Ille-et-Vilaine

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Ille-et-Vilaine
Il-ha-Gwilen (Breton)
La Vilaine a Rennes.JPG
The river Vilaine flowing through Rennes
Drapeau non-officiel fr departement Ille-et-Vilaine.svg
Blason departement fr Ille-et-Vilaine.svg
Ille-et-Vilaine-Position.svg
Location of Ille-et-Vilaine in France
Coordinates: 48°10′N01°40′W / 48.167°N 1.667°W / 48.167; -1.667 Coordinates: 48°10′N01°40′W / 48.167°N 1.667°W / 48.167; -1.667
Country France
Region Brittany
Prefecture Rennes
Subprefectures Fougères
Redon
Saint-Malo
Government
   President of the Departmental Council Jean-Luc Chenut [1] (PS)
Area
1
  Total6,775 km2 (2,616 sq mi)
Population
 (Jan. 2019) [2]
  Total1,079,498
  Rank 21st
  Density160/km2 (410/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Department number 35
Arrondissements 4
Cantons 27
Communes 333
^1 French Land Register data, which exclude estuaries, and lakes, ponds, and glaciers larger than 1 km2

Ille-et-Vilaine (French pronunciation:  [il e vilɛn] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Breton : Il-ha-Gwilen) is a department of France, located in the region of Brittany in the northwest of the country. It is named after the two rivers of the Ille and the Vilaine. It had a population of 1,079,498 in 2019. [3]

Contents

History

Ille-et-Vilaine is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on March 4, 1790. It was created from part of the province of Brittany.

Geography

Ille-et-Vilaine is a part of the current region of Brittany and it is bordered by the departments of Manche to the north-east, Mayenne to the east, Maine-et-Loire to the south-east, Loire-Atlantique to the south, Morbihan to the south-west, and Côtes-d'Armor to the west and north-west – France's shortest administrative department boundary at 20 yards (19 metres), although this was not the case with the department boundary. Also the English Channel (la Manche in French) borders the department to the north.

The department is named after its two main rivers, the Ille and the Vilaine, whose confluence is in Rennes, the capital of the department and of the region. Other important rivers include:

The department is moderately elevated above the level of the sea, with many hills; however the central part has a dense network of many tributaries to the Ille or the Vilaine from all around the large basin of Rennes. The elevated hills bordering this basin are covered by several old forests now exploited by men for the production of wood. The basin itself is a rich agriculture area, as well as the north-west of the department near the Rance.

In the extreme south of the department the Vilaine goes through a slower decrease in elevation in a small corridor in the area of the city of Redon; in this area, the Vilaine is known for its frequent floods during its recent history, often because of too-intensive draining of agricultural areas around Rennes (some floods also affected some parts of Rennes up to the 1980s due to incorrect management of old equipment of the canal of Ille-et-Rance). To avoid these hazards within inhabited cities, some natural fields bordering the Vilaine in the south of the department are now left floodable, and works for regulating the level have been done including, small artificial lakes with derivation channels, replanting trees in the basin, better management of forests, and regulating the artificial drains made for agriculture.

Principal towns

The most populous commune is Rennes, the prefecture. As of 2019, there are 6 communes with more than 15,000 inhabitants: [3]

CommunePopulation (2019)
Rennes 220,488
Saint-Malo 46,803
Fougères 20,595
Bruz 18,905
Vitré 18,487
Cesson-Sévigné 17,082

Demographics

The population has grown rapidly over the last few decades and was estimated at 1,051,779 in January 2016.

Population development since 1801:

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1801488,846    
1821533,207+0.44%
1831547,052+0.26%
1841549,217+0.04%
1851574,618+0.45%
1861584,930+0.18%
1876602,712+0.20%
1881615,480+0.42%
1891626,875+0.18%
1901614,000−0.21%
1921558,574−0.47%
1936566,000+0.09%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1946578,246+0.21%
1954586,812+0.18%
1962614,268+0.57%
1968653,000+1.02%
1975702,199+1.04%
1982748,272+0.91%
1990797,785+0.80%
1999866,111+0.92%
2006945,497+1.26%
2011996,439+1.06%
20161,051,779+1.09%
source: [4] [5]

Language

Gallo is a historic minority language spoken in eastern Brittany. Gallo and Breton are both studied at the University of Rennes.

Breton

Historically, the Breton language was little spoken in the eastern part of Brittany, and this was one of the first regions where the language disappeared such that Breton was not spoken for many centuries.

Today, Breton is again spoken due to schools teaching Breton, and due to a small immigration from Western Brittany to Eastern Brittany, where there are more cities with growing industries and external investment and therefore more work. A recent study [6] shows that Breton speakers in this region represent 3.3% of the total number of Breton speakers. The Breton speakers aged 18–30 in this region represent 12.7% of the total number of Breton speakers of that age group. This is because there are relatively few elder speakers but many people are learning the language. The study says that about 1,800 people are learning it (this includes one Diwan school in Rennes, some bilingual public and catholic schools, and evening courses).

Politics

The President of the Departmental Council is the Socialist Jean-Luc Chenut since the 2015 French departmental elections, re-elected in 2021.

The city of Rennes and its suburbs are the original base of the rapid Socialist growth in the department. The city has been governed by Socialist Mayors since 1977, notably by Edmond Hervé between 1977 and 2008. Since then, the growth of middle-class suburbs have helped the Socialists, who have been rapidly gaining strength in those formerly right-leaning areas.

The right remains strong in a strongly Catholic (clerical) area from outside Redon to Vitré or Fougères. In addition, the right is strong in the wealthy coastal area of Saint-Malo and Dinard.

Partyseats
Socialist Party 21
Miscellaneous Left 8
Union for a Popular Movement 6
Miscellaneous Right 6
Left Radical Party 5
Centrist Alliance 4
MoDem 2
New Centre 1

Presidential elections 2nd round

ElectionWinning CandidateParty%2nd Place CandidateParty%
2022 [7] Emmanuel Macron LREM 70.94 Marine Le Pen FN 29.06
2017 [8] Emmanuel Macron LREM 77.67 Marine Le Pen FN 22.33
2012 François Hollande PS 55.71 Nicolas Sarkozy UMP 44.29
2007 Ségolène Royal PS 52.39 Nicolas Sarkozy UMP 47.61
2002 [8] Jacques Chirac RPR 89.82 Jean-Marie Le Pen FN 10.18
1995 [9] Jacques Chirac RPR 51.19 Lionel Jospin PS 48.81

Current National Assembly Representatives

ConstituencyMember [10] Party
Ille-et-Vilaine's 1st constituency Mostapha Laabid La République En Marche!
Ille-et-Vilaine's 2nd constituency Laurence Maillart-Méhaignerie MoDem
Ille-et-Vilaine's 3rd constituency François André Socialist Party
Ille-et-Vilaine's 4th constituency Gaël Le Bohec La République En Marche!
Ille-et-Vilaine's 5th constituency Christine Cloarec La République En Marche!
Ille-et-Vilaine's 6th constituency Thierry Benoit Union of Democrats and Independents
Ille-et-Vilaine's 7th constituency Gilles Lurton The Republicans
Ille-et-Vilaine's 8th constituency Florian Bachelier La République En Marche!

Tourism

Saint-Malo, the Corsairs' stronghold, view of the walled city from the south-west Saint Malo from Dinard, France - July 2011.jpg
Saint-Malo, the Corsairs' stronghold, view of the walled city from the south-west

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Brittany</span> Historical province in France

Brittany is a peninsula, historical country and cultural area in the west of modern France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation. It became an independent kingdom and then a duchy before being united with the Kingdom of France in 1532 as a province governed as a separate nation under the crown.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rennes</span> Capital of Brittany, France

Rennes is a city in the east of Brittany in northwestern France at the confluence of the Ille and the Vilaine. Rennes is the prefecture of the region of Brittany, as well as the Ille-et-Vilaine department. In 2017, the urban area had a population of 357,327 inhabitants, and the larger metropolitan area had 739,974 inhabitants. The inhabitants of Rennes are called Rennais/Rennaises in French.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Brittany (administrative region)</span> Administrative region of France

Brittany ; Gallo: Bertaèyn[bəʁtaɛɲ]) is the westernmost region of Metropolitan France. It covers about four fifths of the territory of the historic province of Brittany. Its capital is Rennes. It is one of the two Regions in Metropolitan France that does not contain any landlocked departments, the other being Corsica.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Côtes-d'Armor</span> Department of France

The Côtes-d'Armor, formerly known as Côtes-du-Nord, are a department in the north of Brittany, in northwestern France. In 2019, it had a population of 600,582.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Communes of the Ille-et-Vilaine department</span>

The following is a list of the 333 communes of the Ille-et-Vilaine department of France.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fougères</span> Subprefecture and commune in Brittany, France

Fougères is a commune and a sub-prefecture of the Ille-et-Vilaine department in the region of Brittany in northwestern France.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Redon, Ille-et-Vilaine</span> Subprefecture and commune in Brittany, France

Redon is a commune in the Ille-et-Vilaine department in Brittany in northwestern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Vitré, Ille-et-Vilaine</span> Commune in Brittany, France

Vitré is a commune in the Ille-et-Vilaine department in Brittany in northwestern France.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Vilaine</span> River in France

The Vilaine is a river in Brittany, in the west of France. The river's source is in the Mayenne département (53), and it flows out into the Atlantic Ocean at Pénestin in the Morbihan département (56). It is 218 km long.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ille</span> River in northwestern France

The Ille is a small river in Brittany, France, right tributary of the river Vilaine. It is 48.9 km (30.4 mi) long. It flows into the Vilaine in the city Rennes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cesson-Sévigné</span> Commune in Brittany, France

Cesson-Sévigné is a commune in the Ille-et-Vilaine department in Brittany in northwestern France.

The following is a list of the 27 cantons of the Ille-et-Vilaine department, in France, following the French canton reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Arrondissements of the Ille-et-Vilaine department</span>

The 4 arrondissements of the Ille-et-Vilaine department are:

  1. Arrondissement of Fougères-Vitré, with 106 communes. The population of the arrondissement was 184,039 in 2016.
  2. Arrondissement of Redon, with 50 communes. The population of the arrondissement was 102,157 in 2016.
  3. Arrondissement of Rennes, with 109 communes. The population of the arrondissement was 599,717 in 2016.
  4. Arrondissement of Saint-Malo, with 68 communes. The population of the arrondissement was 165,866 in 2016.
<span class="mw-page-title-main">Arrondissement of Fougères-Vitré</span> Arrondissement in Brittany, France

The arrondissement of Fougères-Vitré is an arrondissement of France in the Ille-et-Vilaine department in the Brittany region. It has 106 communes. Its population is 184,039 (2016), and its area is 2,173.2 km2 (839.1 sq mi).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Arrondissement of Rennes</span> Arrondissement in Brittany, France

The arrondissement of Rennes is an arrondissement of France in the Ille-et-Vilaine department in the Brittany region. It has 109 communes. Its population is 599,717 (2016), and its area is 2,228.4 km2 (860.4 sq mi).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Arrondissement of Saint-Malo</span> Arrondissement in Brittany, France

The arrondissement of Saint-Malo is an arrondissement of France in the Ille-et-Vilaine department in the Brittany region. It has 68 communes. Its population is 165,866 (2016), and its area is 1,070.6 km2 (413.4 sq mi).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Langon, Ille-et-Vilaine</span> Commune in Brittany, France

Langon is a commune in the Ille-et-Vilaine department in Brittany in northwestern France.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Baulon</span> Commune in Brittany, France

Baulon is a commune in the Ille-et-Vilaine department in Brittany in northwestern France.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Breton Party</span> Breton political party in France

The Breton Party is a social-democratic and social-liberal nationalist party which aspires to the creation of an independent republic of Brittany, within the European Union.

The Departmental Council of Ille-et-Vilaine is the deliberative assembly of the Ille-et-Vilaine department in the region of Brittany. It consists of 54 members from 27 cantons.

References

  1. "Répertoire national des élus: les conseillers départementaux". data.gouv.fr, Plateforme ouverte des données publiques françaises (in French). 4 May 2022.
  2. "Téléchargement du fichier d'ensemble des populations légales en 2019". The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies. 29 December 2021.
  3. 1 2 Populations légales 2019: 35 Ille-et-Vilaine, INSEE
  4. "Historique d'Ille-et-Vilaine". Le SPLAF.
  5. "Évolution et structure de la population en 2016". INSEE.
  6. (in French) L'état de la langue bretonne dans l'enseignement en Ille-et-Vilaine (State of the Breton language in education in Ille-et-Vilaine) from Ofis ar Brezhoneg
  7. "Les résultats du second tour de l'élection présidentielle". 19 April 2022.
  8. 1 2 "Présidentielles".
  9. "Résultats de l'élection présidentielle de 1995 par département - Politiquemania".
  10. Nationale, Assemblée. "Assemblée nationale ~ Les députés, le vote de la loi, le Parlement français". Assemblée nationale.