This article does not cite any sources . (November 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Imperial Commissioner (simplified Chinese :钦差大臣; traditional Chinese :欽差大臣; pinyin :qīn chāi dà chén; Manchu: ᡥᡝᠰᡝ ᡳ
ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠨhese i takūraha amban) was a high-ranking government official or military general commissioned by the emperor of China during the late Ming (1368–1644) and Qing (1636–1912) dynasties. His power was just below that of the emperor, such that he could command viceroys and provincial governors by imperial edict.
Negotiations with foreign powers, for example Lin Zexu, Qishan and Shen Baozhen) as well as treaty ratification as exemplified by Qiying, Yixin, Prince Gong and Li Hongzhang.
Manage aid and unite local government in response to large-scale natural disasters.
Military recruitment and transport. Examples include Tan Lun, Hong Chengchou, Xiang Rong, Zuo Zongtang and Yuan Shikai
Imperial Commissioners received a sword of office from the emperor.
Yuan Shikai was a Chinese military and government official who rose to power during the late Qing dynasty. He tried to save the dynasty with a number of modernization projects including bureaucratic, fiscal, judicial, educational, and other reforms, despite playing a key part in the failure of the Hundred Days' Reform. He established the first modern army and a more efficient provincial government in North China in the last years of the Qing dynasty before the abdication of the Xuantong Emperor, the last monarch of the Qing dynasty, in 1912. Through negotiation, he became the first official president of the Republic of China in 1912.
The Self-Strengthening Movement, also known as the Westernization or Western Affairs Movement, was a period of institutional reforms initiated in China during the late Qing dynasty following the military disasters of the Opium Wars.
Zeng Guofan, Marquis Yiyong, birth name Zeng Zicheng, courtesy name Bohan, was a Chinese statesman, military general, and Confucian scholar of the late Qing dynasty. He is best known for raising and organizing the Xiang Army to aid the Qing military in suppressing the Taiping Rebellion and restoring the stability of the Qing Empire. Along with other prominent figures such as Zuo Zongtang and Li Hongzhang of his time, Zeng set the scene for the Tongzhi Restoration, an attempt to arrest the decline of the Qing dynasty. Zeng was known for his strategic perception, administrative skill and noble personality on Confucianist practice, but also for the ruthlessness of his repression of rebellions.
Zuo Zongtang, Marquis Kejing, sometimes referred to as General Tso, was a Chinese statesman and military leader of the late Qing dynasty.
Yixin, better known in English as Prince Kung or Gong, was an imperial prince of the Aisin Gioro clan and an important statesman of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty in China. He was a regent of the empire from 1861 to 1865 and wielded great influence at other times as well.
Jinshi was the highest and final degree in the imperial examination in Imperial China. The examination was usually taken in the imperial capital in the palace, and was also called the Metropolitan Exam. Recipients are sometimes referred to in English-language sources as Imperial Scholars.
Yikuang, formally known as Prince Qing, was a Manchu noble and politician of the Qing dynasty. He served as the first Prime Minister of the Imperial Cabinet, an office created in May 1911 to replace the Grand Council.
The Viceroy of Zhili, fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of Zhili and Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Affairs and Food Production, Manager of Waterways, Director of Civil Affairs, was one of eight regional Viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty. The Viceroy of Zhili was an important post because the province of Zhili, which literally means "directly ruled", was the area surrounding the imperial capital, Beijing. The administrative centre was in Tianjin even though the provincial capital was in Baoding. The Viceroy's duties as well as responsibilities have never been defined entirely. Generally speaking, the Viceroy oversaw the military and civil affairs of Zhili, Shandong and Henan provinces. The Viceroy of Zhili was also highly influential in imperial court politics.
Mujangga was a Manchu statesman of the late Qing dynasty, belonging to the Gogiya (郭佳) clan. He belonged under the Bordered Blue Banner in the Eight Banners. He was awarded the, jinshi, the highest degree in the imperial examination in 1805 and quickly rose in the ranks of the Qing government. Mujangga was the teacher of a young Chinese statesman, Confucian scholar, future general of the Xiang Army during the Taiping Rebellion, Zeng Guofan. He became a member of the Grand Council in 1828 and gradually grew to exercise a decisive influence on the Daoguang Emperor's policies. Following the demise of Cao Zhenyong, Mujangga became the chief Grand Councillor in 1837. As tensions in Sino-British relations rose in 1839, he became one of the chief advocates of a conciliatory policy towards the British and following the outbreak of the First Opium War, he moved to dismiss Lin Zexu from his position as imperial commissioner in September 1840. Around 1845 he was President of the Hanlin Academy. Mujangga's conciliatory policies created tensions with the allegedly more xenophobic heir apparent, and following his accession to the throne as the Xianfeng Emperor, Mujangga was dismissed from all his positions in 1851.
Ronglu, courtesy name Zhonghua, was a Manchu political and military leader of the late Qing dynasty. He was born in the Guwalgiya clan, which was under the Plain White Banner of the Manchu Eight Banners. Deeply favoured by Empress Dowager Cixi, he served in a number of important civil and military positions in the Qing government, including the Zongli Yamen, Grand Council, Grand Secretary, Viceroy of Zhili, Beiyang Trade Minister, Secretary of Defence, Nine Gates Infantry Commander, and Wuwei Corps Commander. He was also the maternal grandfather of Puyi, the last Emperor of China and the Qing dynasty.
The Xiang Army or Hunan Army was a standing army organized by Zeng Guofan from existing regional and village militia forces called tuanlian to contain the Taiping Rebellion in Qing China. The name is taken from the Hunan region where the Army was raised. The Army was financed through local nobles and gentry, as opposed to through the centralized Manchu-led Qing dynasty. The army was mostly disbanded by Zeng after the re-capture of the Taiping capital at Nanking.
The imperial yellow jacket was a symbol of high honour during China's Qing Dynasty. As yellow was a forbidden color, representing the Emperor, the jacket was given only to high-ranking officials and to the Emperor's body guards.
The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom is a Chinese television series based on the events of the Taiping Rebellion and the rise and fall of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom in the late Qing dynasty. The 48-episode series was first broadcast on CCTV in China in 2000. The series was also broadcast on STAR Chinese Channel in Taiwan and on ATV in Hong Kong.
Sigh of His Highness is a Chinese historical television series based on the life of Prince Gong, an influential Manchu prince and statesman of the late Qing dynasty. The series was directed by Li Wenlong and starred Chen Baoguo as Prince Gong. It was first broadcast on Sichuan TV in China in 2006.
1911, also known as Xinhai Revolution and The 1911 Revolution, is a 2011 Chinese historical drama film. The film is a tribute to the 100th anniversary of the Xinhai Revolution. It is also Jackie Chan's 100th film in his career. As well as starring in it, Chan is also the executive producer and co-director of the film. Co-stars include Chan's son Jaycee Chan, Li Bingbing, Winston Chao, Joan Chen and Hu Ge. This film was selected to open the 24th Tokyo International Film Festival.
Towards the Republic, also known as For the Sake of the Republic and Zou Xiang Gong He, is a Chinese historical television series first broadcast on CCTV in China from April to May 2003. The series is based on events that occurred in China between the late 19th century and early 20th century that led to the collapse of the Qing dynasty and the founding of the Republic of China. Owing to its portrayal of historical issues deemed politically sensitive by the Chinese government, the series has been subject to censorship in mainland China.
Justice Bao is a Chinese TV series starring producer Jin Chao-chun as the Song dynasty official Bao Zheng. The series ran for 3 seasons from 2010 to 2012. In addition to Jin, Kenny Ho, Fan Hung-hsuan and Lung Lung again reprise their iconic roles from the 1993 Taiwanese hit Justice Pao and the 2008 Chinese series Justice Bao.
Taiwan 1895 is a Chinese television series based on historical events that took place in Taiwan in the late Qing dynasty, such as the 1884–1885 Sino–French War and the Treaty of Shimonoseki. The series was directed by Han Gang and written by Yang Xiaoxiong. It was first broadcast in mainland China on CCTV in 2008.
Tan Zhonglin was a Qing dynasty scholar-official. He was born in Gaolong, Chaling County, Hunan Province. His courtesy name was Wenqing (文卿). He was the father of Tan Yankai, a politician of the Republic of China.