hybla Heraea or Hybla Hera (Greek: Ὕβλα Ἡραία or Ὕβλα Ἥρα) was an ancient city of Sicily; its site is at the modern località of Ibla, in the comune of Ragusa. There were at least three (and possibly as many as five) cities [1] named "Hybla" in ancient accounts of Sicily which are often confounded with each other, and which it is sometimes very difficult to distinguish. [2]

Greek language language spoken in Greece, Cyprus and Southern Albania

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

Sicily Island in the Mediterranean and region of Italy

Sicily is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 20 regions of Italy. It is one of the five Italian autonomous regions, in Southern Italy along with surrounding minor islands, officially referred to as Regione Siciliana.

A località is an inhabited place in Italy that is not accorded a more significant distinction in administrative law such as a frazione, comune, municipio, circoscrizione, or quartiere. The word is cognate to English locality. The Italian National Institute of Statistics defines località abitata as an "area of more or less size, normally known by its own name, on which are situated either grouped or scattered houses."



Hybla Heraea is called by Stephanus of Byzantium "Hybla the Less or Hybla the Least" (̔́̂Υβλα ἡ ἐλάττων), in distinction to Hybla Major and Hybla Minor, and surnamed Hera or Heraea (Ἥρα, Ἡραία). Of the cities of Sicily bearing the name "Hybla", it is much the least known from ancient sources. No allusion to it is found in Pausanias, where he is distinguishing Hybla Major from Hybla Minor, nor in any of the geographers: but we find in the Itineraries a town of Hybla, placed on the line of road from Syracuse to Agrigentum (modern Agrigento, which is certainly distinct from both Hybla Major and Minor (and from Megara Hyblaea and Hybla Gereatis which may equate with them), and can therefore be no other than the third Hybla of Stephanus. It was situated, according to the Itineraries, 18 miles from Acrae (modern Palazzolo). (Itin. Ant. p. 89; Tab. Peut.). A passage in which Cicero speaks of a town called "Hera", in Sicily (ad Att. ii. 1. § 5), has been thought to refer to this town; but the reading is very doubtful.

Stephenus or Stephan of Byzantium, was the author of an important geographical dictionary entitled Ethnica (Ἐθνικά). Of the dictionary itself only meagre fragments survive, but we possess an epitome compiled by one Hermolaus, not otherwise identified.

Hybla Major or Hybla Maior or Hybla Magna – the "Greater Hybla" – was a used to identify the most important of the ancient cities named Hybla in Sicily.

Pausanias (geographer) 2nd-century AD Greek geographer

Pausanias was a Greek traveler and geographer of the second-century AD, who lived in the time of Roman emperors Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius. He is famous for his Description of Greece, a lengthy work that describes ancient Greece from his first-hand observations. This work provides crucial information for making links between classical literature and modern archaeology. Andrew Stewart assesses him as:

A careful, pedestrian writer...interested not only in the grandiose or the exquisite but in unusual sights and obscure ritual. He is occasionally careless or makes unwarranted inferences, and his guides or even his own notes sometimes mislead him, yet his honesty is unquestionable, and his value without par.


  1. The circumstance that there were so many towns called Hybla in Sicily probably arose from the fact mentioned by Pausanias, that there was a local divinity of the name. (Paus. v. 23. § 6.)
  2. William Smith, Britain's foremost classicist of the 19th century, begins to describe Hybla Major with an admixture of locational and historic information from both Hybla Gereatis and Megara Hyblaea. Caution should therefore be used when assuming reference to "Hybla" in an ancient source refers to this city.

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Megara Hyblaea

Megara Hyblaea – perhaps identical with Hybla Major – is an ancient Greek colony in Sicily, situated near Augusta on the east coast, 20 kilometres (12 mi) north-northwest of Syracuse, Italy, on the deep bay formed by the Xiphonian promontory. There were at least three cities named "Hybla" in ancient accounts of Sicily which are often confounded with each other, and among which it is sometimes very difficult to distinguish.

Kineta Place in Greece

Kineta is a beach town in West Attica, Greece. It is part of the municipality of Megara.

Pagae or Pagai, or Pegae or Pegai was a town of ancient Megaris, on the Alcyonian or Corinthian Gulf. According to some sources of greek mythology Pagae had been the home town of Tereus. It was the harbour of Megaris on the western coast, and was the most important place in the country next to the capital. According to Strabo it was situated on the narrowest part of the Megaric isthmus, the distance from Pagae to Nisaea being 120 stadia. When the Megarians joined Athens in 455 BCE, the Athenians garrisoned Pagae, and its harbour was of service to them in sending out an expedition against the northern coast of Peloponnesus. The Athenians retained possession of Pagae a short time after Megara revolted from them in 454 BCE; but, by the thirty years' truce made in the same year, they surrendered the place to the Megarians. At one period of the Peloponnesian War (424 BCE) we find Pagae held by the aristocratical exiles from Megara. Pagae continued to exist till a late period, and under the Roman emperors was a place of sufficient importance to coin its own money. Strabo calls it τὸ τῶν Μεγαρέων φρούριον. Pausanias visited in the 2nd century and saw there a chapel of the hero Aegialeus, who fell at Glisas in the second expedition of the Argives against Thebes, but who was buried at this place. He also saw near the road to Pagae, a rock covered with marks of arrows, which were supposed to have been made by a body of the Persian cavalry of Mardonius, who in the night had discharged their arrows at the rock under the impulse of Artemis, mistaking it for the enemy. In commemoration of this event, there was a brazen statue of Artemis Soteira at Pagae. From 193 BCE Pagae was a member of the Achaean League. Pagae is also mentioned in other ancient sources, including Ptolemy, Stephanus of Byzantium, Pomponius Mela, Pliny the Elder, Hierocles, and the Tabula Peutingeriana, where it is called Pache.

Phigalia or Phigaleia or Phigalea, also known as Phialia, is an ancient Greek city in the south-west corner of ancient Arcadia, close to the frontiers of Messenia, and upon the right bank of the Neda, about halfway between the sources and the mouth of this river. It is also the present name of a nearby modern village, known up to the early 20th century as Pavlitsa (Παύλιτσα). In modern geography it is located in southeastern Elis. It is situated on an elevated rocky site, among some of the highest mountains in the Peloponnese, the most conspicuous being Mt Cotylium and Mt Elaeum; the identification of the latter is uncertain.

Heraea or Heraia can refer to:

Heraea or Heraia was the most important town of ancient Arcadia on the Lower Alpheius. It was situated near the frontiers of Elis, and on the high road from Arcadia to Olympia. Its territory was called the Heraeatis or Heraiatis (Ἡραιᾶτις). According to Greek mythology it was said to have been founded by Heraeus, a son of Lycaon, and to have been called originally Sologorgus. At an early period the Heraeans concluded a treaty with the Eleians for mutual protection and support for one hundred years; the original of which treaty, engraved on a bronze tablet in the old Peloponnesian dialect, was brought from Olympia, and is now in the British Museum. This treaty is placed about the 50th Olympiad, or 580 BCE, since it belongs to a time when the Eleians exercised an undisputed supremacy over the dependent districts of Pisatis and Triphylia; and the Heraeans consequently were anxious to avail themselves of their support.

Car or Kar is a name in Greek mythology that refers to two characters who may or may not be one and the same.

Hybla Gereatis, is the name of an ancient city of Sicily, located on the southern slope of Mount Etna, not far from the river Symaethus, in the modern comune of Paternò. There were at least three cities named "Hybla" in ancient accounts of Sicily which are often confounded with each other, and which it is sometimes very difficult to distinguish.

Megara is an ancient Greek city in the region of Megaris in west Attica.

Aliphera or Alipheira (Ἀλίφειρα) was a town of ancient Arcadia, in the district Parrhasia, said to have been built by Alipherus, a son of Lycaon. It was situated upon a steep and lofty hill, 40 stadia south of the Alpheius, and the same distance from Heraea, and near the frontiers of Elis. It was a member of the Arcadian League. A large number of its inhabitants removed to Megalopolis upon the foundation of the latter city in 371 BCE; but it still continued to be a place of some importance. It was ceded to the Eleans by Lydiades, when tyrant of Megalopolis (224 BCE); but it was taken from them by Philip V of Macedon in the Social War, in 219 BCE after a long siege, and restored to Megalopolis. Later it joined the Achaean League and minted its own currency. Later, the city was subject to the Romans. When Pausanias visited it in the 2nd century, the town contained temples of Asclepius and Athena, and a celebrated bronze statue by Hypatodorus of the latter goddess, who was said to have been born here.

Psophis human settlement

Psophis was an ancient Greek city in the northwest end of Arcadia, bounded on the north by Arcadia, and on the west by Elis. It was located near the modern village Psofida, part of the municipality Kalavryta.

Alalcomenes or Alalcomeneus was in Greek mythology, a Boeotian autochthon who was believed to have given the name to the Boeotian town of Alalcomenae. Alalcomeneus was also said to have brought-up/ tutored Athena, who was in some traditions said to have been born in that town, and to have been the first who introduced her worship. According to Plutarch, he advised Zeus to have a figure of oak-wood dressed in bridal attire, and carried about amidst hymnal songs, in order to change the anger of Hera into jealousy. The name of the wife of Alalcomenes was Athenaïs, and that of his son, Glaucopus, both of which refer to the goddess Athena.

Nonacris or Nonakris was a town of ancient Arcadia in the region of Pheneatis northwest of Pheneus, situated in what is now Achaea, southern Greece.

Nisaea or Nisaia was the main port of ancient Megara; the port was sheltered by a natural island called Minoa. According to Thucydides, the distance of the port from Megara itself was about eight Greek stadia. On the road between Megara and Nisaea was a temple of Demeter Malophorus.

Bulis or Boulis or Bulea or Bouleia (Βούλεια) was a town of ancient Phocis, on the frontiers of Boeotia, situated upon a hill, and distant 7 stadia from the Crissaean Gulf, 80 stadia from Thisbe, and 100 from Anticyra. It was founded by the Dorians under Bulon, and for this reason appears to have belonged to neither the Phocian nor the Boeotian Confederacy. Pausanias, at least, did not regard it as a Phocian town, since he describes it as bordering upon Phocis. But Stephanus of Byzantium, Pliny the Elder, and Ptolemy all assign it to Phocis. Near Phocis there flowed into the sea a torrent called Heracleius, and there was also a fountain named Saunium. In the time of Pausanias more than half the population was employed in fishing for the murex, which yielded the purple dye. Pausanias noted various religious buildings at Bulis: sanctuaries of Artemis and Dionysus, with wooden images, although he also mentioned that a divinity named Megisto was worshiped, which could be an epithet of Zeus. The harbour of Bulis, which Pausanias describes as distant 7 stadia from the city, is called Mychus (Μυχός) by Strabo.

Nisa was a city in ancient Megaris mentioned by Strabo who wrote that its inhabitants had emigrated to form a colony near the Mount Citheron, and did not exist in his time.

Melaeneae or Melaineai, or Melaenae or Melainai (Μελαιναί), was a town of ancient Arcadia, in the territory of Heraea, and on the road from Heraea to Megalopolis. It was distant 40 stadia from Buphagium. Pausanias says that it was founded by Melaeneus, the son of Lycaon, but that it was deserted in his time and overflowed with water.


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William Smith (lexicographer) English lexicographer

Sir William Smith was an English lexicographer. He also made advances in the teaching of Greek and Latin in schools.

<i>Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography</i> classical dictionary

The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, first published in 1854, was the last of a series of classical dictionaries edited by the English scholar William Smith (1813–1893), which included as sister works A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities and the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. As declared by Smith in the Preface: "The Dictionary of Geography ... is designed mainly to illustrate the Greek and Roman writers, and to enable a diligent student to read them in the most profitable manner". The book stays up to the description: in two massive volumes the dictionary provides detailed coverage of all the important countries, regions, towns, cities, geographical features that occur in Greek and Roman literature, without forgetting those mentioned solely in the Bible. The work was last reissued in 2005.