Imphal

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Imphal

imphal
Capital City
City of Imphal.jpg
Skyline of Imphal
India Manipur location map.svg
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Imphal
Location of Imphal in Manipur
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Red pog.svg
Imphal
Imphal (India)
Coordinates: 24°48′27″N93°56′18″E / 24.8074°N 93.9384°E / 24.8074; 93.9384 Coordinates: 24°48′27″N93°56′18″E / 24.8074°N 93.9384°E / 24.8074; 93.9384
Country Flag of India.svg India
State Manipur
District Imphal East, Imphal West
Government
  Body Imphal Municipal Corporation
  MayorL. Lokeshwor Singh
Elevation
786 m (2,579 ft)
Population
 (2016)
  Total414,800
Languages
  Official Meeteilon (Manipuri) and English
Time zone UTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
795001
Telephone code3852
Vehicle registration MN-01
Website imc.mn.gov.in

Imphal ( [ɪmˈfɑl] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is the capital city of the Indian state of Manipur. The metropolitan centre of the city contains the ruins of Kangla Palace (also known as Kangla Fort), the royal seat of the former Kingdom of Manipur, surrounded by a moat. Spread over parts of the districts of Imphal West and Imphal East, the former contains the majority of the city's area and population. [1] Imphal is part of the Smart Cities Mission under the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs. [2]

Contents

History

Soldiers of the two wings of the 14th Army link-up at Milestone 109 during the Battle of Imphal-Kohima Soldiers of the two wings of the 14th Army link-up at Milestone 109 during the Battle of Imphal-Kohima.jpg
Soldiers of the two wings of the 14th Army link-up at Milestone 109 during the Battle of Imphal-Kohima

Initially ruled by Kin Khaba, Imphal was later ruled by the Pakhangba leaders. The clan of the Ningthouja tribe originated then. The Ningthouja tribe quickly expanded and dominated the region in politics and war. Kangla Palace was built by King Khagemba and his son Khunjaoba. The palace was later destroyed by the British during the Anglo-Manipur War. During the reign of Maharaja Bhagyachandra, there were a number of Burmese invasions. However, the kingdom survived with the help of Maharaj Gambhir Singh.

Imphal remained peaceful until 1891 when the British arrived to intervene in internal differences between the royal family. The British sent J.W. Quinton to help but the situation only grew worse and Senapati Tikendrajit was hanged. The autocratic British behavior made people angry. This resulted in the 1891 Anglo-Manipur War, which the British won. [3]

The Battle of Imphal took place between March and July 1944, during World War II. The Japanese invaded Imphal to capture British Colonies. However, they were defeated and had to retreat. This attack made the British realise the militarily strategic position of Imphal. [4]

Demographics

Imphal city is divided between the two districts of Imphal West and Imphal East. [1] Census collects the information for the two parts of the city separately, with the major portion of the city being in Imphal West and the minor portion in Imphal East. [5] [6]

Demographic details of the two parts of Imphal city
AreaDistrictTotal PopulationSex RatioLiteracy RatePercentage of Scheduled Caste PopulationPercentage of Scheduled Tribe Population
Imphal ( Major part)West Imphal2,93,459104891.7%0.56%8.59%
Imphal ( Minor part)East Imphal1,83737106288.71%0.24%15.71%

Geography and climate

Imphal
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
12
 
 
22
4
 
 
31
 
 
23
7
 
 
92
 
 
27
12
 
 
133
 
 
28
16
 
 
159
 
 
29
18
 
 
225
 
 
29
21
 
 
223
 
 
29
22
 
 
195
 
 
29
21
 
 
147
 
 
29
20
 
 
112
 
 
28
17
 
 
46
 
 
25
11
 
 
15
 
 
22
5
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: IMD [7]

Imphal is located at 24°48′27″N93°56′18″E / 24.8074°N 93.9384°E / 24.8074; 93.9384 in extreme eastern India, [8] with an average elevation of 786 metres (2,579 ft). It has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa) [9] with mild, dry winters and a hot monsoon season. Temperatures in July average about 29 °C (84 °F); January is the coldest month, with average lows near 4 °C (39 °F). The city receives about 1,320 mm (52 in) of rain, with June the wettest month. The highest recorded temperature was 35.6 °C (96.1 °F), on 22 May 2009, and the lowest temperature was −2.7 °C (27.1 °F) on 10 January 1970. [7] [10]

Imphal city nightview Imphal view.jpg
Imphal city nightview
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)27.8
(82.0)
32.0
(89.6)
35.0
(95.0)
34.5
(94.1)
35.6
(96.1)
35.6
(96.1)
35.7
(96.3)
34.0
(93.2)
34.5
(94.1)
34.2
(93.6)
30.7
(87.3)
28.9
(84.0)
35.7
(96.3)
Average high °C (°F)22.4
(72.3)
24.2
(75.6)
27.2
(81.0)
28.5
(83.3)
29.2
(84.6)
29.6
(85.3)
29.4
(84.9)
29.7
(85.5)
29.5
(85.1)
28.7
(83.7)
25.9
(78.6)
22.9
(73.2)
27.3
(81.1)
Average low °C (°F)4.6
(40.3)
7.7
(45.9)
12.1
(53.8)
15.8
(60.4)
18.7
(65.7)
21.3
(70.3)
21.9
(71.4)
21.7
(71.1)
20.6
(69.1)
17.2
(63.0)
11.1
(52.0)
6.1
(43.0)
14.9
(58.8)
Record low °C (°F)−2.7
(27.1)
−1.4
(29.5)
2.4
(36.3)
6.2
(43.2)
11.1
(52.0)
14.7
(58.5)
15.4
(59.7)
14.6
(58.3)
14.3
(57.7)
7.8
(46.0)
1.5
(34.7)
−1.7
(28.9)
−2.7
(27.1)
Average rainfall mm (inches)11.5
(0.45)
43.4
(1.71)
81.2
(3.20)
154.6
(6.09)
174.3
(6.86)
221.6
(8.72)
231.4
(9.11)
186.8
(7.35)
157.2
(6.19)
122.3
(4.81)
34.7
(1.37)
17.8
(0.70)
1,436.7
(56.56)
Average rainy days1.13.36.110.311.815.416.112.910.27.32.41.097.9
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST)60545362697779798078747070
Source: India Meteorological Department [11] [12] [13]

Government and politics

Imphal is the state capital as well as the headquarters of the Imphal district. The civic administration of the city is under Imphal Municipal Corporation.

Civic administration

According to Census 2011, Imphal constitutes 42.13% of the total urban population in Manipur. Hence, the history of urban local governance is longer in Imphal than in other parts of the state. The British established the Town Fund Board in Imphal in 1915, which was headed by the then Political Agent Lt. Col. H.W.G. Cole and other nominated members. [14] The Town Fund Board continued after Independence and merger with India in 1949 and it was not headed by the Chief Secretary of Manipur Administration. In 1956, the Assam Municipal Act, 1923 was extended to Manipur and the Imphal Municipal Board was formed with 12 elected members. The strength of the elected members of this Board was increased to 24 in 1961 and to 28 in 1972. [15] Initially, the Municipal Board was established only to administer the areas in Imphal under the British Reserve, covering 3.10 km2 (1.20 sq mi) and 2,862 inhabitants. This was extended to 17.48 km2 (6.75 sq mi) in 1960, 18.25 km2 (7.05 sq mi) in 1970, and 76.58 km2 (29.57 sq mi) in 1972. [14]

In 1992, the Municipal Board was upgraded to a Municipal Council under the Manipur Municipality Act, 1994. [16] In 2014, the council was upgraded to the status of Municipal Corporation. There are 27 wards under the Municipal Corporation, each with its own elected councillor. There are eight committees and five sections at the corporation to govern the administration of the city. [17]

There are Ward Development Committees in each ward to look after developmental activities at the ward level. The local ward councillor is the chairperson of the committee, which includes two elected and two nominated members as well. [16] The last election to the corporation was in 2016, with INC winning 12 seats, BJP winning 10 seats, and independent candidates winning 5 seats. [18] According to the Manipur Municipality Act, 1994, the mayor is indirectly elected by the elected councillors from amongst themselves. [19] The first mayor of the corporation was Soram Sunil and was elected in 2016. [20] The present mayor of Imphal Municipal Corporation is Laisangbam Lokeshwar and was elected to the position in 2017. Sujata Phaomei is the present Deputy Mayor. [21]

Representation in parliament

Manipur is divided into two constituencies for the purpose of Lok Sabha - Outer Manipur Parliamentary Constituency and Inner Manipur Parliamentary Constituency. Imphal city is part of the Inner Manipur Parliamentary Constituency. [22] The last elections took place during the 2019 Indian general elections. Rajkumar Ranjan Singh from the Bharatiya Janata Party won the election with 2,63,632 votes. [23]

Civic amenities

Manipur State Power Distribution Company Limited is responsible for electricity supply in the city. [24] Public Health and Engineering Department of the Manipur Government looks after both water supply, and sewage and drainage in Imphal. [25] Roads in the city are developed and maintained by the state Public Works Department. [26] Imphal Municipal Corporation is responsible for Solid Waste Management. [27] The state Department of Fire Services provides fire safety services in the city with one fire station, which is also the department headquarters. [28]

Tourist attractions

Imphal offers sites of religious and historical importance within and around the city. Kangla Palace (also known as Kangla Fort) is on the banks of the Imphal River. Kangla means "dry land" in the Meitei language. It was the palace of King Pakhangba, and has religious significance with multiple temples present within the complex. [29] It is also significant in Manipur's history with the British. [30] Bihu Loukon is an ancient star-shaped fort made of mud situated in Maklang, Imphal West District. It was discovered in 2013. [31] Hiyangthang Lairembi Temple is religious site important to both the local religion, Sanamahism, and to Hinduism. The temple is noted for its annual Durga Puja festival. [32]

India Peace Memorial at the Red Hills is located }}cvt|12|km}} south of Imphal. The place was the scene of action and the theater of the battle that took place between the British Army and the Japanese Forces [33] fighting alongside the Indian National Army in World War II. [34] Red Hill has now become a tourist attraction since the Japanese war veterans constructed a monument at the foot of this hill. [35] The Imphal War Cemetery remembers Indian and British soldiers who fought and died in 1944 during World War II and is managed by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission. [36]

Imphal is also home to the largest all women run market in Asia, called the Ima Keithel (Mothers' Market). [37] It was established in the 16th century and hosts around 5,000–6,000 women vendors who sell a variety of products. [38] [39]

Transport

Air

Bir Tikendrajit International Airport Imphal airport.jpg
Bir Tikendrajit International Airport

Tulihal International Airport is 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) south of the city and has direct flights to major Indian cities. [40]

Road

National Highway 150 in Imphal Imphal, Manipur (55).jpeg
National Highway 150 in Imphal

Imphal is connected by the National Highway to major cities like Guwahati, Kohima, Agartala, Shillong, Dimapur, Aizawl, and Silchar.

Railway

In October 2012, India's Cabinet Committee on Infrastructure approved an extension of the Jiribam–Silchar railway to Imphal. The extension was expected to reach the city by 2019. [41] [42] The total length of the railway line is 110.62 km. The revised estimated cost of construction for the railway line sits at Rs 9658 crore, with Rs 4927.54 crore being spent as of 2019.

Sports

Khuman Lampak Main Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Imphal. It is used mostly for football and athletics. The stadium holds 30,000 people and was built in 1999. This stadium lies inside the Khuman Lampak Sports Complex. The professional football club NEROCA FC and TRAU FC of I League uses the stadium as their home ground.

Education

Universities

Manipur University main gate Manipur University main gate.jpg
Manipur University main gate

Technical colleges

Medical colleges

City Convention Centre City convention center.jpg
City Convention Centre

Schools

There are many schools in Imphal affiliated with the Central Board of Secondary Education and Indian Certificate of Secondary Education Board, as well as state government schools.

Healthcare

Imphal has many private and government hospitals that are open 24 hours.

Notable people

See also

Related Research Articles

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Kangla Palace Palace of erstwhile Kangleipak

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Ningthoukhongjam Khelchandra Singh was an Indian writer, lexicographer and historian, known as the author of Manipuri to Manipuri and English, the first modern general dictionary in Meitei language, which was published in 1964. He was a fellow of the Sahitya Akademi and Sangeet Natak Akademi. The Government of India awarded him the fourth highest civilian honour of Padma Shri in 1987.

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Ima Market Neighbourhood in Imphal West, Manipur, India

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