An ice hockey rink is an ice rink that is specifically designed for ice hockey, a competitive team sport. Alternatively it is used for other sports such as broomball, ringette and rink bandy. It is a rectangle with rounded corners and surrounded by walls approximately 1.22 metres (48 in) high called the boards.
Rink, a Scots word meaning 'course', was used as the name of a place where another game, curling, was played. Early in its history, ice hockey was played mostly on rinks constructed for curling. The name was retained after hockey-specific facilities were built.
There are two standard sizes for hockey rinks: one used primarily in North America, also known as NHL size, the other used in Europe and international competitions, also known as IIHF or Olympic size.
Most North American rinks follow the National Hockey League (NHL) specifications of 200 by 85 feet (60.96 m × 25.9 m) with a corner radius of 28 feet (8.5 m). Each goal line is 11 feet (3.4 m) from the end boards. NHL blue lines are 75 feet (22.9 m) from the end boards and 50 feet (15.2 m) apart.
Hockey rinks in the rest of the world follow the International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF) specifications, which are 60.0 by 30.0 metres (196.9 ft × 98.4 ft) with a corner radius of 8.5 metres (27.9 ft).
The two goal lines are 4.0 metres (13.1 ft) from the end boards, and the blue lines are 22.86 metres (75.0 ft) from the end boards.
The rink specifications originate from the ice surface of the Victoria Skating Rink in Montreal, constructed in 1862, where the first indoor game was played in 1875. Its ice surface measured 204 by 80 feet (62.2 m × 24.4 m). The curved corners are said to originate from the design of the Montreal Arena, constructed in 1898.
The centre line separates the ice in half crosswise. It is used to judge icing. It is a thick line, and in the NHL must "contain regular interval markings of a uniform distinctive design, which will readily distinguish it from the two blue lines." It may also be used to judge two-line pass violations in leagues that use such a rule.
There are two thick blue lines that divide the rink into three parts, called zones. These two lines are used to judge if a player is offside. If an attacking player crosses the line into the other team's zone prior to the puck crossing, he is said to be offside.
Near each end of the rink, there is a thin red goal line spanning the width of the ice. It is used to judge goals and icing calls.
There are 9 faceoff spots on a hockey rink. All faceoffs take place at these spots. There are two spots in each team's defensive zone, two at each end of the neutral zone, and one in the centre of the rink.
There are faceoff circles around the centre ice and end zone faceoff spots. There are hash marks painted on the ice near the end zone faceoff spots. The circles and hash marks show where players may legally position themselves during a faceoff or in game play,
Both the centre faceoff spot and centre faceoff circle are blue. The circle is 30 feet (9m) in diameter, with an outline 2 inches (5.1 cm) thick, and the faceoff spot is a solid blue circle 12 inches (30 cm) in diameter.
All of the other faceoff spots and circles are colored red. Each spot consists of a circle 2 feet (61 cm) in diameter (as measured from the outermost edges) with an outline 2 inches (5.1 cm) thick. Within the spot, two red vertical lines are drawn 3 inches (7.6 cm) from the left and right inner edges, and the area between these lines is painted red while the rest of the circle is painted white.
At each end of the ice, there is a goal consisting of a metal goal frame and cloth net in which each team must place the puck to score. According to NHL and IIHF rules, the entire puck must cross the entire goal line in order to be counted as a goal. Under NHL rules, the opening of the goal is 72 inches (180 cm) wide by 48 inches (120 cm) tall, and the footprint of the goal is 40 inches (100 cm) deep.
The crease is a special area of the ice in front of each goal that is designed to allow the goaltender to perform without interference.
In North American professional hockey, the goal crease consists of straight lines extending 4.5 feet (1.4 m) perpendicularly from the goal line 1 foot (30 cm) outside each goal post connected by an arc with a 6-foot (1.8 m) radius; two red hashmarks 5 inches (13 cm) thick located 4 feet (120 cm) from the goal line that extend 5 inches (13 cm) into the crease from either side. This area is typically coloured blue for easier visibility.
During the 2004–05 American Hockey League (AHL) season, an experimental rule was implemented for the first seven weeks of the season, instituting a goaltender trap zone, more commonly called the trapezoid in reference to its shape. Under the rule, it is prohibited for the goaltender to handle the puck anywhere behind the goal line that is not within the trapezoidal area. If they do so they are assessed a minor penalty for delay of game.
The motivation for the introduction of the trapezoid was to promote game flow and prolonged offensive attacks by making it more difficult for the goaltender to possess and clear the puck. The rule was aimed at reducing the effectiveness of goaltenders with good puck-handling abilities.
The area consists of a centred, symmetrical trapezoid. The bases of the trapezoid are formed by the goal line and the end boards. The base on the goal line measures 6.71 metres (22.0 ft) — widened from the original 5.5 metres (18 ft) for the 2014-15 NHL season onwards — and the base along the end boards measures 8.5 metres (28 ft), with the depth behind the goal line-to-boards distance specified at 3.35 metres (11.0 ft).
The seven-week experiment proved so successful that the AHL moved to enforce the rule for the rest of the season, and then was approved by the NHL when play resumed for the 2005–06 season following the previous lockout. The ECHL, the only other developmental league in the Professional Hockey Players Association along with the AHL, also approved the rule for 2005–06.
The referee's crease is a semicircle 10 feet (3.0 m) in radius in front of the scorekeepers bench. Under USA Hockey rule 601(d)(5), any player entering or remaining in the referee's crease while the referee is reporting to or consulting with any game official may be assessed a misconduct penalty. The USA Hockey casebook specifically states that the imposition of such a penalty would be unusual, and the player would typically first be asked to leave the referee's crease before the imposition of the penalty. The NHL has a similar rule, also calling for a misconduct penalty. Traditionally, captains and alternate captains are the only players allowed to approach the referee's crease.
The blue lines divide the rink into three zones. The central zone is called the neutral zone or simply centre ice. The generic term for the outer zones is end zones, but they are more commonly referred to by terms relative to each team. The end zone in which a team is trying to score is called the attacking zone or offensive zone; the end zone in which the team's own goal net is located is called the defending zone or defensive zone.
The blue line is considered part of whichever zone the puck is in. Therefore, if the puck is in the neutral zone, the blue line is part of the neutral zone. It must completely cross the blue line to be considered in the end zone. Once the puck is in the end zone, the blue line becomes part of that end zone. The puck must now completely cross the blue line in the other direction to be considered in the neutral zone again.
In a hockey rink, the boards are the low wall that form the boundaries of the rink. They are between 40 and 48 inches (100 and 120 cm) high. The "side boards" are the boards along the two long sides of the rink. The half boards are the boards halfway between the goal line and blue line. The sections of the rink located behind each goal are called the "end boards". The boards that are curved (near the ends of the rink) are called the "corner boards".
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in an indoor or outdoor rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score goals. The sport is known to be fast-paced and physical, with teams usually fielding six players at a time: one goaltender to stop the puck from going into their own net, two defensemen, and three forwards who skate the span of the ice trying to control the puck and score goals against the opposing team.
In many team sports which involve scoring goals, the goalkeeper is a designated player charged with directly preventing the opposing team from scoring by blocking or intercepting opposing shots on goal that kicks the ball from the other player.
In ice hockey, a goal is scored when the puck entirely crosses the goal line between the two goal posts and below the goal crossbar. A goal awards one point to the team attacking the goal scored upon, regardless of which team the player who actually deflected the puck into the goal belongs to. Typically, a player on the team attempting to score shoots the puck with their stick towards the goal net opening, and a player on the opposing team called a goaltender tries to block the shot to prevent a goal from being scored against their team.
In ice hockey, icing is an infraction when a player shoots the puck over the center red line and the opposing team's red goal line, in that order, and the puck remains untouched without scoring a goal.
The centre in ice hockey is a forward position of a player whose primary zone of play is the middle of the ice, away from the sideboards. Centres have more flexibility in their positioning and are expected to cover more ice surface than any other player. Centres are ideally stronger, faster skaters who can back-check quickly from deep in the opposing zone. Generally, centres are expected to be gifted passers more than goal scorers, although there are exceptions, typically larger centres who position themselves directly in front of the net in order to score off rebounds. They are also expected to have exceptional "ice vision", intelligence, and creativity. They also generally are the most defensively-oriented forwards on the ice. Centres usually play as part of a line of players that are substituted frequently to keep fresh and keep the game moving.
Winger, in the game of ice hockey, is a forward position of a player whose primary zone of play on the ice is along the outer playing area. They typically work by flanking the centre forward. Originally the name was given to forward players who went up and down the sides of the rink. Nowadays, there are different types of wingers in the game — out-and-out goal scorers, checkers who disrupt the opponents, and forwards who work along the boards and in the corners. Often a winger's precise role on a line depends upon what type of role the other winger plays; usually lines will have one more goal-scoring oriented winger and one winger more focused on playing the boards, checking and passing the puck to others to take shots. They tend to be bigger than centreman and smaller than defenseman.
Defense in ice hockey is a player position whose primary responsibility is to prevent the opposing team from scoring. They are often referred to as defensemen, D, D-men or blueliners. They were once called cover-point.
In ice hockey, the goaltender or goalie is the player responsible for preventing the hockey puck from entering their team's net, thus preventing the opposing team from scoring. The goaltender usually plays in or near the area in front of the net called the goal crease. Goaltenders tend to stay at or beyond the top of the crease to cut down on the angle of shots. In today's age of goaltending there are two common styles, butterfly and hybrid. Because of the power of shots, the goaltender wears special equipment designed to protect the body from direct impact. The goalie is one of the most valuable players on the ice, as their performance can greatly change the outcome or score of the game. One-on-one situations, such as breakaways and shootouts, have the tendency to highlight a goaltender's pure skill, or lack thereof. No more than one goaltender is allowed to be on the ice for each team at any given time. Teams are not required to use a goaltender and may instead opt to play with an additional skater, but the defensive disadvantage this poses generally means that the strategy is only used as a desperation maneuver when trailing late in a game or can be used if the opposing team has a delayed penalty.
A penalty in ice hockey is a punishment for an infringement of the rules. Most penalties are enforced by sending the offending player to a penalty box for a set number of minutes. During the penalty the player may not participate in play. Penalties are called and enforced by the referee, or in some cases, the linesman. The offending team may not replace the player on the ice, leaving them short-handed as opposed to full strength. When the opposing team is said to be on a power play, they will have one more player on the ice than the short-handed team. The short-handed team is said to be "on the penalty kill" until the penalty expires and the penalized player returns to play. While standards vary somewhat between leagues, most leagues recognize several common varieties of penalties, as well as common infractions.
A face-off is the method used to begin and restart play after goals in some sports using sticks, primarily ice hockey, bandy and lacrosse. The two teams line up in opposition to each other, and the opposing players attempt to gain control of the puck or ball after it is dropped or otherwise placed between their sticks by an official.
In ice hockey, a penalty shot is a type of penalty awarded when a team loses a clear scoring opportunity on a breakaway because of a foul committed by an opposing player. A player from the non-offending team is given an attempt to score a goal without opposition from any defending players except the goaltender. This is the same type of shot used in a shootout to decide games in some leagues.
The neutral zone trap is a defensive strategy used in ice hockey to prevent an opposing team from proceeding through the neutral zone and to force turnovers. The strategy is generally used to level the playing field for teams that are not as offensively talented as their opponents, although the trap can also be used by teams simply looking to protect a lead late in the game. The trap was innovated by the Toronto Maple Leafs in the 1920s and 1930s but became the defensive scheme for most coaches during the late 90s and early 2000s—known as the "Dead Puck era"—as a direct result of the success seen by the New Jersey Devils under the coaching of Jacques Lemaire; the Devils won three Stanley Cup championships during this era. Lemaire utilized the trap that was employed by the Montreal Canadiens under his coach Scotty Bowman.
In ice hockey, a play is offside if a player on the attacking team does not control the puck and is in the offensive zone when a different attacking player causes the puck to enter the offensive zone, until either the puck or all attacking players leave the offensive zone. Simply put, the puck must not enter the attacking zone after attacking players. If a player on the attacking team is in the offensive zone before the puck, either an immediate offside occurs, or they must retreat to the neutral zone.
Ice hockey rules define the parameters of the sport of ice hockey. The sport is governed by several organizations including the International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF), the National Hockey League (NHL), Hockey Canada, USA Hockey and others. The rules define the size of the hockey rink where a game is played, the playing and safety equipment, the game definition, including time of play and whether tie-breaking methods are used and the actual playing rules themselves. The IIHF rule book is used in both amateur and professional leagues worldwide. The NHL's rule book is the basis for the rule books of most North American professional leagues. The IIHF, amateur and NHL rules evolved separately from amateur and professional Canadian ice hockey rules of the early 1900s.
Roller inline hockey, or inline hockey is a variant of hockey played on a hard, smooth surface, with players using inline skates to move and hockey sticks to shoot a hard, plastic puck into their opponent's goal to score points. There are five players including the goalkeeper from each team on the rink at a time, while teams normally consist of 16 players.
The 2005–06 WHL season was the 40th season for the Western Hockey League. Twenty teams completed a 72-game schedule. The Vancouver Giants won the President's Cup.
The National Hockey League rules are the rules governing the play of the National Hockey League (NHL), a professional ice hockey organization. Infractions of the rules, such as offside and icing, lead to a stoppage of play and subsequent to the offending teams. The league also determines the specifications for playing equipment used in its games.
This is a list of common terms used in ice hockey along with the definition of these terms.
Ball hockey is a team sport and a variation of the sport of ice hockey and a specific variation of the game of street hockey. Ball hockey is the same sport as floor hockey.
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