ISO/IEC 15288

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The ISO/IEC 15288 is a systems engineering standard covering processes and lifecycle stages. Initial planning for the ISO/IEC 15288:2002(E) standard started in 1994 when the need for a common systems engineering process framework was recognized. The previously accepted standard MIL STD 499A (1974) was cancelled after a memo from SECDEF prohibited the use of most United States Military Standards without a waiver. The first edition was issued on 1 November 2002. Stuart Arnold was the editor and Harold Lawson was the architect of the standard. [1] In 2004 this standard was adopted as IEEE 15288. ISO/IEC 15288 has been updated 1 February 2008 as well as on 15 May 2015. [2]

Systems engineering interdisciplinary field of engineering and engineering management that focuses on how to design and manage complex systems over their life cycles

Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary field of engineering and engineering management that focuses on how to design and manage complex systems over their life cycles. At its core, systems engineering utilizes systems thinking principles to organize this body of knowledge. The individual outcome of such efforts, an engineered system, can be defined as a combination of components that work in synergy to collectively perform a useful function.

A United States defense standard, often called a military standard, "MIL-STD", "MIL-SPEC", or (informally) "MilSpecs", is used to help achieve standardization objectives by the U.S. Department of Defense.

Stuart Arnold (1945–2015) was a UK systems engineering professional, with a degree in electrical engineering from Leeds University.


ISO/IEC 15288 is managed by ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7, which is the ISO committee responsible for developing ISO standards in the area of Software and Systems Engineering. ISO/IEC 15288 is part of the SC 7 Integrated set of Standards, and other standards in this domain include:

ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 7 Software and systems engineering is a standardization subcommittee of the Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), that develops and facilitates standards within the field of engineering of software products and systems. The international secretariat of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 7 is the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) located in India.



The standard defines processes divided into four categories:

Each process is defined by a purpose, outcomes, and activities. ISO 15288 comprises 25 processes which have 123 outcomes derived from 403 activities. [3]

  1. Clause 6.4.1 - Stakeholder Requirements Definition Process
  2. Clause 6.4.2 - Requirements Analysis Process
  3. Clause 6.4.3 - Architectural Design Process
  4. Clause 6.4.4 - Implementation Process
  5. Clause 6.4.5 - Integration Process
  6. Clause 6.4.6 - Verification Process
  7. Clause 6.4.7 - Transition Process
  8. Clause 6.4.8 - Validation Process
  9. Clause 6.4.9 - Operation Process
  10. Clause 6.4.10 - Maintenance Process
  11. Clause 6.4.11 - Disposal Process

Example life cycle stages described in the document are: concept, development, production, utilisation, support, and retirement. However, these stages are not normative; the standard defines processes, not stages.

See also

Systems development life cycle Systems engineering term

The systems development life cycle (SDLC), also referred to as the application development life-cycle, is a term used in systems engineering, information systems and software engineering to describe a process for planning, creating, testing, and deploying an information system. The systems development lifecycle concept applies to a range of hardware and software configurations, as a system can be composed of hardware only, software only, or a combination of both. There are usually six stages in this cycle: analysis, design, development and testing, implementation, documentation, and evaluation.

Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) is a process level improvement training and appraisal program. Administered by the CMMI Institute, a subsidiary of ISACA, it was developed at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU). It is required by many United States Department of Defense (DoD) and U.S. Government contracts, especially in software development. CMU claims CMMI can be used to guide process improvement across a project, division, or an entire organization. CMMI defines the following maturity levels for processes: Initial, Managed, Defined, Quantitatively Managed, and Optimizing. Version 2.0 was published in 2018. CMMI is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office by CMU.

ISO/IEC/IEEE 12207Systems and software engineering – Software life cycle processes is an international standard for software lifecycle processes. First introduced in 1995, it aims to be a primary standard that defines all the processes required for developing and maintaining software systems, including the outcomes and/or activities of each process.

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A concept of operations is a document describing the characteristics of a proposed system from the viewpoint of an individual who will use that system such as a business requirements specification or stakeholder requirements specification (StRS). It is used to communicate the quantitative and qualitative system characteristics to all stakeholders. CONOPS are widely used in the military, governmental services and other fields.

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Digital object identifier Character string used as a permanent identifier for a digital object, in a format controlled by the International DOI Foundation

In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to identify objects uniquely, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). An implementation of the Handle System, DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos.

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