Iğdır

Last updated
Iğdır
City & Municipality
Igdir at night.jpg
Iğdır at night
Turkey adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Iğdır
Coordinates: 39°55′15″N44°02′40″E / 39.92083°N 44.04444°E / 39.92083; 44.04444 Coordinates: 39°55′15″N44°02′40″E / 39.92083°N 44.04444°E / 39.92083; 44.04444
Country Turkey
Province Iğdır
Government
  MayorMurat Yikit (BDP)
Area
[1]
  District1,431.17 km2 (552.58 sq mi)
Elevation
850 m (2,790 ft)
Population
 (2012) [2]
   Urban
82,656
  District
128,976
  District density90/km2 (230/sq mi)
Post code
76000
Website www.igdir.bel.tr
The entrance of Igdir city Igdir Tabela.jpg
The entrance of Iğdır city

Iğdır (Turkish [ˈɯːdɯɾ] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Armenian : ԻգդիրIgdir, also Ցոլակերտ, Tsolakert), is the capital of Iğdır Province in the Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. The highest mountain in Turkey, Ağrı Dağı or Mount Ararat, is partly in Iğdır province.

Turkish language Turkic language mainly spoken and used in Turkey

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, and sometimes known as Turkey Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around ten to fifteen million native speakers in Southeast Europe and sixty to sixty-five million native speakers in Western Asia. Outside Turkey, significant smaller groups of speakers exist in Germany, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Northern Cyprus, Greece, the Caucasus, and other parts of Europe and Central Asia. Cyprus has requested that the European Union add Turkish as an official language, even though Turkey is not a member state.

Armenian language Indo-European language

The Armenian language is an Indo-European language that is the only language in the Armenian branch. It is the official language of Armenia as well as the de facto Republic of Artsakh. Historically being spoken throughout the Armenian Highlands, today, Armenian is widely spoken throughout the Armenian diaspora. Armenian is written in its own writing system, the Armenian alphabet, introduced in 405 AD by Mesrop Mashtots.

Iğdır Province Province of Turkey in Northeast Anatolia

Iğdır Province is a province in eastern Turkey, located along the borders with Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran. Its adjacent provinces are Kars to the northwest and Ağrı to the west and south. It occupies an area of 3,587 km2 and population of 184,418, it was 168,634 in 2000. It was created from southeastern part of former Kars Province in 1993.

Contents

Etymology

The city and province are named after a western Turkish clan called Iğdır that belonged to a branch of the Oghuz Turks. [3] [4] They spread throughout Anatolia and there are several towns and villages named Iğdır in Eskişehir Province and other parts of Turkey today. [3] The city in Armenian is called Իգդիր, Igdir, also Ցոլակերտ, Tsolakert, after an ancient settlement nearby.

Oghuz Turks

The Oghuz, Oguz or Ghuzz Turks were western Turkic people who spoke the Oghuz languages from the Common branch of Turkic language family. In the 8th century, they formed a tribal confederation conventionally named the Oghuz Yabgu State in central Asia. The name Oghuz is a Common Turkic word for "tribe". Byzantine sources call the Oghuz the Uzes. By the 10th century, Islamic sources were calling them Muslim Turkmens, as opposed to shamanist or Buddhist. By the 12th century this term had passed into Byzantine usage and the Oghuzes were overwhelmingly Muslim.

Anatolia Asian part of Turkey

Anatolia, also known as Asia Minor, Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Armenian Highlands to the east and the Aegean Sea to the west. The Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean seas through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the European mainland.

Eskişehir Province Province of Turkey in Central Anatolia

Eskişehir Province is a province in northwestern Turkey. Its adjacent provinces are Bilecik to the northwest, Kütahya to the west, Afyon to the southwest, Konya to the south, Ankara to the east, and Bolu to the north. The provincial capital is Eskişehir. Most of the province is laid down in Central Anatolia Region. Northern parts of Mihalıççık district and ones of Mihalgazi and Sarıcakaya are located in the Black Sea Region and one of them belong to the Aegean Region.

History

Iğdır went by the Armenian name of Tsolakert during the Middle Ages. [5] When the Spanish traveler Ruy González de Clavijo passed through this region in the early 15th century, he stayed a night in a castle he called Egida, located at the foot of Mount Ararat. Clavijo describes it as being built upon a rock and ruled by a woman, the widow of a brigand Timurlane had put to death. [6] Because modern Iğdır has no such rock, and is a considerable distance from the Ararat foothills, it is believed that medieval Iğdır was located at a different site, at a place also known as Tsolakert, now called Taşburun. Russian excavations there at the end of the 19th century discovered the ruins of houses and what was identified as a church, as well as traces of fortifications. The settlement may have been abandoned after an earthquake in 1664. [7] In 1555 the town became a part of the Safavid Empire, remaining under Persian rule (with brief military occupations by the Ottomans in 1514, between 1534–35, 1548–49, 1554–55, 1578–1605, 1635–36 and 1722–46) until it fell into the hands of the Russian Empire after the Russo-Persian War of 1826-1828. [5]

Middle Ages Period of European history from the 5th to the 15th century

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages.

Ruy González de Clavijo Spanish traveller and writer

Ruy González de Clavijo was a Castilian traveller and writer. In 1403-05 Clavijo was the ambassador of Henry III of Castile to the court of Timur, founder and ruler of the Timurid Empire. A diary of the journey, perhaps based on detailed notes kept while traveling, was later published in Spanish in 1582 and in English in 1859.

Ottoman Empire Former empire in Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa

The Ottoman Empire, historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.

Modern history

The Surmali uyezd in 1903 Surmalu uyezd.jpg
The Surmali uyezd in 1903

Iğdır was taken by the Russian Empire from Persia after the latter's defeat in the Russo-Persian War of 1826-1828. It was organized as part of the Armenian Oblast in 1828 and made a part of the Georgia-Imeretia Governorate in 1840, and then the Surmalu Uyezd of the Erivan Governorate in 1850. According to the Russian family lists accounts from 1886, of the total 71,066 inhabitants of the districts 34,351 were Azerbaijanis (48.3%, mentioned as 'Tatars' in the source), 22,096 Armenians (31.1%) and 14,619 Kurds (20.6%). [8] Under Russian rule, two primary schools, one for boys and the other for girls, and three churches were opened and 100 Armenian families were allowed to move to Iğdır. The town's population rose to 10,000 in 1914 and largely busied itself with agriculture and commerce. [5]

Russian Empire former country, 1721–1917

The Russian Empire was an empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

Armenian Oblast Place in Oblast, Russia

The Armenian Oblast or Armenian Province was an oblast (province) of the Caucasus Viceroyalty of the Russian Empire that existed from 1828 to 1840. It corresponded to most of present-day central Armenia, the Iğdır Province of Turkey, and the Nakhichevan exclave of Azerbaijan. Its administrative center was Erivan (Yerevan).

Erivan Governorate Place in Governorate, Russia

Erivan Governorate was one of the guberniyas of the Caucasus Viceroyalty of the Russian Empire, with its centre in Erivan. Its area was 27,830 sq. kilometres. It roughly corresponded to what is now most of central Armenia, the Iğdır Province of Turkey, and the Nakhichevan exclave of Azerbaijan. At the end of the 19th century, it bordered the Tiflis Governorate to the north, the Elisabethpol Governorate to the east, the Kars Oblast to the west, and Persia and the Ottoman Empire to the south.

Following the Russian Revolution of October 1917, the area came under the control of a temporary administrative committee created by the three main ethnic groups in the Caucasus. Though it attempted to negotiate a truce with the Ottoman Empire, Ottoman forces launched an eastward offensive and took Iğdır on May 20, 1918. They occupied it until the signing of the Armistice of Mudros in November 1918. The Republic of Armenia then assumed control over Iğdır. The Armenian population suffered heavily during the grueling winter of 1918-19, as famine, disease and the cold killed many. [9] [10] In May 1919, its status was elevated to that of a city. [11]

Armistice of Mudros peace treaty

The Armistice of Mudros, concluded on 30 October 1918, ended the hostilities, at noon the next day, in the Middle Eastern theatre between the Ottoman Empire and the Allies of World War I. It was signed by the Ottoman Minister of Marine Affairs Rauf Bey and the British Admiral Somerset Arthur Gough-Calthorpe, on board HMS Agamemnon in Moudros harbor on the Greek island of Lemnos.

First Republic of Armenia former country

The First Republic of Armenia, officially known at the time of its existence as the Democratic Republic of Armenia, was the first modern Armenian state since the loss of Armenian statehood in the Middle Ages.

Based on the boundaries drawn by US State Department in November 1920, Iğdır was envisaged as an integral part of the Armenian republic. However, in September 1920 the Government of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey led by Mustafa Kemal launched a war to eliminate the republic and overran Iğdır. [12] Turkish General Kâzım Karabekir commanded the armies but his forces were initially unable to take Iğdır due to strong Armenian resistance. [13] However, within a few days, on October 20, 1920, the Turkish army managed to drive the Armenian forces out of Iğdır. [14] According to official Turkish documents, after their defeat in the Shahtahti area, Armenian forces abandoned Iğdır. They burned the Markara Bridge which spanned the Araxes river and retreated to the northern bank on November 13, 1920. Turkey annexed the region of Iğdır after the conclusion of several peace treaties, and its territorial gains were mainly formalized under the 1921 Treaty of Kars.

Grand National Assembly of Turkey parliament of Turkey

The Grand National Assembly of Turkey, usually referred to simply as the TBMM or Parliament, is the unicameral Turkish legislature. It is the sole body given the legislative prerogatives by the Turkish Constitution. It was founded in Ankara on 23 April 1920 in the midst of the National Campaign. The parliament was fundamental in the efforts of Mareşal Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, 1st President of the Republic of Turkey, and his colleagues to found a new state out of the remnants of the Ottoman Empire.

Turkey Republic in Western Asia

Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located mainly in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. Istanbul is the largest city, but more central Ankara is the capital. Approximately 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority; the size of the Kurdish population is a subject of dispute with estimates placing the figure at anywhere from 12 to 25 per cent of the population.

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Founder of the Republic of Turkey

Kemal Atatürk, commonly referred to as Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, was a Turkish field marshal (Mareşal), revolutionary statesman, author, and founder of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938. His dictatorship undertook sweeping liberal reforms, which modernized Turkey into a secular, industrial nation. Ideologically a secularist and nationalist, his policies and theories became known as Kemalism.

In the early years of the Republic of Turkey, Iğdır was a district of the province of Bayazıt. It was made a part of the Kars Province in 1934 and remained part of it until it became the seat of the newly formed Iğdır Province on 27 May 1992. [15]

Geography

The city of Iğdır sits on a plain at a lower altitude than most of Turkey's eastern provinces. This allows agricultural production including apples, tomatoes, cucumbers, peaches, pears, sugar beet, watermelons and melons. However, the most famous produce of Iğdır are cotton and apricots.

Climate

Iğdır has a temperate cold semi-arid continental climate (Köppen climate classification: BSk) with hot and dry summers and cold and snowy winters. Iğdır is one of the driest cities in Turkey.

Climate data for Iğdır (1960-2012)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)18.3
(64.9)
18.4
(65.1)
27.0
(80.6)
33.4
(92.1)
35.0
(95.0)
38.0
(100.4)
41.5
(106.7)
42.0
(107.6)
37.8
(100.0)
33.0
(91.4)
25.2
(77.4)
22.2
(72.0)
42.0
(107.6)
Average high °C (°F)2.1
(35.8)
5.2
(41.4)
12.7
(54.9)
19.6
(67.3)
24.4
(75.9)
29.3
(84.7)
33.3
(91.9)
33.0
(91.4)
28.8
(83.8)
21.3
(70.3)
12.9
(55.2)
5.2
(41.4)
19.0
(66.2)
Daily mean °C (°F)−3.3
(26.1)
−0.5
(31.1)
6.4
(43.5)
13.1
(55.6)
17.7
(63.9)
22.1
(71.8)
25.8
(78.4)
25.1
(77.2)
19.9
(67.8)
12.7
(54.9)
5.7
(42.3)
−0.1
(31.8)
12.0
(53.7)
Average low °C (°F)−7.9
(17.8)
−5.5
(22.1)
0.3
(32.5)
6.4
(43.5)
10.6
(51.1)
14.4
(57.9)
18.1
(64.6)
17.4
(63.3)
12.3
(54.1)
6.2
(43.2)
0.3
(32.5)
−4.3
(24.3)
5.7
(42.2)
Record low °C (°F)−27.2
(−17.0)
−28.0
(−18.4)
−22.2
(−8.0)
−7.6
(18.3)
0.1
(32.2)
2.4
(36.3)
8.0
(46.4)
8.6
(47.5)
1.6
(34.9)
−7.0
(19.4)
−13.5
(7.7)
−30.2
(−22.4)
−30.2
(−22.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches)13.6
(0.54)
17.2
(0.68)
20.7
(0.81)
37.3
(1.47)
47.9
(1.89)
33.2
(1.31)
14.9
(0.59)
10.5
(0.41)
11.1
(0.44)
24.6
(0.97)
16.8
(0.66)
12.8
(0.50)
260.6
(10.27)
Average precipitation days6.36.87.211.814.810.65.94.23.98.36.46.292.4
Average relative humidity (%)75715452595248485561687460
Mean monthly sunshine hours 80.6112.0167.4180.0235.6288.0316.2303.8261.0198.4132.077.52,352.5
Source #1: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü [16]
Source #2: Weatherbase [17]

Architecture

On a peninsula close to the closed border with Armenia, and currently within a military zone, near the village of Sürmeli, stands the ruins of the medieval city of Surmari, with a citadel whose surviving walls date from 1224. A ruinous 13th century Armenian caravanserai known as the "Caravanserai of Zor" is another historical structure near Iğdır. [18]

The Genocide Memorial

Turkish Martyrs' Memorial and Museum IgdirGenocideMuseum.jpg
Turkish Martyrs' Memorial and Museum

In August 1997, construction started on the "Iğdır Soykırım Anıt-Müzesi" (Iğdır Genocide Memorial and Museum). Turkish authorities erected the monument to commemorate massacres of Turks by Armenians during World War I and the Turkish–Armenian War during the Turkish War of Independence. The Turkish argument states that "A need was expressed for the erection of this monument and this opinion was stated as follows in the final declaration of the International Symposium on Historical Realities and Armenians, held in Iğdır from 24 to 26 April 1965. The Symposium resolved that a monument of martyrs should be erected in Iğdır and a cemetery for martyrs should be established in Oba Village in order to eternalise the memories of more than one million Turks that fell in Eastern Anatolia and to give a similar answer to those declaring 24 April as a genocide day and to the monuments erected in many places of the world for the alleged genocide perpetrated against the Armenians." [19]

It was opened on October 5, 1999 by Turkish Minister of State Ramazan Mirzaoğlu. Its height from ground level is 43.5 metres. The monument's design contains symbols related to Turkish self-identity, history, and legends. The upper structure consists of five upright swords, their points touching to resemble Mount Ararat. On the hilt of the swords are a series of reliefs. Beneath the monument are a series of rooms intended to house a museum. The granite for the monument's swords was brought from China and other materials, such as marble, granite, and ceramics, were brought from other regions of Turkey. [19]

Its construction is explained as a counter-argument by the Turks that Armenians also perpetrated massacres against Turks. [20]

Culture

Iğdır's culture is part of the larger culture of Turkey. The rising agricultural production and the opening of a border gate with Nakhchivan in 1992 have enabled the town to be livelier and wealthier than its neighbours in the generally impoverished eastern Turkey. There are many cafes and restaurants. The best-known dish is a meat stew called bozbaş. [21]

Mount Ararat as seen from Igdir Igdirdan Agri Dagi.jpg
Mount Ararat as seen from Iğdır

Media

Iğdır has 12 local daily and weekly newspapers. [22] [ page needed ] The most prominent of these is Yeşil Iğdır which has been published since 1 September 1955.

Economy

The main economic activities in Iğdır are the commerce of agricultural and animal products. [15]

The city of Iğdır is located between Kars and Ağrı. Despite the fact that it has three strategically important neighbours, the border gate to Armenia is closed and there is no direct access to Iran, therefore this situation diminishes economic possibilities.

About 70% percent of Mount Ararat's area lies within Iğdır's borders, however the investments for developing tourism in Mt. Ararat is paid to Ağrı Municipality.

Demographics

According to the Russian family lists accounts from 1886, of the total 71,066 inhabitants of the districts 34,351 were Azerbaijanis (48.3%, mentioned as 'Tatars' in the source), 22,096 Armenians (31.1%) and 14,619 Kurds (20.6%). [8] According to the Russian Empire Census in 1897 Iğdır had a population of 4,680, of which 3,934 (84%) were Armenians, and 559 (12%) were Russians. [23]

Today, Iğdır has a mixed population of Azerbaijanis (who form the majority) [24] [25] Kurds and Turks. [26] The spring festival Nowruz is widely celebrated in Iğdır.

Igdir as seen from Mount Ararat Agri Dagi'ndan Igdir Sehri.jpg
Iğdır as seen from Mount Ararat
Iğdır centrum population
200775,927
200059,880
199744,334
199035,858
198529,460
198024,352
197529,542
197021,420

Transport

Transport to Iğdır is via roads or air. Iğdır Airport, opened in 2012, serves the city with internal flights to Istanbul and Ankara. Regular bus services connect the city to major national and regional centres. There is, as of 2016, no rail transport to Iğdır, but it will be a stop on the Nakhchivan-Kars railway when it is completed. [27]

Notable people

International relations

Twin towns — sister cities

Iğdır is twinned with:

Notes

  1. "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
  2. "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
  3. 1 2 "IGDIR". Enyclopaedia Iranica. 15 December 2004. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
  4. "Tarihi". igdir.gov.tr (in Turkish). TC Iğdır Valiliği. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
  5. 1 2 3 (in Armenian) Anon. «Իգդիր» [Igdir]. Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia. Yerevan: Armenian Academy of Sciences, 1978, vol. 4, p. 309.
  6. Ruy González de Clavijo. The Broadway Travellers: Embassy to Tamerlane: 1403-1406. Trans. Guy le Strange. London: Routledge, 2004, p. 76.
  7. Sinclair, Thomas A. Eastern Turkey: An Architectural and Archaeological Survey, Volume 1. London: Pindar Press, 1987, p. 406-409.
  8. 1 2 ‹See Tfd› (in Russian) Свод статистических данных о населении Закавказского края, извлечённых из посемейных списков 1886 года . Tiflis, 1893.
  9. Hovannisian, Richard G. (1971). The Republic of Armenia: The First Year, 1918-1919, Vol. I. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 128–129. ISBN   0-520-01984-9.
  10. Chater, Melville. "The Land Of The Stalking Death: a Journey Through Starving Armenia on an American Relief Train." National Geographic 36 (November 1919). Retrieved July 24, 2009.
  11. Hovannisian. Republic of Armenia, Vol. I, p. 449, note 3.
  12. Hovannisian, Richard G. (1996). The Republic of Armenia, Vol. IV: Between Crescent and Sickle, Partition and Sovietization. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 249–250, 284. ISBN   0-520-08804-2.
  13. ‹See Tfd› (in Turkish)Genelkurmay Askerî Tarih ve Stratejik Etüt Başkanlığı Yayınları, Türk İstiklâl Harbi IIIncü Cilt: Doğu Cephesi (1919-1921). Ankara: Genelkurmay Basım Evi, 1995, p. 221.
  14. British Documents on Foreign Affairs--Reports and Papers from the Foreign Office Confidential Print: From the First to the Second World War. The Soviet Union, 1917-1939 , Volume 4, p. 388.
  15. 1 2 "Iğdır". İslam Ansiklopedisi . 19. Türk Diyanet Vakfı. 1999. pp. 81–82.
  16. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-04-30. Retrieved 2011-03-20.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  17. "Igdir, Turkey Travel Weather Averages (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase.
  18. Caravansarai of Zor. VirtualAni.org.
  19. 1 2 "Igdir Genocide Monument and Museum."
  20. Hofmann, Tessa. "Armenians in Turkey: A Critical Assessment of the situation of the Armenian Minority in the Turkish Republic." Forum of Armenian Associations in Europe. October 2002, p. 32.
  21. "Sürmeli Çukurda Iğdır", Ziya Zakir Acar, 2002
  22. Her Yönüyle Iğdır", Ziya Zakir Acar, 2004
  23. ‹See Tfd› (in Russian)Первая всеобщая перепись населения Российской Империи, 1897 г. (Erivanskaya Guberniya), N. A. Troynitskii, Saint Petersburg, 1904, p. 144.
  24. "Azerbaijanis Flock to Turkish Town". Institute for War and Peace Reporting. Institute for War and Peace Reporting. 9 November 2007. A majority of Igdir’s 60,000 inhabitants are now Azerbaijani.
  25. Population policy in Turkey, Erhard Franz, page 293
  26. ‹See Tfd› (in Turkish) Yilmaer, Esat. Sevilen valiyle ‘savaş’ MHP'ye kaybettirmiş." Hürriyet . August 5, 2002.
  27. "Iğdır'ın Sosyoekonomik Durumu" (PDF). Turkish Agency on the Development of Border Areas. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
  28. Head of Turkey-Azerbaijan association becomes deputy of Turkish parliament Archived 2014-10-27 at the Wayback Machine
  29. Azeri Elected to Turkish Parliament. Day.az. 13 June 2011.

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Islam began to make inroads into the Armenian Plateau during the seventh century. Arab, and later Kurdish, tribes began to settle in Armenia following the first Arab invasions and played a considerable role in the political and social history of Armenia. With the Seljuk invasions of the eleventh and twelfth centuries, the Turkic element eventually superseded that of the Arab and Kurdish. With the establishment of the Persian Safavid Dynasty, Afsharid Dynasty, Zand Dynasty and Qajar Dynasty, Armenia became an integral part of the Shia Persian world, while still maintaining a relatively independent Christian identity. The pressures brought upon the imposition of foreign rule by a succession of Muslim states forced many lead Armenians in Anatolia and what is today Armenia to convert to Islam and assimilate into the Muslim community. Many Armenians were also forced to convert to Islam, on the penalty of death, during the years of the Armenian Genocide.

Turkish–Armenian War conflict during the Turkish War of Independence

The Turkish–Armenian war, known in Turkey as the Eastern Operation or Eastern Front of the Turkish War of Independence, refers to a conflict in the autumn of 1920 between the First Republic of Armenia and the Turkish nationalists, following the signing of the Treaty of Sèvres. After an initial Armenian occupation of what is now eastern Turkey, the army of the Turkish National Movement under Kâzım Karabekir reversed the Armenian gains and further invaded and defeated Armenia, also recapturing territory which the Ottoman Empire had lost to the Russian Empire in 1855 and 1878.

Aralık Place in Iğdır, Turkey

Aralık is a town and district of the Iğdır Province in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. It is the location of the Aras corridor, which connects Turkey with Azerbaijan. Part of the district forms the international border between Turkey and Armenia, which has been closed since 1993, and the border between Turkey and Iran. The town of Aralık is mainly inhabited by Azerbaijanis.

Tuzluca Place in Iğdır, Turkey

Tuzluca is a town and district of the Iğdır Province in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. It was traditionally part of Kars until the creation of predominantly Kurdish Iğdır province in 1993, known as Kulp under Russian administration, prior to the Treaty of Kars. The northern portion of the district forms part of the international border between Turkey and Armenia.

Wilsonian Armenia

Wilsonian Armenia refers to the boundary configuration of the First Republic of Armenia in the Treaty of Sèvres, as drawn by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson's Department of State. The Treaty of Sèvres was a peace treaty that had been drafted and signed between the Western Allied Powers and the defeated government of the Ottoman Empire in August 1920. The treaty was never signed by the United States of America. The treaty was signed but never ratified by the Ottoman Empire.

The Armenian–Azerbaijani War, which started after the Russian Revolution, was a series of conflicts in 1918, then from 1920–22 that occurred during the brief independence of Armenia and Azerbaijan and afterwards. Most of the conflicts did not have a principal pattern with a standard armed structure. The Ottoman Empire and British Empire were involved in different capacities: the Ottoman Empire left the region after the Armistice of Mudros but British influence continued until Dunsterforce was pulled back in the 1920s. The conflicts involved civilians in the disputed districts of Kazakh-Shamshadin, Zanghezur, Nakhchivan and Karabakh. The use of guerrilla and semi-guerrilla operations was the main reason for the high civilian casualties, which occurred during the nation-building activities of the newly established states.

Provisional National Government of the Southwestern Caucasus former country

The Provisional National Government of the Southwestern Caucasus, Provisional National Government of South West Caucasia or Kars Republic was a short-lived nominally-independent provisional government based in Kars, northeastern Turkey. Born in the wake of the Armistice of Mudros that ended World War I in the Middle East, it existed from December 1, 1918 until April 19, 1919, when it was abolished by British High Commissioner Admiral Somerset Arthur Gough-Calthorpe. Some historians consider it to have been a puppet state of the Ottoman Empire.

Azerbaijanis in Turkey or Turkish Azerbaijanis are Azerbaijani people in Turkey, and are Turkish citizens and permanent residents of ethnic Azerbaijani background. It is hard to determine how many ethnic Azerbaijanis currently reside in Turkey because ethnicity is a rather fluid concept in this country. According to some sources, there are about 800,000 Twelver Shias in Turkey, however this figure may differ substantially from the real one. Up to 300,000 of Azerbaijanis who reside in Turkey are citizens of Azerbaijan. In the Eastern Anatolia Region, Azerbaijanis are sometimes referred to as acem or tat. They currently are the largest ethnic group in the city of Iğdır and second largest ethnic group in Kars, where they constitute majority in the district of Akyaka.

Eastern Anatolia Region Region of Turkey

The Eastern Anatolia Region is a geographical region of Turkey.

Azerbaijanis in Armenia

Azerbaijanis in Armenia were once the largest ethnic minority in the country, but have been virtually non-existent since 1988–1991 when most either fled the country or were pushed out as a result of the Nagorno-Karabakh War and the ongoing conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan. UNHCR estimates the current population of Azeris in Armenia to be somewhere between 30 and a few hundred people, with majority of them living in rural areas and being members of mixed couples, as well as elderly or sick. Most of them are reported to have changed their names to maintain low profiles to avoid discrimination.

Western Azerbaijan (political concept)

Western Azerbaijan is an irredentist political concept that is used in the Republic of Azerbaijan mostly to refer to the territory of the Republic of Armenia. Azerbaijani statements claim that the territory of the modern Armenian republic were lands that once belonged to Azerbaijanis. Its claims are primarily hinged over the contention that the current Armenian territory was under the rule of various Turkic tribes, empires and khanates from the late medieval period until the Treaty of Turkmenchay signed after the Russo-Persian War of 1826–1828. The concept has received official sanction by the government of Azerbaijan, and has been used by its current president, Ilham Aliyev, who has repeatedly stated that the territory of Armenia is a part of "ancient Turk and Azerbaijani land."

Surmalinsky Uyezd Place in Uyezd, Russia

The Surmalinsky Uyezd or Surmali was a county of the Erivan Governorate of the Caucasus Viceroyalty of the Russian Empire. It bordered the governorate's Echmiadzinsky and Erivansky Uyezds to the north, the Kars Oblast to the west, Persia to the east, and the Ottoman Empire to the south. It included most of the Iğdır Province of present-day Turkey. As part of Russian Transcaucasia, Surmali was significant as the location of Mount Ararat and the salt mines of Kulp. Its administrative center was Igdyr.