Ikiru

Last updated
Ikiru
Ikiru poster.jpg
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Akira Kurosawa
Screenplay by
Produced by Sōjirō Motoki
Starring
Cinematography Asakazu Nakai
Edited byKōichi Iwashita
Music by Fumio Hayasaka
Production
company
Toho Company
Distributed by Toho
Release date
  • October 9, 1952 (1952-10-09)
Running time
143 minutes
CountryJapan
LanguageJapanese

Ikiru (生きる, "To Live") is a 1952 Japanese drama film directed and co-written (with Shinobu Hashimoto and Hideo Oguni) by Akira Kurosawa. The film examines the struggles of a terminally ill Tokyo bureaucrat (played by Takashi Shimura) and his final quest for meaning. The screenplay was partly inspired by Leo Tolstoy's 1886 novella The Death of Ivan Ilyich .

Contents

The major themes of the film include learning how to live, the inefficiency of bureaucracy, and decaying family life in Japan, which have been the subject of analysis by academics and critics. Ikiru has received widespread critical acclaim, and won awards for Best Film at the Kinema Junpo and Mainichi Film Awards. It was remade as a television film in 2007.

Plot

Kanji Watanabe has worked in the same monotonous bureaucratic position for thirty years and is near his retirement. His wife is dead and his son and daughter-in-law, who live with him, seem to care mainly about Watanabe's pension and their future inheritance. At work, he's a party to constant bureaucratic inaction. In one case, a group of parents are seemingly endlessly referred to one department after another when they want a cesspool cleared out and replaced by a playground. After learning he has stomach cancer and less than a year to live, Watanabe attempts to come to terms with his impending death. He plans to tell his son about the cancer, but decides against it when his son does not pay attention to him. He then tries to find escape in the pleasures of Tokyo's nightlife, guided by an eccentric novelist whom he has just met. In a nightclub, Watanabe requests a song from the piano player, and sings "Gondola no Uta" with great sadness. His singing greatly affects those watching him. After one night submerged in the nightlife, he realizes this is not the solution.

The following day, Watanabe encounters a young female subordinate, Toyo, who needs his signature on her resignation. He takes comfort in observing her joyous love of life and enthusiasm and tries to spend as much time as possible with her. She eventually becomes suspicious of his intentions and grows weary of him. After convincing her to join him for the last time, he opens up and asks for the secret to her love of life. She says that she does not know, but that she found happiness in her new job making toys, which makes her feel like she is playing with all the children of Japan. Inspired by her, Watanabe realizes that it is not too late for him to do something significant. Like Toyo, he wants to make something, but is unsure what he can do within the city bureaucracy until he remembers the lobbying for a playground. He surprises everyone by returning to work after a long absence, and begins pushing for a playground despite concerns he is intruding on the jurisdiction of other departments.

Watanabe dies, and at his wake, his former co-workers gather, after the opening of the playground, and try to figure out what caused such a dramatic change in his behavior. His transformation from listless bureaucrat to passionate advocate puzzles them. As the co-workers drink, they slowly realize that Watanabe must have known he was dying, even when his son denies this, as he was unaware of his father's condition. They also hear from a witness that in the last few moments in Watanabe's life, he sat on the swing at the park he built. As the snow fell, he sang "Gondola no Uta". The bureaucrats vow to live their lives with the same dedication and passion as he did. But back at work, they lack the courage of their newfound conviction.

Cast

Shimura Takashi.JPG
Tanaka Haruo.JPG
Takashi Shimura and Haruo Tanaka have starring roles.

Themes

Living

Death is a major theme in the film, which leads to the protagonist Watanabe's quest to find the meaning of life. [1] Initially, Watanabe looks to nightclubs and women to live life to the fullest, but winds up singing the 1915 song "Gondola no Uta" as an expression of loss. [2] Professor Alexander Sesonske writes that in the nightclub scene, Watanabe realizes "pleasure is not life," and that a goal gives him new happiness, with the song "Happy Birthday to You" symbolizing his rebirth. [1] Because Toyo is young, she has the best insight as to how to live, and is presented as the "unlikely savior" in Watanabe's "redemption." [2]

Author Donald Richie wrote that the title of the film, meaning simply "to live," could signify that "existence is enough." However, Watanabe finds existence is painful, and takes this as inspiration, wanting to ensure his life has not been futile. The justification of his life, found in his park, is how Watanabe discovered how "to live." [3] [4] In the end, Watanabe now sings "Gondola no Uta" with great contentment. [2]

Bureaucracy

Ikiru is also an "indictment of Japanese bureaucracy." [1] In Japan after World War II, it was expected that the sararīman (salary man) would work predictably in accordance with an organization's rules. [5] The scene where the mothers first visit the city office requesting a playground shows "unconcern" in the bureaucrats, who send the visitors on a "farcical runaround," before asking them for a written request, with paperwork in the film symbolizing "meaningless activity." [6] Despite this, Watanabe uses the bureaucracy to forge his legacy, and is apparently not disturbed when the bureaucracy quickly forgets he drove the project to build the playground. [7]

Japanese health care is also depicted as overly bureaucratic in the film, as Watanabe visits a clinic in a "poignant" scene. [8] The doctor is portrayed as paternalistic, and Watanabe does not stand up to his authority. [9]

Family life

Author Timothy Iles writes that, as with Yasujirō Ozu's 1953 film Tokyo Story , Ikiru may hold a negative view about the state of family life in modern Japan. Watanabe has lived with his son for years, but they have fallen out of any true relationship. His son, Mitsuo, sees Watanabe as a bother, and regards him as only an obstacle to his obtaining the money from Watanabe's will. [10] The children fall short of their responsibility to respect their parents. [11]

Urbanization may be a reason for negative changes in Japanese society, although a reason for Watanabe and Mitsuo's drift is also Watanabe's preoccupation with work. [11] Another reason is Watanabe not being with Mitsuo during a medical treatment when the boy was 10, which fits a pattern in Kurosawa's films of sons being overly harsh to their fathers. [12]

Production

Leo Tolstoy, portrait.jpg
Oguni Hideo.JPG
Leo Tolstoy's The Death of Ivan Ilyich was an inspiration for the screenplay, co-written by Hideo Oguni.

The film marked the first collaboration between director Akira Kurosawa and screenwriter Hideo Oguni. According to Oguni, the genesis of the film was Kurosawa's desire to make a film about a man who knows he is going to die, and wants a reason to live for a short time. [13] Oguni was an experienced writer and was offered ¥500,000, while co-writer Shinobu Hashimoto was offered ¥150,000. Initially, Kurosawa told Hashimoto that a man who was set to die in 75 days had to be the theme, and that the character's career was less important, with the director saying criminal, homeless man or government minister would be acceptable. [14]

The screenwriters consulted Leo Tolstoy's novella The Death of Ivan Ilyich , and Oguni envisioned placing Watanabe's death halfway through the film. [13] Kurosawa dictated the scene where Watanabe is on the swing, and mentioned the beginning lyrics of "Gondola no Uta." Since none of the men were familiar with the song, they consulted their eldest receptionist on the rest of the lyrics and the song title. [14]

Kurosawa renamed the draft The Life of Kanji Watanabe to Ikiru, which Hashimoto found pretentious, but Oguni supported. The screenplay was completed on 5 February 1952. [14]

Release

In Japan, Toho released the film on 9 October 1952. [15] The film was also screened in the 1954 Berlin International Film Festival. [16]

In the United States, the film was shown for a short time in California in 1956, under the title Doomed. [13] It opened as Ikiru in New York City on 29 January 1960. [17] The film poster featured the stripper seen briefly in the film, rather than Watanabe. [13]

Reception

Critical reception

Takashi Shimura as Kanji Watanabe in the iconic scene Ikiru 1.jpg
Takashi Shimura as Kanji Watanabe in the iconic scene

The film won critical approval upon its release. [18] Bosley Crowther, writing for The New York Times , called it "a strangely fascinating and affecting film, up to a point—that being the point where it consigns its aged hero to the great beyond," which he deemed "anti-climactic." Crowther praised Shimura, saying he "measures up through his performance in this picture with the top film actors anywhere," and complimented Miki Odagiri, Nobuo Kaneko and Yunosuke Ito. [17] Variety staff called the film "a tour-de-force," by "keeping a dramatic thread throughout and avoiding the mawkish." [19]

Roger Ebert added it to his list of Great Movies in 1996, saying, "Over the years I have seen Ikiru every five years or so, and each time it has moved me, and made me think. And the older I get, the less Watanabe seems like a pathetic old man, and the more he seems like every one of us." [20] In his Great Movies review of Seven Samurai , Ebert called it Kurosawa's greatest film. [21] In 2008, Wally Hammond of Time Out praised Ikiru as "one of the triumphs of humanist cinema." [22] That year, The New Yorker's Michael Sragow described it as a "masterwork," noting Kurosawa was usually associated more with his action films. [23] The scene featuring Watanabe on the swing in the playground he built has been described as "iconic." Writer Pico Iyer has commented on the film's depiction of the postwar Japanese healthcare system, and historian David Conrad has remarked on its portrayal of Japanese governance at the moment Japan regained its sovereignty after a 7-year American occupation. [24] [25] [26] [27]

In 1972 Sight & Sound critics poll named Ikiru the 12th greatest film of all time. [28] The Village Voice ranked the film at number 212 in its Top 250 "Best Films of the Century" list in 1999, based on a poll of critics. [29] Empire magazine ranked Ikiru 459th on its 2008 list of the 500 greatest movies of all time, [30] and 44th on its 2010 list of "The 100 Best Films Of World Cinema." [31] In 2009 the film was voted at No. 13 on the list of The Greatest Japanese Films of All Time by Japanese film magazine Kinema Junpo. [32] In 2010 Ikiru was included on Time 's All-Time 100 best movies list. [33] In 2012 the film ranked 127th and 132nd on critic's and director's poll respectively in Sight & Sound Top 250 Films list. [34] Martin Scorsese included it on a list of "39 Essential Foreign Films for a Young Filmmaker." [35] The film was included in BBC's 2018 list of The 100 greatest foreign language films. [36] Conversely, in 2016 The Daily Telegraph named it one of the 10 most overrated films. [37] The film has a 98% positive rating on Rotten Tomatoes based on 44 reviews, with a weighted average of 8.76/10. The site's consensus reads: "Ikiru is a well-acted and deeply moving humanist tale about a man facing his own mortality, one of legendary director Akira Kurosawa's most intimate films". [38]

Accolades

The film competed for the Golden Bear at the 4th Berlin International Film Festival in 1954. [16]

AwardDate of ceremonyCategoryRecipient(s)ResultRef(s)
BAFTA Awards 1960 Best Foreign Actor Takashi Shimura Nominated [39]
Berlin International Film Festival 18–29 June 1954 Special Prize of the Senate of Berlin Akira Kurosawa Won [15]
Kinema Junpo Awards 1953 Best Film Won [15]
Mainichi Film Awards 1953 Best Film Won [15]
Best Screenplay Akira Kurosawa, Shinobu Hashimoto and Hideo Oguni Won
Best Sound Recording Fumio Yanoguchi Won
Ministry of Education 1953Minister of Education AwardWon [15]

Legacy

Kurosawa believed William Shakespeare's play Macbeth could serve as a cautionary tale complementing Ikiru, thus directing his 1957 film Throne of Blood . [40] Ikiru was remade as a Japanese television film that debuted on TV Asahi on 9 September 2007, the day after a remake of Kurosawa's High and Low . The Ikiru remake stars kabuki actor Matsumoto Kōshirō IX. [41]

Anand , a 1971 Indian Hindi film, was loosely inspired by Ikiru. [42] In 2003, DreamWorks attempted to make a U.S. remake, which would star Tom Hanks in the lead role, and talked to Richard Price about adapting the screenplay. [43] Jim Sheridan agreed to direct the film in 2004, [44] though it has not been produced.

A British remake titled Living , adapted by Kazuo Ishiguro, directed by Oliver Hermanus, and starring Bill Nighy, was released in 2022. [45]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Akira Kurosawa</span> Japanese filmmaker (1910–1998)

Akira Kurosawa was a Japanese filmmaker and painter who directed thirty films in a career spanning over five decades. He is widely regarded as one of the most important and influential filmmakers in the history of cinema. Kurosawa displayed a bold, dynamic style, strongly influenced by Western cinema yet distinct from it; he was involved with all aspects of film production.

<i>Seven Samurai</i> 1954 Japanese film by Akira Kurosawa

Seven Samurai is a 1954 Japanese epic samurai drama film co-written, edited, and directed by Akira Kurosawa. The story takes place in 1586 during the Sengoku period of Japanese history. It follows the story of a village of desperate farmers who hire seven rōnin to combat bandits who will return after the harvest to steal their crops.

<i>Throne of Blood</i> 1957 Japanese film by Akira Kurosawa

Throne of Blood is a 1957 Japanese jidaigeki film co-written, produced, edited, and directed by Akira Kurosawa, with special effects by Eiji Tsuburaya. The film transposes the plot of William Shakespeare's play Macbeth from Medieval Scotland to feudal Japan, with stylistic elements drawn from Noh drama. The film stars Toshiro Mifune and Isuzu Yamada in the lead roles, modelled on the characters Macbeth and Lady Macbeth.

<i>Rashomon</i> 1950 Japanese film by Akira Kurosawa

Rashomon is a 1950 Jidaigeki psychological thriller/crime film directed and written by Akira Kurosawa, working in close collaboration with cinematographer Kazuo Miyagawa. Starring Toshiro Mifune, Machiko Kyō, Masayuki Mori, and Takashi Shimura as various people who describe how a samurai was murdered in a forest, the plot and characters are based upon Ryunosuke Akutagawa’s short story "In a Grove", with the title and framing story being based on "Rashōmon", another short story by Akutagawa. Every element is largely identical, from the murdered samurai speaking through a Shinto psychic to the bandit in the forest, the monk, the assault of the wife and the dishonest retelling of the events in which everyone shows his or her ideal self by lying.

<i>Red Beard</i> 1965 Japanese film

Red Beard is a 1965 Japanese jidaigeki film co-written, edited, and directed by Akira Kurosawa, in his last collaboration with actor Toshiro Mifune. Based on Shūgorō Yamamoto's 1959 short story collection, Akahige Shinryōtan, the film takes place in Koishikawa, a district of Edo, towards the end of the Tokugawa period, and is about the relationship between a town doctor and his new trainee. Fyodor Dostoevsky's novel Humiliated and Insulted provided the source for a subplot about a young girl, Otoyo, who is rescued from a brothel.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Takashi Shimura</span> Japanese actor

Takashi Shimura was a Japanese actor who appeared in over 200 films between 1934 and 1981. He appeared in 21 of Akira Kurosawa's 30 films, including as a lead actor in Drunken Angel (1948), Rashomon (1950), Ikiru (1952) and Seven Samurai (1954). He played Professor Kyohei Yamane in Ishirō Honda's original Godzilla (1954). For his contributions to the arts, the Japanese government decorated Shimura with the Medal with Purple Ribbon in 1974 and the Order of the Rising Sun, 4th Class, Gold Rays with Rosette in 1980.

<i>Yojimbo</i> 1961 Japanese film by Akira Kurosawa

Yojimbo is a 1961 Japanese samurai film co-written, produced, edited, and directed by Akira Kurosawa. The film stars Toshiro Mifune, Tatsuya Nakadai, Yoko Tsukasa, Isuzu Yamada, Daisuke Katō, Takashi Shimura, Kamatari Fujiwara, and Atsushi Watanabe. In the film, a rōnin arrives in a small town where competing crime lords vie for supremacy. The two bosses each try to hire the newcomer as a bodyguard.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kamatari Fujiwara</span> Japanese actor

Kamatari Fujiwara was a Japanese actor.

<i>Stray Dog</i> (film) 1949 film directed by Akira Kurosawa

Stray Dog is a 1949 Japanese film noir crime drama directed by Akira Kurosawa and starring Toshiro Mifune and Takashi Shimura. It was Kurosawa's second film of 1949 produced by the Film Art Association and released by Shintoho. It is also considered a detective movie that explores the mood of Japan during its painful postwar recovery. The film is also considered a precursor to the contemporary police procedural and buddy cop film genres, based on its premise of pairing two cops with different personalities and motivations together on a difficult case.

<i>Dodeska-den</i> 1970 Japanese film

Dodes'ka-den is a 1970 Japanese drama film directed by Akira Kurosawa. The film stars Yoshitaka Zushi, Kin Sugai, Toshiyuki Tonomura, and Shinsuke Minami. It is based on Shūgorō Yamamoto's 1962 novel A City Without Seasons and is about a group of homeless people living in poverty on the outskirts of Tokyo.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Shinobu Hashimoto</span> Japanese screenwriter (1918–2018)

Shinobu Hashimoto was a Japanese screenwriter, film director and producer. A frequent collaborator of Akira Kurosawa, he wrote the scripts for such internationally acclaimed films as Rashomon and Seven Samurai.

<i>The Most Beautiful</i> 1944 Japanese film by Akira Kurosawa

The Most Beautiful is a 1944 Japanese drama and propaganda film written and directed by Akira Kurosawa. The semidocumentary film follows a group of female volunteer workers at an optics factory during the Second World War, during which the film was produced.

<i>Scandal</i> (1950 film) 1950 Japanese film

Scandal is a 1950 Japanese film written and directed by Akira Kurosawa. The film stars Toshirō Mifune, Takashi Shimura and Shirley Yamaguchi.

<i>I Live in Fear</i> 1955 Japanese film by Akira Kurosawa

I Live in Fear is a 1955 Japanese drama film directed by Akira Kurosawa, produced by Sōjirō Motoki, and co-written by Kurosawa, Shinobu Hashimoto, and Hideo Oguni. The film is about an elderly Japanese factory owner so terrified of the prospect of a nuclear attack that he becomes determined to move his entire extended family to what he imagines is the safety of a farm in Brazil.

Gondola no Uta is a 1915 romantic ballad that was popular in Taishō period Japan. Lyrics were written by Isamu Yoshii, melody by Shinpei Nakayama. The lyrics of the song are presented as the advice of an experienced individual to younger souls regarding the fleeting nature of youth and the caution against missing the opportunities of youth when they are available and before they have passed with growing age.

A number of Akira Kurosawa's films have been remade.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hideo Oguni</span> Japanese screenwriter

Hideo Oguni was a Japanese writer who wrote over 100 screenplays. He is best known for co-writing screenplays for a number of films directed by Akira Kurosawa, including Ikiru, The Seven Samurai, Throne of Blood and The Hidden Fortress. His first film with Kurosawa was Ikiru, and according to film professor Catherine Russell, it was Oguni who devised that film's two-part structure. Film critic Donald Richie regarded him as the "humanist" among Kurosawa's writers. In 2013, Oguni and frequent screenwriting collaborators Kurosawa, Shinobu Hashimoto and Ryūzō Kikushima were awarded the Jean Renoir Award by the Writers Guild of America West.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ryūzō Kikushima</span> Japanese writer and film producer

Ryuzo Kikushima was a Japanese writer and film producer who is best known for co-writing the screenplays for several Akira Kurosawa films, including Throne of Blood, The Hidden Fortress, Yojimbo and High and Low. He also produced several of Kurosawa's early 1960s films. In addition to his work with Kurosawa, screenplays he wrote or co-wrote include Tora! Tora! Tora!, Hiroshi Inagaki's Arashi and The Birth of Japan, and Mikio Naruse's When a Woman Ascends the Stairs, on which he also served as producer.

Sōjirō Motoki was a Japanese filmmaker who served primarily as a film producer, but also as a writer and director. He was most famous for producing several films for Akira Kurosawa, including Seven Samurai, Ikiru and Throne of Blood. He also produced films for other directors, including Mikio Naruse, for whom he produced Spring Awakens and Battle of Roses, and Kazuo Mori, for whom he produced Vendetta for a Samurai. As a writer, he provided the story for Kei Kumai's 1968 film The Sands of Kurobe, starring Kurosawa favorite Toshiro Mifune.

The legacy of filmmaking technique left by Akira Kurosawa (1910–1998) for subsequent generations of filmmakers has been diverse and of international influence beyond his native Japan. The legacy of influence has ranged from working methods, influence on style, and selection and adaptation of themes in cinema. Kurosawa's working method was oriented toward extensive involvement with numerous aspects of film production. He was also an effective screenwriter who would work in close contact with his writers very early in the production cycle to ensure high quality in the scripts which would be used for his films.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Sesonske, Alexander (19 November 1990). "Ikiru". The Criterion Collection . Archived from the original on 4 June 2016. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
  2. 1 2 3 Thomas 2011.
  3. Richie, Donald (5 January 2004). "Ikiru". The Criterion Collection . Archived from the original on 4 June 2016. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
  4. Yamada, Seiji; Maskarinec, Gregory; Greene, Gordon (2003). "Cross-Cultural Ethics and the Moral Development of Physicians: Lessons from Kurosawa's Ikiru" (PDF). Family Medicine. 35 (3): 167–169. PMID   12670108. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2010-07-04. Retrieved 2017-07-15.
  5. Brannigan 2009, p. 347.
  6. Brannigan 2009, p. 354-355.
  7. Lucken 2016, p. 113.
  8. Brannigan 2009, p. 345.
  9. Brannigan 2009, p. 355.
  10. Iles 2008, p. 83.
  11. 1 2 Iles 2008, p. 84.
  12. Vicari 2016, p. 72.
  13. 1 2 3 4 McGee, Scott. "Ikiru". Turner Classic Movies . Archived from the original on 26 September 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  14. 1 2 3 Hashimoto 2015.
  15. 1 2 3 4 5 Galbraith 2008, p. 88.
  16. 1 2 "PROGRAMME 1954". Berlin International Film Festival . Archived from the original on 19 November 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  17. 1 2 Crowther, Bosley (30 January 1960). "Screen: Drama Imported From Japan:'Ikiru' Has Premiere at the Little Carnegie Shimura Stars as Petty Government Aide". The New York Times . Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  18. Lucken 2016, p. 108.
  19. Variety Staff (31 December 1951). "Review: 'Ikiru'". Variety . Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  20. Ebert, Roger (September 29, 1996). "Ikiru :: rogerebert.com :: Great Movies". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on 9 December 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  21. Ebert, Roger (19 August 2001). "The Seven Samurai :: rogerebert.com :: Great Movies". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on 16 February 2006. Retrieved 16 January 2010.
  22. Hammond, Wally (15 July 2008). "Ikiru". Time Out . Archived from the original on 2 December 2017. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
  23. Sragow, Michael (4 August 2008). "Movies". The New Yorker . Archived from the original on 8 August 2020. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
  24. Conrad, David A. (2022). Akira Kurosawa and Modern Japan, pp92-98, McFarland & Co.
  25. Sooke, Alistair (26 November 2005). "Film-makers on film: Scott Derrickson". The Daily Telegraph . Archived from the original on 6 July 2016. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
  26. Jardine, Dan (23 March 2010). "Ikiru (Akira Kurosawa, 1952)". Slant Magazine . Archived from the original on 21 June 2017. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
  27. Mayward, Joel (10 February 2016). "The Year in Liturgical Cinema: Ash Wednesday and Lent". Christianity Today . Archived from the original on 7 June 2017. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
  28. The Greatest Films of All Time… in 1972 [Sight & Sound]
  29. "Take One: The First Annual Village Voice Film Critics' Poll". The Village Voice. 1999. Archived from the original on 26 August 2007. Retrieved 27 July 2006.
  30. "The 500 Greatest Movies Of All Time". Empire . 3 October 2008. Archived from the original on 22 August 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  31. "The 100 Best Films Of World Cinema – 44. Ikiru". Empire . 11 June 2010. Archived from the original on 23 November 2015. Retrieved 26 Oct 2020.
  32. "Greatest Japanese films by magazine Kinema Junpo (2009 version)". Archived from the original on July 11, 2012. Retrieved 2011-12-26.
  33. Corliss, Richard (14 January 2010). "Ikiru". Time. Archived from the original on 2021-03-03. Retrieved 2021-03-24.
  34. "Ikiru". bfi.org. Archived from the original on 2021-05-02. Retrieved 2021-05-02.
  35. "Martin Scorsese Creates a List of 39 Essential Foreign Films for a Young Filmmaker". Open Culture. 15 October 2014. Archived from the original on February 7, 2015. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
  36. "The 100 Greatest Foreign Language Films". bbc. 29 October 2018. Archived from the original on 25 December 2020. Retrieved 10 January 2021.
  37. Robey, Tim (6 August 2016). "10 most overrated films of all time". The Daily Telegraph . Archived from the original on 5 December 2016. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
  38. "Ikiru". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on 13 April 2019. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  39. "Film in 1960". British Academy of Film and Television Arts . Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  40. Richie 1998, p. 115.
  41. "Environmental celebrity special, celebrity comeback special, Kurosawa classic adaptation". The Japan Times . 2 September 2007. Archived from the original on 23 December 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  42. Raghavendra 2014, p. 200.
  43. Fleming, Michael (24 March 2003). "Price right for 'Ikiru'". Variety . Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  44. Fleming, Michael; LaPorte, Nicole (9 September 2004). "Irish eyes smile on DreamWorks' 'Ikiru' remake". Variety . Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  45. Yossman, K. J. (18 June 2021). "'Love Actually's' Bill Nighy Looks Dapper in First Image From Oliver Hermanus and Number 9 Films' 'Living'". Variety. Retrieved 18 June 2021.

Bibliography