Location of Iğdır Province in Turkey
|• Electoral district||Iğdır|
|• Governor||Hüseyin Engin Sarıibrahim|
|• Total||3,588 km2 (1,385 sq mi)|
|• Density||55/km2 (140/sq mi)|
Iğdır Province (Turkish : Iğdır ili, Azerbaijani: Iğdir rayonu; Kurdish : Parêzgeha Îdirê ) is a province in eastern Turkey, located along the borders with Armenia, Azerbaijan (the area of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic), and Iran. Its adjacent provinces are Kars to the northwest and Ağrı to the west and south. It occupies an area of 3,587 km2 and population of 184,418 (2010 est.), it was 168,634 in 2000 (up from 142,601 in 1990). It was created from southeastern part of the former Kars Province in 1993. The current Governor of the province is Hüseyin Engin Sarıibrahim.
Anatolias highest mountain, Mount Ararat (Ağrı Dağı) is at present in Turkey's Iğdır province, but much of the land is a wide plain far below the mountain. The climate is the warmest in this part of Turkey; cotton can be grown in Iğdır. The closed border with Armenia follows the Aras River.
The provincial capital is the city of Iğdır.
Iğdır province is divided into four districts (capital district in bold):
Archaeological research has uncovered Hurrian settlements in the Iğdır region going back to 4000 BC. The area was part of the Urartu kingdom circa 800 BC. There is a Urartu statuary in the area. It remained under Urartian control until its transition to the Median Empire, Persian Empire, Alexander The Great, Orontid Dynasty of the Kingdom of Armenia. Seleucid, Parthian, Roman, Sassanid and Byzantine forces were prominent from the 4th century BC, followed by the Arab armies of Islam in 646. Turks, Georgians and Mongols fought through here for 400 years from 1064 onwards until the area was settled by Kara Koyunlu and then Ak Koyunlu Turkic tribes in the early 15th century.
For centuries, constant warfare ensued between the two arch rivals, the Ottoman Empire and the Persian Empire from 1534 until 1746. The region, most of the time remaining in Persian hands, was officially ceded once again in 1746, when subsequently most of its land within the province of Iğdır today became part of the Erivan khanate, a Muslim principality in Persia. The northern part of the province remained in Persian hands until after the Russo-Persian War, 1826–1828 when it became part of the Russian Empire under the Treaty of Turkmenchay. Under Russian administration, the area became the Surmali uyezd (with its capital at the city of Iğdır) of the Armenian Oblast and later the Erivan Governorate. The southern half of the province remained in Ottoman hands through most of the 19th century but was incorporated into the Russian Empire as a result of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78.
Towards the end of World War I, the whole area came under the administration of the First Republic of Armenia as part of Ararat province. After an attack into the territory by the Turkish army, Iğdır was ceded to Turkey by the Soviet government under the Treaty of Kars. A substantial Armenian population remained in the area throughout this history of struggle between great powers. Armenians formed the ethnic majority in the city of Iğdır itself until 1919–1920 when most either died or fled due to starvation during the Turkish–Armenian War. It was part of the former Province of Beyazıt between 1922 and 1927, part of Ağrı Province between 1927 and 1934, and finally part of Kars Province between 1934 and 1993, before becoming a separate province.
Present-day Iğdır Province was administered by the Russian Empire as Surmalin Uyezd from 1849 to 1918. According to the Russian family lists accounts from 1886, of the total 71,066 inhabitants of the districts 34,351 were Azerbaijanis (48.3%, mentioned as 'Tatars' in the source), 22,096 Armenians (31.1%) and 14,619 Kurds (20.6%). 46.5% of the population, followed by 30.4% Armenians, 21.4% Kurds and 1.6% Slavs. Iğdır city had a population of 4,680 in the same census of which 84.1% were Armenians, 12% Slavic, 1.8% Azerbaijani and 1.5% Kurdish.According to the Russian Empire Census in 1897, the town of Iğdır had a population of 4,680, of which 3,934 (84%) were Armenians, and 559 (12%) were Russians. The district had a population of 89,055 in 1897 of which Azerbaijanis constituted
In the 1927 Turkish census, the district was part of Kars Province and had a population of 25,209, of which 52.9% spoke Turkish as first language followed by Kurdish at 47%. The whole population adhered to Islam.
According to Nicole F Watts book in 2010 (Activists in Office: Kurdish Politics and Protest in Turkey) at least 50 percent of the population of Iğdir is Kurdish.
The Aras or Araxes or Araks is a river that starts in Turkey and then flows along the borders between Turkey and Armenia, between Turkey and the Nakhchivan area of Azerbaijan, between Iran and both Azerbaijan and Armenia and finally through Azerbaijan to the river Kura. It drains the south side of the Lesser Caucasus Mountains and then joins the Kura, which drains the north side of Lesser Caucasus Mountains. Its total length is 1,072 kilometres (666 mi), and its watershed covers an area of 102,000 square kilometres (39,000 sq mi). The Aras is one of the largest rivers in the Caucasus.
Kars Province is a province of Turkey, located in the northeastern part of the country. It shares part of its closed border with Armenia. The provincial capital is the city of Kars. The provinces of Ardahan and Iğdır were until the 1990s part of Kars Province.
Kars is a city in northeast Turkey and the capital of Kars Province. Its population is 73,836 as of 2011.
The Ağrı Province is a province in eastern Turkey, bordering Iran to the east, Kars to the north, Erzurum to the northwest, Muş and Bitlis to the southwest, Van to the south, and Iğdır to the northeast. It has an area of 11,376 km² and a population of 542,022. The province is considered part of Western Armenia by Armenians and mostly was part of ancient province of Ayrarat of Kingdom of Armenia. Before the Armenian Genocide, Modern Ağri Province was part of the six Armenian vilayets. The province is considered part of Turkish Kurdistan and has a Kurdish majority.
Ardahan Province, is a province in the north-east of Turkey, at the very end of the country, where Turkey borders with Georgia and Armenia. The provincial capital is the city of Ardahan.
Qazax(listen)) is a city in and the capital of the Qazax District of Azerbaijan. It has a population of 20,900.
Julfa formerly Jugha is a city and the capital of the Julfa District of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan. Julfa is separated by the Aras River from its namesake, the town of Jolfa on the Iranian side of the border. The two towns are linked by a road bridge and a railway bridge.
Ardahan is a city in northeastern Turkey, near the Georgian border.
Iğdır is the capital of Iğdır Province in the Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. The highest mountain in Turkey, Mount Ararat is partly in Iğdır province.
Aralık is a town and district of the Iğdır Province in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. It is the location of the Aras corridor, which connects Turkey with Azerbaijan. Part of the district forms the international border between Turkey and Armenia, which has been closed since 1993, and the border between Turkey and Iran. The town of Aralık is mainly inhabited by Azerbaijanis.
Tuzluca is a town and district of the Iğdır Province in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. The northern portion of the district forms part of the international border between Turkey and Armenia.
The Eastern Anatolia Region is a geographical region of Turkey.
Erivan Governorate was one of the guberniyas of the Caucasus Viceroyalty of the Russian Empire, with its centеr in Erivan. Its area was 27,830 sq. kilometеrs. It roughly corresponded to what is now most of central Armenia, the Iğdır Province of Turkey, and the Nakhichevan exclave of Azerbaijan. At the end of the 19th century, it bordered the Tiflis Governorate to the north, the Elisabethpol Governorate to the east, the Kars Oblast to the west, and Persia and the Ottoman Empire to the south. The Mount Ararat and the entire Ararat Valley were in the center of the state.
Kars Oblast was one of the oblasts of the Caucasus Viceroyalty of the Russian Empire between 1878 and 1917. Its capital was the city of Kars, presently in the Republic of Turkey. The governorate bordered with the Ottoman Empire, Batum Oblast, Tiflis Governorate, Erivan Governorate, and from 1883 to 1903 the Kutais Governorate. It covered all of Turkey's present provinces of Kars and Ardahan and the northeastern part of Erzurum Province as well as a small part of Armenia.
Minkend is a village in the Lachin District of Azerbaijan. The village is located on the west bank of the Hakari River and in the northern part of Lachin district, 320 km from Baku, the capital of Azerbaijan.
Western Azerbaijan is an irredentist political concept that is used in the Republic of Azerbaijan mostly to refer to the territory of the Republic of Armenia. Azerbaijani statements claim that the territory of the modern Armenian republic were lands that once belonged to Azerbaijanis. Its claims are primarily hinged over the contention that the current Armenian territory was under the rule of various Turkic tribes, empires and khanates from the Late Middle Ages until the Treaty of Turkmenchay (1828) signed after the Russo-Persian War of 1826–1828. The concept has received official sanction by the government of Azerbaijan, and has been used by its current president, Ilham Aliyev, who has repeatedly stated that the territory of Armenia is a part of "ancient Turk and Azerbaijani land."
Dzhebrail Uyezd, also transliterated as Dzhebrailsky Uyezd, was one of the uyezds of Elisabethpol Governorate of the Russian Empire with its center in Jabrayil from 1868 until its formal abolition in 1921 by the Soviet authorities.
The Kurds in Russia form a major part of the historically significant Kurdish population in the post-Soviet space, with close ties to the Kurdish communities in the Caucasus and Central Asia. The 2010 Russian census registered a total of 63,818 ethnic Kurds living in Russia.
The Surmalin Uyezd or Surmali was a county of the Erivan Governorate of the Caucasus Viceroyalty of the Russian Empire. It bordered the governorate's Echmiadzinsky and Erivansky Uyezds to the north, the Kars Oblast to the west, Persia to the east, and the Ottoman Empire to the south. It included most of the Iğdır Province of present-day Turkey. As part of Russian Transcaucasia, Surmali was significant as the location of Mount Ararat and the salt mines of Kulp. Its administrative center was Igdyr.
Memorial and Museum of Martyred Turks Massacred by Armenians or Iğdır Genocide Memorial and Museum is a memorial-museum complex to commemorate alleged massacres of Turks by Armenians during World War I and the Turkish–Armenian War. The construction for the memorial started on 1 August 1997 and it was dedicated on 5 October 1999 in Iğdır, Turkey. Its height is 43.5 metres, making it the tallest monument in Turkey.