Ignatius of Loyola

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Saint Ignatius of Loyola
St Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556) Founder of the Jesuits.jpg
Portrait by Peter Paul Rubens
Bornc.23 October 1491
Azpeitia
Died31 July 1556 (aged 64)
Rome, Papal States
Venerated in Catholic Church
Anglican Communion
Beatified 27 July 1609 by Paul V
Canonized 12 March 1622 by Gregory XV
Feast 31 July
Attributes Eucharist, chasuble, book, cross
Patronage Dioceses of San Sebastián and Bilbao, Biscay and Gipuzkoa; Basque Country; Military Ordinariate of the Philippines; Society of Jesus; Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Junín, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Archdiocese of Baltimore and Antwerp, Belgium.

Saint Ignatius of Loyola (Basque : Ignazio Loiolakoa; Spanish : Ignacio de Loyola; Latin : Ignatius de Loyola; c. 23 October 1491 [1] – 31 July 1556) was a Spanish Basque Catholic priest and theologian, who co-founded the religious order called the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) and became its first Superior General at Paris in 1541. [2] The Jesuit order served the Pope as missionaries, and they were bound by a vow of special obedience to the sovereign pontiff in regard to the missions. [3] They therefore emerged as an important force during the time of the Counter-Reformation. [4]

Saint one who has been recognized for having an exceptional degree of holiness, sanctity, and virtue

A saint is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness or closeness to God. Depending on the context and denomination, the term also retains its original Christian meaning, as any believer who is "in Christ" and in whom Christ dwells, whether in Heaven or on Earth. In Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, Oriental Orthodox, and Lutheran doctrine, all of their faithful deceased in Heaven are considered to be saints, but some are considered worthy of greater honor or emulation; official ecclesiastical recognition, and consequently veneration, is given to some saints through the process of canonization in the Catholic Church or glorification in the Eastern Orthodox Church.

Basque language language of the Basque people

Basque (; euskara[eus̺ˈkaɾa]) is a language spoken in the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and is a language isolate to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% (751,500) of Basques in all territories. Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion.

Spanish language Romance language

Spanish or Castilian is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.

Contents

Ignatius is remembered as a talented spiritual director. He recorded his method in a celebrated treatise called the Spiritual Exercises , a simple set of meditations, prayers, and other mental exercises, first published in 1548.

<i>Spiritual Exercises of Ignatius of Loyola</i> work by Ignatius of Loyola

The Spiritual Exercises of Ignatius of Loyola, composed 1522–1524, are a set of Christian meditations, contemplations, and prayers written by Saint Ignatius of Loyola, a 16th-century Spanish priest, theologian, and founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). Divided into four thematic "weeks" of variable length, they are designed to be carried out over a period of 28 to 30 days. They were composed with the intention of helping participants in religious retreats to discern the will of God in their lives, leading to a personal commitment to follow Jesus whatever the cost. Their underlying theology has been found agreeable to other Christian denominations who make use of them and also for addressing problems facing society in the 21st century.

Meditation practice where an individual focuses their mind on a particular object, thought or activity to achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state

Meditation is a practice where an individual uses a technique – such as mindfulness, or focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity – to train attention and awareness, and achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm and stable state.

Ignatius was beatified in 1609, and then canonized, receiving the title of Saint on 12 March 1622. His feast day is celebrated on 31 July. He is the patron saint of the Basque provinces of Gipuzkoa and Biscay as well as the Society of Jesus, and was declared patron saint of all spiritual retreats by Pope Pius XI in 1922. Ignatius is also a foremost patron saint of soldiers. [5]

Patron saint saint regarded as the tutelary spirit or heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family, or person

A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism or Eastern Orthodoxy, is regarded as the heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family or person.

Basque Country (greater region) cultural and historic land of the Basque people

The Basque Country is the name given to the home of the Basque people. The Basque country is located in the western Pyrenees, straddling the border between France and Spain on the coast of the Bay of Biscay. Euskal Herria is the oldest documented Basque name for the area they inhabit, dating from the 16th century.

Gipuzkoa Province of Spain

Gipuzkoa is a province of Spain and a historical territory of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. Its capital city is Donostia-San Sebastián. Gipuzkoa shares borders with the French department of Pyrénées-Atlantiques at the northeast, with the province and autonomous community of Navarre at east, Biscay at west, Álava at southwest and the Bay of Biscay to its north. It is located at the easternmost extreme of the Cantabric Sea, in the Bay of Biscay. It has 66 kilometres of coast land.

Early life

Sanctuary of Loyola, in Azpeitia, built over Ignatius' birthplace Santuario De Loyola, Basque Country, Spain.jpg
Sanctuary of Loyola, in Azpeitia, built over Ignatius' birthplace

Íñigo López de Loyola (sometimes erroneously called Íñigo López de Recalde) [6] was born in the municipality of Azpeitia at the castle of Loyola in today's Gipuzkoa, Basque Country, Spain. He was baptized Íñigo, after St. Enecus (Innicus) (Basque : Eneko; Spanish : Íñigo) Abbot of Oña, [6] a Basque medieval, affectionate name meaning "My little one". [7] It is not clear when he began using the Latin name "Ignatius" instead of his baptismal name "Íñigo". [8] It seems he did not intend to change his name, but rather adopted a name which he believed was a simple variant of his own, for use in France and Italy where it was better understood. [9]

Azpeitia Municipality in Basque Country, Spain

Azpeitia is a town and municipality within the province of Gipuzkoa, in the Basque Country of Spain, located on the Urola river a few kilometres east of Azkoitia. Its population is 14,580 (2014). It is located 41 kilometres southwest of Donostia/San Sebastián.

Íñigo of Oña Spanish saint

Saint Íñigo of Oña was the Benedictine abbot of San Salvador at Oña. He was canonised in 1259 by Pope Alexander IV and is venerated in the Roman Catholic Church, where his feast day is 1 June. He is the patron saint of Calatayud, his birthplace. Ignatius of Loyola was named after him.

Oña Municipality and town in Castile and León, Spain

Oña is a municipality and town located in the province of Burgos, Castile and León, Spain. According to the 2011 census (INE), the municipality has a population of 1,219 inhabitants.

Íñigo was the youngest of thirteen children. His mother died soon after his birth, and he was then brought up by María de Garín, the local blacksmith's wife. [10] Íñigo adopted the surname "de Loyola" in reference to the Basque village of Loyola where he was born.

Military career

Ignatius in armor Ignatius of Loyola (militant).jpg
Ignatius in armor
Saint Ignatius of Loyola's Vision of Christ and God the Father at La Storta by Domenichino Saint Ignatius of Loyola's Vision of Christ and God the Father at La Storta LACMA M.89.59.jpg
Saint Ignatius of Loyola's Vision of Christ and God the Father at La Storta by Domenichino

As a boy Íñigo became a page in the service of a relative, Juan Velázquez de Cuéllar, treasurer (contador mayor) of the kingdom of Castile.[ citation needed ]

Crown of Castile Former country in the Iberian Peninsula

The Crown of Castile was a medieval state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then Castilian king, Ferdinand III, to the vacant Leonese throne. It continued to exist as a separate entity after the personal union in 1469 of the crowns of Castile and Aragon with the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs up to the promulgation of the Nueva Planta decrees by Philip V in 1715.

As a young man Íñigo had a great love for military exercises as well as a tremendous desire for fame. He framed his life around the stories of El Cid, the knights of Camelot, and the Song of Roland . [12] He joined the army at seventeen, and according to one biographer, he strutted about "with his cape slinging open to reveal his tight-fitting hose and boots; a sword and dagger at his waist". [13] According to another he was "a fancy dresser, an expert dancer, a womanizer, sensitive to insult, and a rough punkish swordsman who used his privileged status to escape prosecution for violent crimes committed with his priest brother at carnival time." [14] Upon encountering a Moor who denied the divinity of Jesus, he challenged him to a duel to the death, and ran him through with his sword. [13] He dueled many other men as well. [13]

In 1509, at the age of 18, Íñigo took up arms for Antonio Manrique de Lara, 2nd Duke of Nájera. His diplomacy and leadership qualities earned him the title "servant of the court", which made him very useful to the Duke. [15] Under the Duke's leadership, Íñigo participated in many battles without injury. But at the Battle of Pamplona in 1521 he was gravely injured when a French-Navarrese expedition force stormed the fortress of Pamplona on 20 May 1521. A cannonball hit him in the legs, wounding his right leg and fracturing the left in multiple places. [16] Íñigo was returned to his father's castle in Loyola, where, in an era that knew nothing of anesthetics, he underwent several surgical operations to repair his legs, having the bones set and then rebroken. In the end these operations left one leg shorter than the other: Íñigo would limp for the rest of his life, and his military career was over. [14]

Religious conversion and visions

Manresa, Chapel in the Cave of Saint Ignatius where Ignatius practiced ascetism and conceived his Spiritual Exercises Manresa, Cova de Sant Ignasi-PM 58510.jpg
Manresa, Chapel in the Cave of Saint Ignatius where Ignatius practiced ascetism and conceived his Spiritual Exercises

While recovering from surgery, Íñigo underwent a spiritual conversion which led to his experiencing a call to religious life. Hospitals in those days were run by religious orders, and the reading material available to bedridden patients tended to be selected from scripture or devotional literature. This is how Íñigo came to read a series of religious texts on the life of Jesus and on the lives of the saints, since the "romances of chivalry" he loved to read were not available to him in the castle. [6]

The religious work which most particularly struck him was the De Vita Christi of Ludolph of Saxony. [17] This book would influence his whole life, inspiring him to devote himself to God and follow the example of Francis of Assisi and other great monks. It also inspired his method of meditation, since Ludolph proposes that the reader place himself mentally at the scene of the Gospel story, visualising the crib at the Nativity, etc. This type of meditation, known as Simple Contemplation, was the basis for the method that St. Ignatius would promote in his Spiritual Exercises . [18] [19] [20]

Aside from dreaming about imitating the saints in his readings, Íñigo was still wandering off in his mind about what "he would do in service to his king and in honor of the royal lady he was in love with". Cautiously he came to realize the after-effect of both kinds of his dreams. He experienced a desolation and dissatisfaction when the romantic heroism dream was over, but, the saintly dream ended with much joy and peace. It was the first time he learned about discernment. [14]

After he had recovered sufficiently to walk again, Íñigo resolved to begin a pilgrimage to the Holy Land to "kiss the earth where our Lord had walked", [14] and to do stricter penances. [21] He thought that his plan was confirmed by a vision of the Virgin Mary and the infant Jesus he experienced one night, which resulted in much consolation to him. [21] In March 1522, he visited the Benedictine monastery of Santa Maria de Montserrat. There, he carefully examined his past sins, confessed, gave his fine clothes to the poor he met, wore a "garment of sack-cloth", then hung his sword and dagger at the Virgin's altar during an overnight vigil at the shrine. [6]

From Montserrat he walked on to the nearby town of Manresa (Catalonia), where he lived for about a year, begging for his keep, and then eventually doing chores at a local hospital in exchange for food and lodging. For several months he spent much of his time praying in a cave nearby [22] where he practiced rigorous asceticism, praying for seven hours a day, and formulating the fundamentals of his Spiritual Exercises.

Íñigo also experienced a series of visions in full daylight while at the hospital. These repetitive visions appeared as "a form in the air near him and this form gave him much consolation because it was exceedingly beautiful ... it somehow seemed to have the shape of a serpent and had many things that shone like eyes, but were not eyes. He received much delight and consolation from gazing upon this object ... but when the object vanished he became disconsolate". [23] He came to interpret this vision as diabolical in nature. [24]

Period of study

In September 1523, Íñigo made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land with the goal of settling there. He remained there from 3 to 23 September but he was sent back to Europe by the Franciscans. [25]

He returned to Barcelona and at the age of thirty-three began to attend a free public grammar school to prepare himself for entrance to a university. When his preparation was complete, he then went on to the University of Alcalá, [26] where he studied theology and Latin from 1524 to 1534.

There he encountered some women who had been called before the Inquisition. These women were considered alumbrados (Illuminated, Illuminati, or Enlightened Ones) – a group that was linked in their zeal and spirituality to Franciscan reforms, but had incurred mounting suspicion on the part of the administrators of the Inquisition. At one point, Íñigo was preaching on the street when three of these devout women began to experience ecstatic states. "One fell senseless, another sometimes rolled about on the ground, another had been seen in the grip of convulsions or shuddering and sweating in anguish." This suspicious activity had taken place while Íñigo was preaching without a degree in theology. Íñigo was then singled out for interrogation by the Inquisition; however, he was later released. [27]

After these adventurous activities, Íñigo (by now Ignatius) moved to Paris to study at the famous University. He studied at the ascetic Collège de Montaigu, where he remained for over seven years.[ citation needed ]

He arrived during a period of anti-Protestant turmoil which forced John Calvin to flee France. Very soon after his arrival Ignatius had gathered around him six key companions, all of whom he had met as fellow students at the University. [28] Francis Xavier, Alfonso Salmeron, Diego Laynez, and Nicholas Bobadilla, all Spanish; Peter Faber, a Savoyard; and Simão Rodrigues of Portugal. Peter Faber, a young man from Savoy in the south of France, and Francis Xavier, a nobleman from the eastern end of the Basque country, were his first roommates, [14] and would become his closest associates in founding the Jesuit order.

"On the morning of the 15th of August, 1534, in the chapel of church of Saint Peter, at Montmartre, Loyola and his six companions, of whom only one was a priest, met and took upon themselves the solemn vows of their lifelong work." [29]

Later, they were joined by Saint Francis Borgia, a member of the House of Borgia, who was the main aide of Emperor Charles V, and other nobles.[ citation needed ]

Ignatius obtained a master's degree from the University of Paris at the age of forty-three. In later life he was often called "Master Ignatius" because of this. [29]

Foundation of the Jesuit order

In 1539, with Saint Peter Faber and Saint Francis Xavier, Ignatius formed the Society of Jesus, which was approved in 1540 by Pope Paul III. Ignatius was chosen as the first Superior General of the order and invested with the title of Father General by the Jesuits. [30]

Ignatius sent his companions as missionaries around Europe to create schools, colleges, and seminaries. Juan de Vega, the ambassador of Charles V at Rome, met Ignatius there. Esteeming Ignatius and the Jesuits, when Vega was appointed Viceroy of Sicily, he brought Jesuits with him. A Jesuit college was opened at Messina, which proved a success, and its rules and methods were afterwards copied in other colleges. [31]

In 1548 Ignatius was briefly brought before the Roman Inquisition for examination of his book of Spiritual Exercises. But he was released and the book was finally given papal permission to be printed. It was published in a format such that the exercises were designed to be carried out over a period of 28–30 days.[ citation needed ]

Ignatius, along with the help of his personal secretary Juan Alfonso de Polanco wrote the Jesuit Constitutions, adopted in 1553. It created a centralized organization for the order, [32] [33] and stressed absolute self-denial and obedience to the Pope and to superiors in the Church hierarchy, using the motto perinde ac cadaver – "as if a dead body", [34] i.e. that the good Jesuit should be as well-disciplined as a corpse. [35] But his main principle became the Jesuit motto: Ad maiorem Dei gloriam ("for the greater glory of God").

During the years 1553–1555, Ignatius dictated his autobiography to his secretary, Father Gonçalves da Câmara. This autobiography ("Autobiografía de San Ignacio de Loyola" in Wikisource in Spanish) is a valuable key for understanding his Spiritual Exercises. It was kept in the archives of the Jesuit order for about 150 years, until the Bollandists published the text in Acta Sanctorum .[ citation needed ]

Death and canonization

Ignatius died in Rome on 31 July 1556, as a result of the Roman Fever, a severe case of malaria that recurred in Rome, Italy, at different points in history. An autopsy revealed that he also had several kidney and bladder stones, a probable cause of the abdominal pains he suffered from later in life. [36] At this time he was placed in a wooden shrine, his body was then covered with his priestly garments. On 1 August the shrine was then buried in the small Maria della Strada Church. In 1568 that church was pulled down and replaced with the Church of the Gesù. Saint Ignatius was put into a new coffin and reinterred in the new church. [37]

Ignatius was beatified by Pope Paul V on 27 July 1609, and canonized by Pope Gregory XV on 12 March 1622. [38] His feast day is celebrated annually on 31 July, the day he died. Saint Ignatius is venerated as the patron saint of Catholic soldiers, the Military Ordinariate of the Philippines, the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Baltimore, [39] the Basque Country, Antwerp, Belo Horizonte, Junín and various towns and cities in his native region.

Legacy

Ignatius has to this day a powerful and respectable legacy. Of the institutions dedicated to Saint Ignatius, one of the most famous is the Basilica of St Ignatius Loyola, built next to the house where he was born in Azpeitia, the Basque Country, Spain. The house itself, now a museum, is incorporated into the basilica complex. In addition, he has had a global impact, having been the influence behind numerous Jesuit schools and educational institutions worldwide.[ citation needed ]

In 1671, the mission at St. Ignace, Michigan was named in his honor, by Father Jacques Marquette. The present day St. Ignace still bears his name.

In 1949 he was the subject of a Spanish biographical film The Captain from Loyola in which he was played by Rafael Durán.[ citation needed ]

In 2016, he was the subject of a Filipino film Ignacio de Loyola in which he was played by Andreas Muñoz. [40]

Genealogy

Original shield of Onaz-Loyola. Blason d'Ignace de Loyola.svg
Original shield of Oñaz-Loyola.

Shield of Oñaz-Loyola

The Shield of Oñaz-Loyola is a symbol of Saint Ignatius family's Oñaz lineage, and is used by many Jesuit institutions around the world. As the official colors of the Loyola family are maroon and gold, [41] the Oñaz shield consists of seven maroon bars going diagonally from the upper left to the lower right on a gold field. The bands were granted by the King of Spain to each of the Oñaz brothers, in recognition of their bravery in battle. The Loyola shield features a pair of rampant gray wolves flanking each side of a cooking pot. The wolf was a symbol of nobility, while the entire design represented the family's generosity towards their military followers. According to legend, wolves had enough to feast on after the soldiers had eaten. Both shields were combined as a result of the intermarriage of the two families in 1261. [42] [43]

Lineage

Villoslada established the following detailed genealogy of Saint Ignatius: [1]

Bibliography

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 García Villoslada, Ricardo (1986). San Ignacio de Loyola: Nueva biografía (in Spanish). La Editorial Católica. ISBN   84-220-1267-7. We deduct that, (...), Iñigo de Loyola should have been born before 23 October 1491.
  2. Idígoras Tellechea, José Ignacio (1994). "When was he born? His nurse's account". Ignatius of Loyola: The Pilgrim Saint. Chicago: Loyola University Press. p. 45. ISBN   0-8294-0779-0.
  3. Ignatius of Loyola (1970). The constitutions of the society of Jesus. Translated by Ganss, George E. Institute of Jesuit Sources. p.  249 [No. 529]. The entire meaning of this fourth vow of obedience to the pope was and is in regard to the missions ... this obedience is treated: in everything which the sovereign pontiff commands.
  4. Nugent, Donald (1974). Ecumenism in the Age of the Reformation: The Colloquy of Poissy. Harvard University Press. p. 189. ISBN   0-674-23725-0.
  5. "Summer Fiestas" (PDF). euskadi.net. Retrieved 24 July 2008.
  6. 1 2 3 4 Wikisource-logo.svg  John Hungerford Pollen (1913). "St.IgnatiusLoyola"  . In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton Company.|access-date= requires |url= (help)
  7. "Nombres: Eneko". Euskaltzaindia (The Royal Academy of the Basque Language). Retrieved 23 April 2009. Article in Spanish
  8. Verd, Gabriel María (1976). "El "Íñigo" de San Ignacio de Loyola". Archivum Historicum Societatis Iesu (in Spanish). Roma: Institutum Historicum Societatis Iesu. 45: 95–128. ISSN   0037-8887.
  9. Verd, Gabriel María (1991). "De Iñigo a Ignacio. El cambio de nombre en San Ignacio de Loyola". Archivum Historicum Societatis Iesu (in Spanish). Roma: Institutum Historicum Societatis Iesu. 60: 113–160. ISSN   0037-8887. That St. Ignatius of Loyola's name was changed is a known fact, but it cannot be said that it is widely known in the historiography of the saint—neither the characteristics of the names Iñigo and Ignacio nor the reasons for the change. It is first necessary to make clear the meaning of the names; they are distinct, despite the persistently held opinion in onomastic (dictionaries) and popular thought. In Spain Ignacio and Iñigo are at times used interchangeably just as if they were Jacobo and Jaime. With reference to the name Iñigo, it is fitting to give some essential notions to eliminate ambiguities and help understand what follows. This name first appears on the Ascoli brome (dated November 18, 90 BC), in a list of Spanish knights belonging to a Turma salluitana or Saragossan. It speaks of Elandus Enneces f[ilius], and according to Menéndez Pidal the final «s» is the «z» of Spanish patronymics, and could be nothing other than Elando Iñiguez. It is an ancestral Hispanic name. Ignacio, on the other hand, is a Latin name. In classical Latin there is Egnatius with an initial E. It appears only twice with an initial I (Ignatius) in the sixty volumes of the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. This late Latin and Greek form prevailed. In the classical period Egnatius was used as a nomen (gentilitial name) and not as a praenomen (first name) or cognomen (surname), except in very rare cases. (...) The most important conclusion, perhaps unexpected, but not unknown, is that St. Ignatius did not change his name. That is to say, he did not intend to change it. What he did was to adopt for France and Italy a name which he believed was a simple variant of his own, and which was more acceptable among foreigners.... If he had remained in Spain, he would have, without doubt, remained Iñigo.
  10. Page 9, Ignatius of Loyola, the Psychology of a Saint; W.W Meissner SJ MD, Yale University Press, 1992
  11. "Saint Ignatius of Loyola's Vision of Christ and God the Father at La Storta". lacma.org. Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA). 30 November 2016.
  12. Ironically, the Song of Roland has Roland being slain by Moors, when historically his death was at the hands of Basques like Íñigo himself.
  13. 1 2 3 Richard Cohen (5 August 2003). By the Sword: A History of Gladiators, Musketeers, Samurai, Swashbucklers, and Olympic Champions. Modern Library Paperbacks.
  14. 1 2 3 4 5 Traub, S.J.,George and Mooney, Ph.D., Debra. A Biography of St. Ignatius Loyola, Xavier University
  15. In Spanish the title was "Gentilhombre", but this should not be understood as synonymous with the English term gentleman, which denotes a man of good family. See Thomas Rochford, Ignatius Loyola: the pilgrim and man of prayer who founded the Society of Jesus "St. Ignatius Loyola: the pilgrim and man of prayer who founded the Society of Jesus", accessed 15 November 2007.]
  16. Rochford, Thomas. "St. Ignatius Loyola: the pilgrim and man of prayer who founded the Society of Jesus". Society of Jesus. Retrieved 15 November 2007.
  17. De Vita Christi is a commentary on the Gospels, using extracts from the works of over sixty Church Fathers, and particularly quoting from St Gregory the Great, St Basil, St Augustine and the Venerable Bede. This work took Ludolph forty years to complete.
  18. Sr Mary Immaculate Bodenstedt, "The Vita Christi of Ludolphus the Carthusian", a Dissertation, Washington: Catholic University of America Press 1944 British Library Catalogue No. Ac2692.y/29.(16).
  19. "The Vita Christi" by Charles Abbot Conway Analecta Cartusiana 34
  20. "Ludolph's Life of Christ" by Father Henry James Coleridge in The Month Vol. 17 (New Series VI) July–December 1872, pp. 337–370
  21. 1 2 Margo J. Heydt; Sarah J. Melcher (May 2008). "Mary, the Hidden Catalyst: Reflections from an Ignatian Pilgrimage to Spain and Rome". Xavier University.
  22. "The Cave an artistic heritage". The Cave. Place of pilgrimage and worship. Retrieved 4 August 2014.
  23. Jean Lacouture, Jesuits, A Multibiography, Washington, D.C.: Counterpoint, 1995, p. 18.
  24. Demski, Eric (2014). Living by the Sword. Bloomington, Indiana: Trafford Publishing. p.  289. ISBN   978-1-490-73607-5. ISBN   1-49073607-7.
  25. Twelve years later, standing before the Pope with his companions, Ignatius would again propose sending his companions as emissaries to Jerusalem. Jean Lacouture, Jesuits, A Multibiography, Washington, D.C.: Counterpoint, 1995, p. 24.
  26. That is, the present-day Complutense University of Madrid, not the newer University of Alcalá established in 1977.
  27. Jesuits, A Multibiography by Jean Lacouture, pp. 27–29, Washington, D.C.: Counterpoint, 1995
  28. Michael Servetus Research Website that includes graphical documents in the University of Paris of: Ignations of Loyola, Francis Xavier, Alfonso Salmerón, Nicholas Bobadilla, Peter Faber and Simao Rodrigues, as well as Michael de Villanueva ("Servetus")
  29. 1 2 History of The World by John Clarke Ridpath, Vol. V, pp. 238, New York: Merrill & Baker, 1899
  30. "Saint Ignatius of Loyola | Biography & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  31. Wikisource-logo.svg J.H. Pollen (1913). "History of the Jesuits Before the 1773 Suppression"  . In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton Company.|access-date= requires |url= (help)
  32. Ignatius of Loyola (1970). The constitutions of the society of Jesus. Translated by Ganss, George E. Institute of Jesuit Sources. p.  249. Carried and directed by Divine Providence through the agency of the superior as if he were a lifeless body which allows itself to be carried to any place and to be treated in any manner desired.
  33. Painter, F. V. N. (1903). A History of Education. International Education Series. 2. New York: D. Appleton and Company. p. 167.
  34. Jesuitas (1583). "SEXTA PARS – CAP. 1". Constitutiones Societatis Iesu: cum earum declarationibus (in Latin).
  35. Ignatius of Loyola (1970). The constitutions of the society of Jesus. Translated by George E. Ganss. Institute of Jesuit Sources. p.  249. Carried and directed by Divine Providence through the agency of the superior as if he were a lifeless body which allows itself to be carried to any place and to be treated in any manner desired.
  36. Siraisi, Nancy G. (2001). Medicine and the Italian Universities: 1250-1600. BRILL. ISBN   9004119426.
  37. Martin, Malachi (28 May 2013). Jesuits. Simon and Schuster. pp. 169–170. ISBN   9781476751887 . Retrieved 11 March 2018.
  38. de Pablo, José (28 February 2017). "Canonization of St Ignatius of Loyola and St Francis Xavier". Jesuit Conference of European Provincials. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
  39. "Welcome to the Archdiocese of Baltimore". Archdiocese of Baltimore.
  40. Tantiangco, Aya (20 July 2016). "PHL film 'Ignacio de Loyola' not just for the religious, say director and star". GMA Network (company) . Retrieved 28 July 2016.
  41. "Manresa Iconography – Manresa House of Retreats, Convent, LA".
  42. "Loyola Crests – Loyola High School, Montreal, Quebec, Canada".
  43. "Saint Ignatius' College Riverview". www.riverview.nsw.edu.au.

Further reading

Catholic Church titles
New office Superior General of the Society of Jesus
1540–1556
Succeeded by
Diego Laynez