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Before World War I, there were at least two organizations in Winnipeg calling themselves the Independent Labour Party. The first of these was set up by British trade unionists in 1895, and collapsed soon thereafter.
The second was created in 1906, following a visit to the city from Ramsay MacDonald. The party received support from members of Arthur Puttee's Winnipeg Labour Party, which had been moribund since 1904.
Like other groups of the same name, this Independent Labour Party was a reformist organization. It was opposed by members of the more radical Socialist Party of Canada.
The ILP nominated Kempton McKim to contest the riding of Winnipeg West in the provincial election of 1907. McKim called for labour standards legislation and the public ownership of utilities. He was defeated by Thomas Johnson, a popular figure from the left wing of the Liberal Party.
In 1908, some members agitated for the ILP to officially declare itself as socialist. They were opposed by another group, led by moderate reformer Fred Dixon (later a member of the provincial legislature). The controversy split the party, which ceased to exist as a viable organization after June 1908. The reformist faction of the ILP regrouped as the Manitoba Labour Party for the 1910 provincial election.
In 1914-15, candidates nominated by the Labour Representation Committee officially ran for the "Independent Labor Party", even though no formal organization of that name seems to have existed at the time.
J.S. Woodsworth helped launch a new Independent Labour Party in 1919. He would be elected as MP under that banner in 1921. This ILP went on to be one of the founding organizations of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation party, a predecessor to the New Democratic Party.
Canadian political parties
Labour candidates and parties in Canada
The Communist Party of Canada is a communist party in Canada founded in 1921 under conditions of illegality. Although it is now a federal political party without any parliamentary representation, the party's candidates have been elected to the Parliament of Canada, the Ontario legislature, the Manitoba legislature, and various municipal governments across the country. The party has also contributed significantly to trade union organizing and labour history in Canada, peace and anti-war activism, and many other social movements.
There have been various groups in Canada that have nominated candidates under the label Labour Party or Independent Labour Party or other variations from the 1870s until the 1960s. These were usually local or provincial groups using the Labour Party or Independent Labour Party name, backed by local labour councils or individual trade unions. There was an attempt to create a national Canadian Labour Party in the late 1910s and in the 1920s, but these were only partly successful.
The first Socialist Party of Canada (SPC) existed from 1904 to 1925 led by E. T. Kingsley. It published the Western Clarion newspaper.
James Shaver Woodsworth was a pre-WWI pioneer of the Social Gospel, Canadian social democratic and Labour movement. He was a long-time leader and publicist in the movement and was an elected politician under the label, serving as MP from 1921 to his death in 1942. He helped found the CCF, a forerunner of today's NDP, in 1932.
The Winnipeg Labour Party was a reformist organization in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, representing labour interests. Founded in 1896, it was based on an earlier Winnipeg organization known as the Independent Labour Party.
The Manitoba Labour Party (MLP) was a reformist, non-Marxist labour party in Manitoba, Canada. It was created in early May 1910 as a successor to the province's second Independent Labour Party (1906–08). Former Member of Parliament Arthur Puttee was a leading MLP organizer. The party fielded one candidate in the 1910 provincial election, and also ran candidates at the municipal level.
The Socialist Party of Manitoba (SPM) was a short-lived social democratic political party launched in 1902 in the Canadian province of Manitoba. The organisation advanced a moderate programme of social reform legislation. In 1904 the SPM became one of the constituent units founding the Socialist Party of Canada, an organisation which continued until 1925.
The Labour Representation Committee was a reformist labour organization in Manitoba, Canada, and was the ideological successor to groups such as the Winnipeg Labour Party, the Independent Labour Party and the Manitoba Labour Party. It was founded in late 1912, and was based on a British organization of the same name.
When the Social Democratic Party of Canada broke away from the Socialist Party of Canada in 1911, many Winnipeg SPC members joined the new organization. The new party's platform was written by three residents of the city, and it has been estimated that nearly 20% of the SDPC's total membership lived in Winnipeg during the early 1910s.
The Dominion Labour Party (DLP) was a reformist labour party, formed in Canada in 1918. The party enjoyed its greatest success in the province of Manitoba.
Frederick John "Fred" Dixon was a Manitoba politician, and was for several years the dominant figure in the province's mainstream labour and Henry George Single Tax Georgist movements. Also a proponent of proportional representation, he served as MLA in the Manitoba Legislaiture from 1914 to 1923.
The Independent Labour Party was the leading social-democratic party in the Canadian province of Manitoba prior to the emergence of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation. Several of its candidates were elected to the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba and it counted federal Members of Parliament J. S. Woodsworth and A. A. Heaps among its members.
John Queen was a labour activist and Manitoba politician. He was a Labour city councillor in Winnipeg from 1916 to 1921. He was leader of the Winnipeg General Strike and served a year in prison for his involvement. He was Winnipeg MLA from 1920 to 1941 and mayor 1935-1936 and 1937-1942. He was the parliamentary leader of Manitoba's Independent Labour Party, 1923-1935.
Seymour James Farmer was a politician in Manitoba, Canada. He served as Winnipeg MLA from 1922 to 1949. During this time he also served as mayor of Winnipeg 1923-1924 and later as city councillor in the late 1920s and in the 1930s. He was the leader of the Manitoba Co-operative Commonwealth Federation from 1935 to 1947. He served as a cabinet minister in Manitoba's World War I coalition government.
The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (Manitoba) (CCF), known informally as the Manitoba CCF, was a provincial branch of the national Canadian party by the same name. The national CCF was the dominant social-democratic party in Canada from the 1930s to the early 1960s, when it merged with the labour movement to become the New Democratic Party. The Manitoba CCF, created in 1932, played the same role at the provincial level.
The Canadian Labour Party was an early, unsuccessful attempt at creating a national labour party in Canada. Although it ran candidates in the federal elections of 1917, 1921, 1925 and 1926, it never succeeded in its goal of providing a national forum for the Canadian labour movement. In most provinces, the CLP ceased to exist after 1928–1929.
Arthur W. Puttee was a British-Canadian printer and politician. Puttee was the first Labour Member of Parliament (MP) in the House of Commons of Canada, sitting as Winnipeg MP from 1900 to 1904.
The 1922 Manitoba general election was held on July 18, 1922 to elect Members of the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Manitoba, Canada. The United Farmers of Manitoba won a narrow majority in the legislature.
George Armstrong was a politician and labour activist in Manitoba, Canada. He served in the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba from 1920 to 1922, and is notable as the only member of the Socialist Party of Canada ever to serve in that institution.
The Socialist Party of British Columbia (SPBC), later the Socialist Party of Canada , was a provincial political party in British Columbia, Canada, from 1901 to 1905. In 1903, the SPBC won seats in the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia.