Ignacije Szentmartony

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Ignacije Szentmartony (October 28, 1718 April 15, 1793) was a Croatian Jesuit priest, missionary, mathematician, astronomer, explorer and cartographer. [1]

Croatia Republic in Central Europe

Croatia, officially the Republic of Croatia, is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Slovenia to the northwest, Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro to the southeast, sharing a maritime border with Italy. Its capital, Zagreb, forms one of the country's primary subdivisions, along with twenty counties. Croatia has an area of 56,594 square kilometres and a population of 4.28 million, most of whom are Roman Catholics.

Contents

Biography

Szentmartony was born in Kottori, Kingdom of Hungary (today Kotoriba [2] , Međimurje, Croatia), to a Croat mother and a Hungarian father. After graduating from secondary school he entered the order of Jesuits in Vienna in 1735. He studied in Vienna and Graz, (Austria) where he also lectured mathematics. [1] By the year 1751, he was in Lisbon, Portugal where he obtained the title of royal mathematician and astronomer. With those credentials, he became a member of an expedition that worked on the rearrangement of the frontiers among Portuguese and Spanish colonies in South America.

Kingdom of Hungary former Central European monarchy (1000–1946)

The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the 20th century. The Principality of Hungary emerged as a Christian kingdom upon the coronation of the first king Stephen I at Esztergom around the year 1000; his family led the monarchy for 300 years. By the 12th century, the kingdom became a European middle power within the Western world.

Kotoriba Municipality in Međimurje, Croatia

Kotoriba is a village and municipality in Međimurje County, in northern Croatia.

Croats Slavic ethnic group

Croats or Croatians are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Croatia. Croats mainly live in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, but are also recognized minorities in such countries as Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, and Slovenia.

In 1753, he sailed for Brazil into the very mouth of the Amazon River. Based on his surveys, Lorenz Kaulen made in 1753 a map of Maranhão district titled Mappa Viceprovinciae Societatis Iesu Maragnonii anno MDCCLIII concinnata. Its original is in Biblioteca de Évora in Portugal. Another map, Mapa da Ilha do Maranhão, made in 1757 again based upon Szentmartony's surveys, is also kept here. Between 1754-56, Father Szentmartony took part in expeditions to the Amazon and the Rio Negro. Upon the data obtained from his systematical astronomical surveys, in 1755 engineers Schwebel and Sturm made a regional map titled Mappa Geographico dos Rios. It was a first-rate cartographic representation of the riverbed containing data relating to islets, tributaries and settlements. [1]

Amazon River longest river in South America, The Amazon River is on Amazonas, Brazil.

The Amazon River in South America is the largest river by discharge volume of water in the world, and by some definitions it is the longest.

Maranhão State of Brazil

Maranhão is a northeastern state of Brazil. To the north lies the Atlantic Ocean. Maranhão is neighboured by the states of Piauí, Tocantins and Pará. The people of Maranhão have a distinctive accent inside the common Northeastern Brazilian dialect. Maranhão is described in books such as The Land of the Palm Trees by Gonçalves Dias and Casa de Pensão by Aluísio Azevedo.

Rio Negro (Amazon) tributary of the Amazon river

The Rio Negro is the largest left tributary of the Amazon River, the largest blackwater river in the world, and one of the world's ten largest rivers by average discharge.

He complained vigorously about the inhumane treatment of the native people by the colonizers, so his expedition came under scrutiny and failed. Szentmartony remained as a missionary in the settlement of Ibyrajuba near Pará. In 1760 he was deported with other persecuted Jesuits, put in prison and released in 1777 upon the intervention of the Empress Maria Theresa. [1] He returned to Croatia in 1780. In 1773 his religious order was suppressed. A priest in Belica (Belicza), he died in Čakovec (Csáktornya) in 1793. [2]

Missionary member of a religious group sent into an area to do evangelism

A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize or perform ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development. The word "mission" originates from 1598 when the Jesuits sent members abroad, derived from the Latin missionem, meaning "act of sending" or mittere, meaning "to send". The word was used in light of its biblical usage; in the Latin translation of the Bible, Christ uses the word when sending the disciples to preach The gospel in his name. The term is most commonly used for Christian missions, but can be used for any creed or ideology.

Pará State of Brazil

Pará is a state in northern Brazil traversed by the lower Amazon River. It borders the Brazilian states of Amapá, Maranhão, Tocantins, Mato Grosso, Amazonas and Roraima. To the northwest it borders Guyana and Suriname; to the northeast it borders the Atlantic Ocean. The capital and largest city is Belém, at the mouth of the Amazon at the Atlantic Ocean and the 11th most populous city in the country.

Belica, Međimurje County Municipality in Međimurje, Croatia

Belica is a village and municipality in Međimurje County, the northernmost county of Croatia. The municipality seat is in the village of Belica, located around 5 kilometres east of Čakovec, the largest city of Međimurje County.

He is also believed to be the author of Einleitung zur kroatischen Sprachlehre für Teutschen, the first Kajkavian grammar, published in 1783 in Varaždin. [1]

Varaždin City in Croatia

Varaždin is a city in Northern Croatia, 81 km (50 mi) north of Zagreb. The total population is 46,946, with 38,839 on 34.22 km2 (13.21 sq mi) of the city settlement itself (2011). The centre of Varaždin County is located near the Drava River, at 46.312°N 16.361°E. It is mainly known for its baroque buildings, music, textile, food and IT industry.

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 "Szentmartony, Ignacije" (in Croatian). Miroslav Krleža Institute of Lexicography . Retrieved 6 May 2014.
  2. 1 2 Ivan Rusak; et al. "Kotoripski umjetnici - književni, likovni, glazbeni". kotoriba.hr (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 17 July 2012. Retrieved 2 August 2012.