IJssel

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IJssel
Gelderse IJssel
Deventer zonsondergang k.JPG
Sunset on the IJssel at Deventer
Location IJssel.PNG
Location of river IJssel in dark blue
Native nameIessel(t)  (Low German)
Location
Country Netherlands
Provinces Gelderland, Overijssel
Districts Liemers, Veluwe, Achterhoek, Salland
Cities Arnhem (suburbs), Doesburg, Zutphen, Deventer, Zwolle (suburbs), Kampen
Physical characteristics
Source Nederrijn
  location Westervoort, Gelderland, Netherlands
  elevation6 metres
Mouth Ketelmeer (arm of below-sea-level channel east of the Flevopolder, Flevoland)
  location
Kampen, Salland, Overijssel, Netherlands
  coordinates
52°34′58″N5°50′24″E / 52.58278°N 5.84000°E / 52.58278; 5.84000 Coordinates: 52°34′58″N5°50′24″E / 52.58278°N 5.84000°E / 52.58278; 5.84000
  elevation
3 metres
Length125 km (78 mi)
Discharge 
  average340 m3/s (12,000 cu ft/s)
Basin features
ProgressionRhine, Pannerdens Kanaal, IJssel
Tributaries 
  right Oude IJssel, Berkel, Schipbeek

The IJssel ( /ˈsəl/ EYE-səl, also US: /ˈsəl/ AY-səl, Dutch:  [ˈɛisəl] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Dutch Low Saxon :Iessel(t) [ˈiːsəl(t)] ) is a Dutch distributary of the river Rhine that flows northward and ultimately discharges into the IJsselmeer (before the 1932 completion of the Afsluitdijk known as the Zuiderzee), a North Sea natural harbour. It more immediately flows into the east-south channel around the Flevopolder, Flevoland which is kept at 3 metres below sea level. This body of water is then pumped up into the IJsselmeer.

Contents

It is sometimes called the Gelderse IJssel (IPA:  [ˌɣɛldərsə ˈʔɛisəl] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); "Gueldern IJssel") to distinguish it from the Hollandse IJssel. It is in the provinces of Gelderland and Overijssel. The Romans knew the river as Isala. It flows from Westervoort, on the east side of the city of Arnhem.

Similar to the Nederrijn which shares its short inflow, the Pannerdens Kanaal, it is a minor discharge of the Rhine. At the fork where the Kanaal is sourced the Rhine becomes named the Waal. This splitting-off is west of the German border. The Waal in turn interweaves with other rivers and the lower course of the Nederrijn, which altogether is known as the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta.

The name contains the digraph ij , used throughout modern Dutch orthography, which is why both letters appear capitalized (as in: IJmuiden and IJsselmeer).

History

The IJssel at Deventer in 1567 Deventer 1567.jpg
The IJssel at Deventer in 1567

The name IJssel (older Isla, Isala, from *Īsalō), is thought to derive from a Proto-Indo-European root *eis- "to move quickly" (Old Norse eisa "to race forward", Latin ira "anger"). [1]

Before the Roman Warm Period, the Zuiderzee in highly glaciated times was a brackish, sometimes tidal, very broad set of mudflats, the Vlies (Latin: Flevo). The IJssel and Amstel kept a saline-freshwater balance, and northward flow, enabling islands and banks to build up. Among these are rare zones just above sea level: Kampen, Elburg and north-east bank once wooded strip from Nijemirdum to Stavoren.

However, the North Sea, locally to form (or re-form) the Zuiderzee, reasserted itself the so-called Dunkirk transgressions.

By the time these were tamed (terraformed) the Ijssel had formed many of its new short distributaries to dissipate its flow. The submerged old delta is traceable out from its sea level elevation point at Zwolle throughout the broadest parts of the IJsselmeer, noting the lands of Emmeloord, Lelystad and south of Dronten are relatively recent reclamations. They were continuations of these old, broad troughs, and lie six metres below sea level.

The Vlie, refers only to a strait between sea islands, Vlieland and Terschelling. It seems that the firmly below-sea-level excoriations in the far north (the Groote Vliet) by Medemblik and the IJ (near Amsterdam) were all deep parts of the same body of water in the height of the Roman Warm Period and Medieval Dark Age sea rises (transgressions). Most of the surrounding basin of the vast harbour-like body of water of the Netherlands is reclaimed from it (nationally called polderisation; in England called the making of a fen).

The river was a natural barrier and in April 1945 had to be stormed by assault troops of the Allied armies liberating the Netherlands from the occupying forces of Nazi Germany. [2]

The IJssel as the lower part of the Oude IJssel

Most of the IJssel was the lower part of the small river Oude IJssel (lit. "Old IJssel", German Issel), that rises in Germany and is now a 70 km tributary. The connection between Rhine and IJssel was probably artificial, allegedly dug by men under the Roman general Nero Claudius Drusus c. 12 BCE as a defence against Germanic tribes and to let Roman ships carry troops along it. [3]

The Oude IJssel is the second-largest contributor to the flow of the river, after the river Rhine.

The source of the Oude IJssel is near Borken in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. First it flows south-west until it nearly reaches the Rhine near Wesel; then it turns west northwest. After skirting Isselburg it crosses the border with the Netherlands. The river then flows through Doetinchem and joins the IJssel at Doesburg.

Characteristics

The average daily discharge can change greatly. It has been, over long periods, averaged as about 300 cubic meters per second. It can be as low as 140 and as high as 1800, depending on the velocity of the water arriving from upstream and the weirs west of Arnhem, which control the water taken in. These control the Pannerdens Kanaal, the sole inflow (shared with the Nederrijn).

As a lowland river in which velocity decreases, the IJssel meanders. Some bends (and spurs of land, hank) have been cut off by man such as near Rheden and Doesburg, reducing the length from 146  km [4] to 125 km, but not as radically as the Meuse nor Great Ouse. Deposition of sediment to form islands in the outside of bends has been curtailed since the late nineteenth century.

The IJssel as a Rhine distributary

Bridge over the IJssel at Zwolle 20150909 IJsselbrug Zwolle.jpg
Bridge over the IJssel at Zwolle
At IJsseloord (close to Arnhem) the IJssel parts from the Rhine. This statue 'Het Rijnhert' on a hill close to the highway is a symbol for the connection of the city to the nearby national park, the Hoge Veluwe. 2020-01 Rijnhert IJsseloord 2 bij Arnhem 04.jpg
At IJsseloord (close to Arnhem) the IJssel parts from the Rhine. This statue 'Het Rijnhert' on a hill close to the highway is a symbol for the connection of the city to the nearby national park, the Hoge Veluwe.

Since the connection between the Rhine and IJssel was dug, the Rhine became the main contributor to the flow of the IJssel a small fraction of the former's flow makes up the upper IJssel. Various tributaries add a little or much water to the flow of the IJssel, such as the Berkel and Schipbeek streams from relatively local precipitation. The IJssel, if accepted as a branch of the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta, is the only one that takes up tributary rivers rather than giving rise to distributaries. It has no contact with the Meuse, nor Scheldt, nor their resultant watercourses.

In the last few miles of the river's run, near the city of Kampen, distributaries form, resulting in a quite small delta. Some of these have been dammed up to lower the risk of flooding. Some have silted up. Others flow without interruption. Most of the damming-up was done before 1932, when the Zuiderzee was turned into the freshwater IJsselmeer lake. The whole delta had been prone to flooding in times of northwestern gales, pushing back the saline Zuiderzee water into the delta.

The modern-day names of the delta branches are, west to east, the:

Of these, the first-stated two are the main navigations. The Noorddiep has been stopped up at both ends. Another branch, De Garste, had already completely silted up by the middle of the nineteenth century. [5] Until about 1900, the Ganzendiep up to the Goot fork was known as IJssel proper [5] as was the historical main channel. The present main channel was named the Regtediep or Rechterdiep until well into the twentieth century. [6]

The IJssel, now mainly a Rhine branch as to its water, has retained most of the character of a distinct river in its own right. It has its own tributaries and, as to the Old IJssel (Oude IJssel), a former headstream.

Tributaries and connecting canals

The following canals, long ditches and tributary streams feed the IJssel, in downstream order:

River crossings

IJssel near Velp 2009-06-25 19.37 Velp, de IJssel vanaf Velperpoortbrug foto3.JPG
IJssel near Velp
IJssel near Doesburg Doesburg, de IJssel vanaf de brug IMG 3490 2020-03-22 16.06.jpg
IJssel near Doesburg
IJssel near Zutphen 2007-01-23 10.04 Zutphen, IJssel vanaf spoorbrug foto5.JPG
IJssel near Zutphen

Road bridges

Road bridges across river IJssel (with nearest places on the left and right bank):

Eilandbrug (2003) Kampen (N50) Panorama Eilandbrug Kampen Panorama.jpg
Eilandbrug (2003) Kampen (N50) Panorama

Railroad bridges

Railroad bridges (with nearest train station on the left and right bank):

Cable ferries

Only those ferries capable of carrying motorised vehicles are included.

Related Research Articles

Meuse River in western Europe

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Rhine River in Western Europe

The Rhine is one of the major European rivers, which has its sources in Switzerland and flows in a mostly northerly direction through Germany and the Netherlands, emptying into the North Sea. The river begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.

IJsselmeer Lake in the Netherlands

The IJsselmeer, also known as Lake IJssel in English, is a closed off inland bay in the central Netherlands bordering the provinces of Flevoland, North Holland and Friesland. It covers an area of 1,100 km2 (420 sq mi) with an average depth of 5.5 m (18 ft). The river IJssel flows into the IJsselmeer.

Distributary River branching off from main river

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Nederrijn

Nederrijn is the name of the Dutch part of the Rhine from the confluence at the town of Angeren of the cut-off Rhine bend of Oude Rijn and the Pannerdens Kanaal. The city of Arnhem lies on the right (north) bank of the Nederrijn, just past the point where the IJssel branches off. The Nederrijn flows on to the city of Wijk bij Duurstede, from where it continues as the Lek. The once-important but now small Kromme Rijn branch carries the name "Rhine" towards the city of Utrecht.

Oude IJssel River in Germany and the Netherlands

The Oude IJssel or Issel is a river in Germany and the Netherlands approximately 82 km (51 mi) long. It is a right tributary of the river IJssel. Oude IJssel is Dutch for "Old IJssel"; the Oude IJssel was the upper course of the IJssel until the connection with the Rhine was dug, possibly in the Roman era.

St. Lucia's flood (Sint-Luciavloed) was a storm tide that affected the Netherlands and Northern Germany on 14 December 1287 (OS), the day after St. Lucia Day, killing approximately 50,000 to 80,000 people in one of the largest floods in recorded history.

Lower Rhine

The Lower Rhine flows from Bonn, Germany, to the North Sea at Hoek van Holland, Netherlands ; alternatively, Lower Rhine may refer to the part upstream of Pannerdens Kop, excluding the Nederrijn.

Salland

Salland is a historical dominion in the west and north of the present Dutch province of Overijssel. Nowadays Salland is usually used to indicate a region corresponding to the part of the former dominion more or less to the west of Twente.

Merwede

The Merwede is the name of several connected stretches of river in the Netherlands, between the cities of Woudrichem, Dordrecht and Papendrecht. The river is part of the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta and is mostly fed by the river Rhine.

Liberation of Arnhem

Operation Anger, was a military operation to seize the city of Arnhem in April 1945, during the closing stages of the Second World War. It is also known as the Second Battle of Arnhem or the Liberation of Arnhem. The operation was part of the Canadian First Army's liberation of the Netherlands and was led by the 49th British Infantry Division, supported by armour of the 5th Canadian Armoured Division, Royal Air Force air strikes and boats of the Royal Navy.

Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta

The Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta or Helinium is a river delta in the Netherlands formed by the confluence of the Rhine, the Meuse and the Scheldt rivers. In some cases, the Scheldt delta is considered a separate delta to the Rhine-Meuse delta. The result is a multitude of islands, branches and branch names that may at first sight look bewildering, especially as a waterway that appears to be one continuous stream may change names as many as seven times, e.g. Rhine → Bijlands Kanaal → Pannerdens Kanaal → Nederrijn → Lek → Nieuwe Maas → Het Scheur → Nieuwe Waterweg. Since the Rhine contributes most of the water, the shorter term Rhine Delta is commonly used. However, this name is also used for the delta where the Alpine Rhine flows into Lake Constance, so it is clearer to call the larger one Rhine–Meuse delta, or even Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta, as the Scheldt ends in the same delta. By some calculations, the delta covers 25,347 km2 (9,787 sq mi), making it the largest in Europe.

Arnhem–Leeuwarden railway

The Arnhem–Leeuwarden railway is a railway line in the Netherlands running from Arnhem to Leeuwarden, passing through Deventer, Zwolle and Heerenveen. It is also called the Staatslijn A in Dutch. The part between Arnhem and Zwolle is sometimes called the IJssellijn.

Oude Maas

The Oude Maas is a distributary of the Rhine River, and a former distributary of the Maas River, in the Dutch province of South Holland. It begins at the city of Dordrecht where the Beneden Merwede river splits into the Noord River and the Oude Maas. It ends when it joins the Nieuwe Maas to form Het Scheur.

Nieuwe Maas

The Nieuwe Maas is a distributary of the Rhine River, and a former distributary of the Maas River, in the Dutch province of South Holland. It runs from the confluence of the rivers Noord and Lek, and flows west through Rotterdam. It ends west of the city where it meets the Oude Maas, near Vlaardingen, to form Het Scheur. After a few miles, the Scheur continues as the artificial Nieuwe Waterweg. The total length of the Nieuwe Maas is approximately 24 kilometres (15 mi).

References

  1. J. de Vries, Etymologisch woordenboek. Utrecht: Het Spectrum, 1959
  2. Stacey, C. P. History of the Canadian Army in the Second World War: Volume III The Victory Campaign
  3. ter Laan, K. et al. ed. (1942). Van Goor's aardrijkskundig woordenboek van Nederland (in Dutch). Den Haag: Van Goor Zonen.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  4. Augé, Claude ed. (1922). Larousse universel en deux volumes (in French). Paris: Larousse.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  5. 1 2 Grote (1990). Grote historische atlas van Nederland (3): Oost-Nederland 1830–1855 (in Dutch). Groningen: Wolters-Noordhoff Atlasprodukties. ISBN   90-01-96232-7.
  6. Kwast, B. ed. (1932). Schoolatlas der geheele aarde (in Dutch). Groningen: Wolters.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)