|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
|Location||People's Republic of China|
|Inscription||2000 (24th session)|
|Area||3,434.9 ha (13.262 sq mi)|
Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties (simplified Chinese :明清皇家陵寝; traditional Chinese :明清皇家陵寢; pinyin :Míng Qīng Huángjiā Língqǐn) is the designation under which the UNESCO has included several tombs and burial complexes into the list of World Heritage Sites. These tombs date from the Ming and Qing dynasties of China.
Tombs were included in the list in 2000, 2003 and 2004. Three Imperial tombs in Liaoning Province, all built in the 17th century, were added in 2004: the Yongling tomb, the Fuling tomb and the Zhaoling tomb were constructed for the founding emperors of the Qing dynasty and their ancestors. These tombs feature rich decoration of stone statues and carvings and tiles with dragon motifs, illustrating the development of the funerary architecture of the Qing dynasty. The three tomb complexes, and their numerous edifices, combine traditions inherited from previous dynasties and new features of Manchu culture.
Hongwu Emperor, the founding emperor of the Ming Dynasty, made major reforms to the mausoleum. He changed the mounds on the ground from the previous bucket-shaped square to round or oblong, canceled the palace, and enlarged the temple building. The Qing Dynasty followed the Ming Dynasty system, paying more attention to the combination of the cemetery and the surrounding mountains and rivers, paying attention to the order of the buried people, and forming the matching sequence of the emperor and concubine tombs, and the sacrificial system was more perfect and reasonable.There are 13 tombs in the Ming tombs site near Beijing, but other Ming Dynasty tombs are also part of the World Heritage Sites. For example, the Xianling Tomb, located in Hubei Province, was constructed for the 12th emperor of the Ming Dynasty from 1519 to 1566.
In traditional China, the veneration of the dead is very important. After the first emperor of the Qing dynasty conquered the Ming dynasty, he choose to build Qing tombs with the Ming tombs, to assure his new subjects that the traditions of the Han Chinese would still be respected. In addition, the first emperor of the Qing dynasty believed the concept of 'Mandate of Heaven', this is also one of the reasons that he choose to build around the Ming Tombs.
As a feudal ruler, he treated it as an important work related to the prosperity and decline of the country and the length of the emperor's fortune. This concept was pushed to its peak. In the site selection and planning and design of the tomb, the traditional Chinese Feng Shui theory was fully used, and the cosmology of "the harmony between man and nature" was embodied, and the human spirit was cast in nature, creating a lofty, great and eternal Immortal imagery. In terms of the scale and quality of the building, it strives to be magnificent, spectacular and exquisite, in order to embody the idea of the supremacy of imperial power, show off the imperial style and majesty, and become the symbol of the materialization of imperial power.
The Three Tombs of ShengJing ( Chinese :盛京三陵; pinyin :Shèng Jīng Sān Líng) are the ancestors' tombs that created the foundation of the Manchu and Qing imperial family. The shape of the tombs of the three tombs is imitated as illuminated mausoleums with strong stylized features, which influenced the construction of the tombs of the Qing Dynasty after entering the Pass. The three tombs of Shengjing plus the Eastern Tombs of the Qing Dynasty and the Western Tombs of the Qing Dynasty, constitute a group of Qing imperial tombs, condensing the history of the Qing Dynasty.
WHS No. 1004ter includes the following individual tombs and tomb groups:
|Serial ID No.||Tomb or group||Province||Location||Coordinates||Area (m²)||Buffer (m²)||Year inscribed|
|1004-002||Eastern Qing Tombs||Hebei||Zunhua||2,240,000||78,000,000||2000|
|1004-003||Western Qing Tombs||Hebei||Yi County||18,420,000||47,580,000||2000|
|1004-004||Ming Tombs||Beijing||Changping District||8,230,000||81,000,000||2003|
|1004-006||Tomb of Chang Yuchun||Jiangsu||Nanjing||9,800||2003|
|1004-007||Tomb of Qiu Cheng||Jiangsu||Nanjing||5,500||2003|
|1004-008||Tomb of Wu Liang||Jiangsu||Nanjing||4,000||1,800,000||2003|
|1004-009||Tomb of Wu Zhen||Jiangsu||Nanjing||3,500||2003|
|1004-010||Tomb of Xu Da||Jiangsu||Nanjing||8,500||2003|
|1004-011||Tomb of Li Wenzhong||Jiangsu||Nanjing||8,700||2003|
|1004-012||Yongling Tomb of the Qing dynasty||Liaoning||Fushun||2,365,900||13,439,400||2004|
|1004-013||Fuling Tomb of the Qing dynasty||Liaoning||Shenyang||538,600||7,023,600||2004|
|1004-014||Zhaoling Tomb of the Qing dynasty||Liaoning||Shenyang||478,900||3,187,400||2004|
The UNESCO World Heritage Site does not include the mausoleum complexes which the Hongwu Emperor (Ming dynasty) had built for his ancestors:
Emperor of China, or Huáng dì was the monarch of China during the Imperial Period of Chinese history. In traditional Chinese political theory, the emperor was considered the Son of Heaven and the autocrat of All under Heaven. Under the Han dynasty, Confucianism replaced Legalism as the official political theory and succession theoretically followed agnatic primogeniture. The succession of emperors in a family line was known as a dynasty.
The Ming tombs are a collection of mausoleums built by the emperors of the Ming dynasty of China. The first Ming emperor's tomb is located near his capital Nanjing. However, the majority of the Ming tombs are located in a cluster near Beijing and collectively known as the Thirteen Tombs of the Ming Dynasty. They are located within the suburban Changping District of Beijing Municipality, 42 kilometers (26 mi) north-northwest of Beijing's city center. The site, on the southern slope of Tianshou Mountain, was chosen based on the principles of feng shui by the third Ming emperor, the Yongle Emperor. After the construction of the Imperial Palace in 1420, the Yongle Emperor selected his burial site and created his own mausoleum. The subsequent emperors placed their tombs in the same valley.
The Ming Xiaoling is the mausoleum of the Hongwu Emperor, the founder of the Ming dynasty. It lies at the southern foot of Purple Mountain, located east of the historical centre of Nanjing. Legend says that in order to prevent robbery of the tomb, 13 identical processions of funeral troops started from 13 city gates to obscure the real burying site.
Empress Xiaozhaoren, of the Manchu Bordered Yellow Banner Niohuru clan, was a posthumous name bestowed to the wife and second empress consort of Xuanye, the Kangxi Emperor. She was Empress consort of Qing from 1677 until her death in 1678.
Zhaoling, also known as Beiling is the tomb of the second Qing emperor, Hong Taiji, and his empress Xiaoduanwen.
Zhu Shugui, courtesy name Tianqiu and art name Yiyuanzi, formally known as the Prince of Ningjing, was a Ming dynasty prince and the last of the pretenders to the Ming throne after the fall of the Ming Empire in 1644. He committed suicide when forces of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty conquered the Southern Ming dynasty's Kingdom of Tungning in Taiwan, where he took shelter after mainland China fell under Qing control. He was a ninth-generation descendant of Zhu Yuanzhang, the founder of the Ming dynasty, via the line of Zhu Yuanzhang's 15th son, Zhu Zhi 朱植. Zhu Zhi was the son of Zhu Yuanzhang and one of his Korean concubines, a female consort surnamed Han from Goryeo in Korea. Zhu Zhi's heirs used the generation names "Gui, Hao, En, Chong, Zhi, Yun, Reng, Qi, Bao, He, Xian, Shu, Yan, Zun, Ru, Cai, Han, Li, Long, Yu".
The Western Qing tombs are located some 140 km (87 mi) southwest of Beijing in Yi County, Hebei Province. They constitute a necropolis that incorporates four royal mausoleums where seventy-eight royal members are buried. These include four emperors of the Qing dynasty and their empresses, imperial concubines, princes and princesses, as well as other royal servants.
This is a family tree of Chinese emperors from the Yuan dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty.
The Eastern Qing tombs are an imperial mausoleum complex of the Qing dynasty located in Zunhua, 125 kilometres (78 mi) northeast of Beijing. They are the largest, most complete, and best preserved extant mausoleum complex in China. Altogether, five emperors, 15 empresses, 136 imperial concubines, three princes, and two princesses of the Qing dynasty are buried here. Surrounded by Changrui Mountain, Jinxing Mountain, Huanghua Mountain, and Yingfei Daoyang Mountain, the tomb complex stretches over a total area of 80 square kilometres (31 sq mi).
The Imperial Household Department was an institution of the Qing dynasty of China. Its primary purpose was to manage the internal affairs of the Qing imperial family and the activities of the inner palace, but it also played an important role in Qing relations with Tibet and Mongolia, engaged in trading activities, managed textile factories in the Jiangnan region, and even published books.
The Fuling or Fu Mausoleum, also known as the East Mausoleum, is the mausoleum of Nurhaci, the founding monarch of the Later Jin dynasty and his wife, Empress Xiaocigao. It served as the main site for ritual ceremonies conducted by the imperial family during the entire Qing dynasty. Located in the eastern part of Shenyang city, Liaoning Province, northeastern China, Fuling has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2004.
Fengyang County is a county in north-central Anhui Province, China. It is under the administration of Chuzhou, a prefecture-level city. The county was home to 765,600 people as of 2013.
Huanggu District is one of ten districts of the prefecture-level city of Shenyang, the capital of the Chinese province of Liaoning. It borders Shenbei New Area to the north, Dadong to the east, Shenhe to the southeast, Heping to the south, Tiexi to the southwest, and Yuhong to the west.
Bixi, or Bi Xi, is a figure from Chinese mythology. One of the 9 sons of the Dragon King, he is depicted as a dragon with the shell of a turtle. Stone sculptures of Bixi have been used in Chinese culture for centuries as a decorative plinth for commemorative steles and tablets, particularly in the funerary complexes of its later emperors and to commemorate important events, such as an imperial visit or the anniversary of a World War II victory. They are also used at the bases of bridges and archways. Sculptures of Bixi are traditionally rubbed for good luck, which can cause conservation issues. They can be found throughout East Asia in Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Mongolia, and even the Russian Far East.
Xiaoling may refer to the following from China:
The House of Zhu, also known as the House of Chu, was the imperial family of the Ming dynasty of China. Zhu was the family name of the emperors of the Ming dynasty. The House of Zhu ruled China from 1368 until the fall of the Ming dynasty in 1644, followed by the rule as the Southern Ming dynasty until 1662, and the last Ming princes, the Prince of Ningjing Zhu Shugui and Prince Zhu Honghuan (朱弘桓) held out until the annexation of the Kingdom of Tungning in 1683.
The Ming Ancestors Mausoleum is the first imperial mausoleum complex of the Ming dynasty, and a cenotaph located north of the former Sizhou City, Yangjiadun, in present-day Xuyi County, Huaian City, by Hongze Lake, north of Huai River Jiangsu Province, China. It was built by Zhu Yuanzhang, the founding emperor of the Ming dynasty, in 1385, for his great-great-grandfather, great-grandfather and grandfather. It is also the actual burial site of Zhu Chuyi, Zhu Yuanzhang's grandfather.
The Dingling is a mausoleum in China where the Wanli emperor, together with his two empresses Wang Xijie and Dowager Xiaojing, was buried. Dingling is one of the thirteen imperial tombs at Ming tombs in Changping district 45 km north of central Beijing. The Dingling is the only tomb of a Ming dynasty emperor that has been opened.
Noble Consort Jia was a consort of the Daoguang Emperor.