This article does not cite any sources . (January 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Icestock sport (also known as Bavarian Curling) is a winter sport, somewhat similar to curling. In German, it is known as Eisstockschießen. Competitors slide ice stocks over an ice surface, aiming for a target, or to cover the longest distance. Icestocks have a gliding surface, to which a stick (ca 30 cm) is attached. The sport, mostly practised in southern Germany, Austria and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol in Italy, has been demonstrated at the Winter Olympic Games on two occasions. Although the sport is traditionally played on an ice surface, events are also held on tarmac in summer.
Although the sport is probably much older, the first proof of icestock sport being practised stems from a 16th-century painting by Belgian painter Pieter Brueghel. It would take until the 1930s before the sport became organized. A German federation was established in 1934, and German championships were established two years later.
European Championships were first held in 1951, and World Championships were first held in 1983, after the International Federation Icestock Sport (IFI) had been established. Icestock World Championships has been held for men and women since 1983.
First written mentioning of icestock sport as messengers arrive to bring news of the capture of Richard Lion-heart to Leopold V, Duke of Austria, who was playing icestock on the frozen river Danube by Vienna shortly before Christmas 1192.
Source: Vatikan Library, Rom (Pope Celestine III excommunicated Leopold V) Source: University Library of Karlsruhe at a time when it still was publicly accessible
There are several disciplines in icestock sport, of which teams target shooting, individual target and distance shooting are contested in international championships.
In target shooting, two teams of four players each take turns in aiming for a target, the so-called Daube. Points are gained by being closest to the Daube after all four players have thrown their stock. If the Daube leaves the playing field then it is returned to the centre and play continues. The winning team is the one with the most points after six ends.
In distance shooting, the aim is simply to slide away the icestock as far as possible.
Curling is a sport in which players slide stones on a sheet of ice toward a target area which is segmented into four concentric circles. It is related to bowls, boules and shuffleboard. Two teams, each with four players, take turns sliding heavy, polished granite stones, also called rocks, across the ice curling sheet toward the house, a circular target marked on the ice. Each team has eight stones, with each player throwing two. The purpose is to accumulate the highest score for a game; points are scored for the stones resting closest to the centre of the house at the conclusion of each end, which is completed when both teams have thrown all of their stones. A game usually consists of eight or ten ends.
Shooting sports is a collective group of competitive and recreational sporting activities involving proficiency tests of accuracy, precision and speed in shooting — the art of using various types of ranged firearms, mainly referring to man-portable guns and bows/crossbows.
A luge is a small one- or two-person sled on which one sleds supine and feet-first. A luger steers by using the calf muscles to flex the sled's runners or by exerting opposite shoulder pressure to the seat. Racing sleds weigh 21–25 kg (46–55 lb) for singles and 25–30 kg (55–66 lb) for doubles. Luge is also the name of an Olympic sport.
Pétanque is a sport that falls into the category of boules sports, along with raffa, bocce, boule lyonnaise, lawn bowls and crown green bowling. In all of these sports, players or teams play their boules/balls towards a target ball.
The 2006 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XX Olympic Winter Games and commonly known as Torino 2006 or Turin 2006, was a winter multi-sport event held from 10 to 26 February 2006 in Turin, Piedmont, Italy. This marked the second time that Italy had hosted the Winter Olympics, the first being in 1956 in Cortina d'Ampezzo. Italy had also hosted the Summer Olympics in 1960 in Rome. Turin was selected as the host city for the 2006 Games in June 1999.
Skeleton is a winter sliding sport in which a person rides a small sled, known as a skeleton bobsled, down a frozen track while lying face down and head-first. The sport and the sled may have been named from the bony appearance of the sled.
Indoor soccer or arena soccer, is a game derived from association football adapted for play in a walled indoor arena. Indoor soccer, as it is most often known in the United States and Canada, was originally developed in these two countries as a way to play soccer during the winter months, when snow would make outdoor play difficult. In those countries, gymnasiums are adapted for indoor soccer play. In other countries the game is played in either indoor or outdoor arenas surrounded by walls, and is referred to by different names.
Speed skating is the Olympic discipline of speed skating where competitors are timed while crossing a set distance. It is also a sport for leisure. Sports such as ice skating marathon, short track speedskating, inline speedskating, and quad speed skating are also called speed skating.
This is a glossary of terms in curling.
The Fédération Internationale du Sport Universitaire is responsible for the organisation and governance of worldwide sports competitions for student-athletes between the ages of 17 and 28. It was founded in 1949 as the world governing body of national university sports organisations and currently has 174 member associations from five continents. Between 1949 and 2011, it was based in Brussels (Belgium); since 2011, it is based in Lausanne (Switzerland).
The Royal Caledonian Curling Club (RCCC), branded as Scottish Curling is the mother club of the sport of curling, and the governing body of curling in Scotland. The RCCC was founded on 25 July 1838 in Edinburgh, and granted its royal charter by Queen Victoria in 1843, after she had witnessed a demonstration of the sport played on the polished ballroom floor of Scone Palace the previous year.
Wheelchair curling is an adaptation of curling for athletes with a disability affecting their lower limbs or gait. Wheelchair curling is governed by the World Curling Federation, and is one of the sports in the Winter Paralympic Games.
The International Luge Federation is the main international federation for all luge sports. Founded by 13 nations at Davos, Switzerland in 1957, it has members of 53 national luge associations as of 2009 and is based in Berchtesgaden, Germany.
Underwater sports is a group of competitive sports using one or a combination of the following underwater diving techniques - breath-hold, snorkelling or scuba including the use of equipment such as diving masks and fins. These sports are conducted in the natural environment at sites such as open water and sheltered or confined water such as lakes and in artificial aquatic environments such as swimming pools. Underwater sports include the following - aquathlon, finswimming, freediving, spearfishing, sport diving, underwater football, underwater hockey, underwater ice hockey, underwater orienteering, underwater photography, underwater rugby, underwater target shooting and underwater video.
The Union Internationale de Pentathlon Moderne, commonly known by the acronym UIPM, has been the international governing body of modern pentathlon since its foundation in London in 1948. Its headquarters are in Monte-Carlo, Monaco and it has 115 national federation members. Modern pentathlon was introduced at the 5th Olympiad in Stockholm (SWE) in 1912, comprising the contemporary sports of pistol shooting, fencing, swimming, horse riding and running, which embraced the spirit of its ancient counterpart.
The Israel Curling Federation (ICF) is a nonprofit organization founded in 2007 which nationally represents curling, the winter world sport which played on ice surfaces.
The sport of cross-country skiing encompasses a variety of formats for cross-country skiing races over courses of varying lengths according to rules sanctioned by the International Ski Federation and by various national organizations, such as the U.S. Ski and Snowboard Association (USSA) and Cross Country Ski Canada. International competitions include the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships, the FIS Cross-Country World Cup, and at the Winter Olympic Games. Such races occur over homologated, groomed courses designed to support classic (in-track) and freestyle events, where the skiers may employ skate skiing. It also encompasses cross-country ski marathon events, sanctioned by the Worldloppet Ski Federation, and cross-country ski orienteering events, sanctioned by the International Orienteering Federation. Related forms of competition are biathlon, where competitors race on cross-country skis and stop to shoot at targets with rifles, and paralympic cross-country skiing that allows athletes with disabilities to compete at cross-country skiing with adaptive equipment.
Snow volleyball is a winter team sport played by two teams of three players on a snow court divided by a net. The objective of each team is to score points by sending a ball over the net so as to ground it on the opponent's court, and to prevent the same effort by the opponent. A team is allowed up to three touches to return the ball across the net, and individual players may not touch the ball twice consecutively.
Doubles curling is a variation of the sport of curling with only two players on each team. Mixed doubles is the most common format of doubles curling, where the term 'mixed' specifies that each team is composed of one man and one woman. The term mixed is also used to describe a specific format of 4-person team curling where the team consists of two men and two women and the throwing order alternates genders, see mixed team.