Independent video game development

Last updated

Independent video game development, or indie game development, is the video game development process of creating indie games; these are video games, commonly created by individual or small teams of video game developers and usually without significant financial support of a video game publisher or other outside source. These games may take years to be built from the ground up or can be completed in a matter of days or even hours depending on complexity, participants, and design goal.

Video game development is the process of creating a video game. The effort is undertaken by a developer, ranging from a single person to an international team dispersed across the globe. Development of traditional commercial PC and console games is normally funded by a publisher, and can take several years to reach completion. Indie games usually take less time and money and can be produced by individuals and smaller developers. The independent game industry has been on the rise, facilitated by the growth of new online distribution systems such as Steam and Uplay, as well as the mobile game market for Android and iOS devices.

An indie game is a video game that is most often created without the financial support of a publisher, although some games funded by a publisher are still considered independent. These games often focus on innovation and rely on digital distribution. Indie gaming saw a rise in mainstream popularity in the latter half of the 2000s, primarily due to new online distribution methods and widely available video game development tools.

A video game developer is a software developer that specializes in video game development – the process and related disciplines of creating video games. A game developer can range from one person who undertakes all tasks to a large business with employee responsibilities split between individual disciplines, such as programming, design, art, testing, etc. Most game development companies have video game publisher financial and usually marketing support. Self-funded developers are known as independent or indie developers and usually make indie games.

Contents

Driven by digital distribution, the concept of independent video game development has spawned an "indie" movement. [1] The increase in popularity of independent games has allowed increased distribution on popular gaming platforms such as the PlayStation Network, Nintendo eShop, Xbox Live and Steam.

Digital distribution is the delivery or distribution of digital media content such as audio, video, software and video games. The term is generally used to describe distribution over an online delivery medium, such as the Internet, thus bypassing physical distribution methods, such as paper, optical discs, and VHS videocassettes. The term online distribution is typically applied to freestanding products; downloadable add-ons for other products are more commonly known as downloadable content. With the advancement of network bandwidth capabilities, online distribution became prominent in the 21st century, with prominent platforms such as Amazon Video, and Netflix's streaming service starting in 2007.

PlayStation Network (PSN) is a digital media entertainment service provided by Sony Interactive Entertainment. Launched in November 2006, PSN was originally conceived for the PlayStation video game consoles, but soon extended to encompass smartphones, tablets, Blu-ray players and high-definition televisions. As of April 2016, over 110 million users have been documented, with 94 million of them active monthly as of May 2019.

Nintendo eShop digital application distribution platform for the Nintendo 3DS, Wii U and Switch

The Nintendo eShop is a digital distribution service powered by the Nintendo Network for the Nintendo 3DS, Wii U, and Nintendo Switch and by a dedicated online infrastructure for the Nintendo Switch. Launched in June 2011 on the Nintendo 3DS, the eShop was enabled by the release of a system update that added the functionality to the Nintendo 3DS's HOME Menu. It is the successor to both the Wii Shop Channel and DSi Shop. Unlike on the Nintendo 3DS, the eShop was made available on the launch date of the Wii U, although a system update is required in order to access it. It is also a multitasking application, which means it is easily accessible even when a game is already running in the background through the system software, though this feature is exclusive to the Wii U and the Nintendo Switch. The Nintendo eShop features downloadable games, demos, applications, streaming videos, consumer rating feedback, and other information on upcoming game releases.

History

The origins of indie video games may be traced back to the 1970s, when there was virtually no established computer gaming industry. Joyce Weisbecker considers herself the first indie designer, having created several games for the RCA Studio II console in 1976 as an independent contractor for RCA. [2] As video game firms developed they employed more programmers. Nonetheless, independent programmers continued to make their own games. During the 1990s, indie games were most commonly distributed as shareware or shared from friend to friend and therefore known as "shareware games".[ original research? ]

The video game industry is the economic sector involved in the development, marketing, and monetization of video games. It encompasses dozens of job disciplines and its component parts employ thousands of people worldwide.

Joyce Weisbecker is an American retired engineer and actuary. She became the first female commercial video game designer in 1976. She considers herself the first indie developer, given that she did her work as an independent contractor.

RCA Studio II dedicated home video game console made by RCA

The RCA Studio II is a home video game console made by RCA that debuted in January 1977. The graphics of Studio II games were black and white and resembled those of earlier Pong consoles and their clones. The Studio II also did not have joysticks or similar game controllers but instead used two ten-button keypads that were built into the console itself. The console was capable of making simple beep sounds with slight variations in tone and length. The Studio II included five built-in games.

As the industry grew during the 1980s, publishing a game became more difficult. Chris Crawford said in late 1984,

Chris Crawford (game designer) Computer game designer

Christopher Crawford is a computer game designer and writer. He designed and programmed several important computer games in the 1980s, including Eastern Front (1941) and Balance of Power. Among developers he became known for his passionate advocacy of game design as an art form, founding both The Journal of Computer Game Design and the Computer Game Developers Conference. In 1992 Crawford withdrew from commercial game development and began experimenting with ideas for a next generation interactive storytelling system. In 2018, Crawford announced that he had halted his work on interactive storytelling, concluding that it will take centuries for civilization to embrace the required concepts.

I will point out the sad truth. We have pretty much passed the period where hobbyists could put together a game that would have commercial prospect. It's much more difficult to break in, much less stay in. Right now ... I would discourage anyone. If you want to do a game, do it for fun, but don't try to do game designs to make any money. The odds are so much against the individual that I would hate to wish that heartbreak on anyone. [3]

Before the mid-1990s, commercial game distribution was controlled by big publishers and retailers, and developers of indie games were forced to either build their own publishing company, find one willing to distribute their game, or distribute it in some form of shareware (e.g. through BBSs). The increased production costs at the beginning of the 2000s made the video game publishers even more risk averse and let them reject all small-size and too innovative concepts of small game developers. [4]

Shareware is a type of proprietary software which is initially provided free of charge to users, who are allowed and encouraged to make and share copies of the program. Shareware is often offered as a download from a website or as a compact disc included with a magazine. Shareware is available with most computer software. Shareware differs from open-source software, in which the source code is available for anyone to inspect and alter; and freeware, which is software distributed at no cost to the user but without source code being made available.

A Bulletin Board System or BBS is a computer server running software that allows users to connect to the system using a terminal program. Once logged in, the user can perform functions such as uploading and downloading software and data, reading news and bulletins, and exchanging messages with other users through public message boards and sometimes via direct chatting. In the early 1980s, message networks such as FidoNet sprung up to provide services such as NetMail, which is similar to email.

By the mid-2000s, some indie (computer) game developers have also taken the opportunity to make their games open source, thus rendering the group of possible participants much larger depending on the interest a project generates. Other[ weasel words ] developers decided to make their games open source on end of commercialization phase to prevent their work from becoming Abandonware. [5] [6] [7] [8] This approach allows the game community also to port the game to new platforms and to provide software support [9] (community patches) by themselves, when the developer ends the official support. Several online communities have formed around independent game development, like TIGSource, Ludum Dare, and the indiegames.com blog.

The digital distribution available since the 2000s offers new possibilities for the whole video game industry, especially for independent video game developers who can now bypass the big publisher for game distribution. [10] [11] Gabe Newell, creator of the PC digital distribution service Steam, formulated the advantages over physical retail distribution for smaller game developers as:

The worst days [for game development] were the cartridge days for the NES. It was a huge risk – you had all this money tied up in silicon in a warehouse somewhere, and so you’d be conservative in the decisions you felt you could make, very conservative in the IPs you signed, your art direction would not change, and so on. Now it’s the opposite extreme: we can put something up on Steam [a digital distributor], deliver it to people all around the world, make changes. We can take more interesting risks.[...] Retail doesn’t know how to deal with those games. On Steam there’s no shelf-space restriction.

The creator of Oddworld, Lorne Lanning, expressed his desire to only make games independently instead of going through publishers. “I’d rather not make games than ... be a slave for public companies who care more about their shareholders than they do about their customers." [13]

With the rise of online shopping and digital distribution like through the Steam platform, gog.com, and the Humble Store, it has become possible to sell indie games to a worldwide market with little or no initial investment by using services such as XBLA, the PlayStation Network or PayPal. [14]

Also since the 2000s, the new trend of crowdfunding platforms (like Kickstarter or Indiegogo) allows smaller developers to fund their work directly by their fans and customers, bypassing traditional and problematic financing methods. [15] [16] [17]

Leading into 2015, there was concern that the rise of easy-to-use tools to create and distribute video games could lead to an oversupply of video games, this was termed the indiepocalypse. [18] This perception of an indiepocalypse is not unanimous; Jeff Vogel stated in a talk at GDC 2016 that any downturn was just part of the standard business cycle. The size of the indie game market was estimated in March 2016 to be at least $1 billion per year for just those games offered through Steam. [14] Mike Wilson, Graeme Struthers and Harry Miller, the co-founders of indie publisher Devolver Digital, stated in April 2016 that the market in indie games is more competitive than ever but continues to appear healthy with no signs of faltering. [19] Gamasutra said that by the end of 2016, while there had not be any type of catastrophic collapse of the indie game market, there were signs that the growth of the market had significantly slowed and that it has entered a "post-indiepocalypse" phase as business models related to indie games adjust to these new market conditions. [20]

Definition

The definition of what qualifies for independent video game development is vague. The term itself bore out from the independent music arena, where "indie" refers to publishing music without using a major record label, such as using smaller independent labels or via self-publishing. [21] One simple definition, described by Laura Parker for GameSpot, says "independent video game development is the business of making games without the support of publisher". [22] However, this independent nature can be seen described from two broad directions. [23]

The term "indie development" has been broadly applied to small development teams, realizing small and non-traditional non-AAA game titles on small budgets without financial help of a larger publisher. [21] Some notable instances of games that are generally considered "indie" but challenge this definition include:

Games that are not as large as most triple-A games, but are developed by larger independent studios with or without publisher backing and that can apply triple-A design principles and polish due to the experience of the team, have sometimes been called "triple-I" games, reflecting the middle ground between these extremes. [27] [28]

Distribution

During the 1980s, the common medium was cassette tape, which was the default software format for systems such as the ZX Spectrum, BBC Micro, Commodore VIC-20 and Commodore 64. This eventually gave way to floppy disk and then to CD-ROM in the 1990s.

Recently independent games have been released for big budget consoles like Xbox 360, PlayStation 3, and Wii. Many games that are being released for these consoles are ports of popular flash games and/or just plainly developed independent games that have received notice.[ citation needed ] Often indie games are completely programmer driven, due to lack of publisher funding for artwork.

On November 19, 2008, Microsoft launched Xbox LIVE Community Games, later renamed as Xbox Live Indie Games , which allowed independent developers to create games for the Xbox 360 using XNA development tools and sell them in an area of the Xbox Live Marketplace.

In May 2010, several independent developers organized the Humble Indie Bundle, which raised over $1.25 million in revenue (of which about $400,000 went to charity) [29] and showed the value that community involvement and cross-platform development can have for independent developers.

The majority of the distribution of PC and Mac games comes via portals of digital distributors such as Steam, GOG.com, Desura and several others.

With the advent of smartphones such as the iPhone and the relative ease of producing these titles many independent game developers solely develop games for various smart phone operating systems such as the iOS and the newer Android. This has also seen games being ported across to take advantage of this new revenue stream such as the successful game Minecraft. [30]

There are also independent games distribution websites, such as IndieCity, springing up to cater exclusively for indie games, rather than including them alongside the mainstream games which are the main focus of most distribution portals (see: Desura, gog.com, Humble Store, Steam). Before the launch of the PlayStation 4 Sony made it a priority to focus on getting independent developers to create new games for the PlayStation 4. [31]

Licensing and platform access

Personal computer platforms (with OSes such as Windows, Linux, macOS) are traditionally more accessible ("open platform") to independent game developers than video game consoles ("closed platform"). [32] Similarly, developing for mobile platforms is often accessible or becoming more accessible.[ citation needed ] For example, Apple's iOS platform has been historically inaccessible, [33] but has become more open with many games submitted, [34] such as with the launch of an "indie" store section. [35]

Console manufacturers often impose a strict approval process and can outright reject approval (closed platform). [36] Also, game developers are required to pay fees to license the required Software Development Kits (SDKs). An example is independent developer Wisdom Tree who created in late 1980s video games (Bible Adventures etc.) for the NES console and got for legal but unlicensed development under pressure by Nintendo. [37] [38] Another example where the rejection of a SDK license prevented access to a platform is the case of Robert Pelloni and his game Bob's game in 2008. [39] To develop for Nintendo Wii, Xbox 360, or PlayStation 3 requires an SDK license fee of between US$2,000 and $10,000. The console maker also take a percentage of the game's net profit in addition to yearly developer fees.

There is also movement from some manufacturers to lower the threshold for indies; for instance, development for Xbox Live Indie Games only requires a $99/year Creators Club membership and Microsoft takes 30% of sales. Microsoft does provide a free membership to the Creators Club to students via the DreamSpark program. [40] [41] [42] [43] [44] Indie game developers can also use homebrew development libraries, which are free of charge, and usually open source.

See also

Related Research Articles

Homebrew (video games)

Homebrew is a term frequently applied to video games or other software produced by consumers to target proprietary hardware platforms that are not typically user-programmable or that use proprietary storage methods. This can include games developed with official development kits, such as Net Yaroze, Linux for PlayStation 2 or Microsoft XNA. A game written by a non-professional developer for a system intended to be consumer-programmable, like the Commodore 64, is simply called hobbyist.

WayForward Technologies, Inc. is an American independent video game developer and publisher based in Valencia, California. Founded in 1990 by technology entrepreneur Voldi Way, WayForward started by developing games for consoles such as the Super NES and Genesis, as well as TV games and PC educational software. In 1997, they relaunched their video games arm, placing the company as a contractor for publishers and working on a variety of licensed assets.

In the history of video games, the seventh generation of home consoles began in late 2005 with the release of Microsoft's Xbox 360, and continued with the release of Sony Computer Entertainment's PlayStation 3 (PS3) and Nintendo's Wii the following year. Each new console introduced a new type of breakthrough in technology: the Xbox 360 could play games rendered natively at high-definition video (HD) resolutions; the PlayStation 3 offered HD movie playback via a built-in 3D Blu-ray Disc player; while the Wii focused on integrating controllers with movement sensors as well as joysticks. Some Wii controllers could be moved about to control in-game actions, which enabled players to simulate real-world actions through movement during gameplay. By this generation, video game consoles had become an important part of the global IT infrastructure; it is estimated that video game consoles represented 25% of the world's general-purpose computational power in 2007.

Xbox Live Indie Games are video games created by individual developers or small teams of developers released on Microsoft's Xbox Live Marketplace for the Xbox 360. The games were developed using Microsoft XNA, and developed by one or more independent developers that are registered with App Hub. Unlike Xbox Live Arcade titles, these were generally only tested within the local creator community, had much lower costs of production, and generally were less expensive to purchase. The service was released to widespread use alongside the New Xbox Experience, and as of November 2014, over 3,300 games have been released on the service, many receiving media attention. All Indie Games currently require the user to be logged into their Xbox Live account to initiate the start-up of each game. Indie Games were not available in Australia, due to the requirement for all games to be rated by the Australian Classification Board, and the prohibitive expenses involved. The Xbox Live Indie Games program did not continue with the release of the Xbox One, and the marketplace for these games was shuttered in October 7, 2017.

indiePub Entertainment, Inc. was a publisher of video games based in Cincinnati, Ohio, United States.

<i>Super Meat Boy</i> video game

Super Meat Boy is an independent video game designed by Edmund McMillen and Tommy Refenes, and developed by "Team Meat". It is the successor to Meat Boy, McMillen and Jonathan McEntee's 2008 flash game. The game was released on the Xbox 360 through Xbox Live Arcade in October 2010, on Microsoft Windows in November 2010, on OS X a year later in November 2011, on Linux in December 2011 as a part of the Humble Indie Bundle #4, on PlayStation 4 and PlayStation Vita in October 2015, on Wii U in May 2016, and for the Nintendo Switch in January 2018.

Edmund McMillen American video game designer

Edmund McMillen (born March 2, 1980) is an American video game designer and artist known for his Flash game visual style. His most notable works include 2010's side-scroller Super Meat Boy and 2011's roguelike game The Binding of Isaac and its remake.

Platform exclusivity (also known as console exclusivity refers to the status of a video game being developed for and released only on one particular platform. Most commonly, it refers to only being released on a specific video game console or through a specific vendor's platforms

Humble Bundle, Inc. is a digital storefront for video games, which grew out of its original offering of Humble Bundles, collections of games sold at a price determined by the purchaser and with a portion of the price going towards charity and the rest split between the game developers. Humble Bundle continues to offer these limited-time bundles, but have expanded to include a greater and more persistent storefront. The Humble Bundle concept was initially run by Wolfire Games in 2010, but by its second bundle, the Humble Bundle company was spun out to manage the promotion, payments, and distribution of the bundles. In October 2017, the company was acquired by Ziff Davis through its IGN Entertainment subsidiary, though will continue to operate as a separate subsidiary.

In the video game industry, digital distribution is the process of delivering video game content as digital information, without the exchange or purchase of new physical media. This process has existed since the early 1980s, but it was only with network advancements in bandwidth capabilities in the early 2000s that digital distribution became more prominent as a method of selling games. Currently, the process is dominated by online distribution over broadband internet.

In the history of video games, the eighth generation of consoles is the current generation. It includes those consoles released since 2012 by Nintendo, Microsoft, and Sony. For home video game consoles, the eighth generation began on November 18, 2012, with the release of the Wii U, and continued with the release of the PlayStation 4 on November 15, 2013, and the Xbox One on November 22, 2013. The Wii U was the first to be discontinued — on January 31, 2017 — to make way for Nintendo's second competitor, the Switch, released on March 3, 2017. These video game consoles follow their seventh generation predecessors from the same three companies: Nintendo's Wii, Sony's PlayStation 3, and Microsoft's Xbox 360.

The Indie Fund is an organization created by several independent game developers to help fund budding indie video game development. The Indie Fund was created in early 2010, its purpose aimed "to encourage the next generation of game developers" by providing them funding for development of these games without the terms that would normally be associated with publication agreements.

Axiom Verge is a Metroidvania video game by American indie developer Thomas Happ. The game was originally released in March and April 2015 for PlayStation 4, and May 2015 for Microsoft Windows, OS X, and Linux. A PlayStation Vita version was released in April 2016. The Wii U and Xbox One versions were released in North America and Europe in September 2016. A PlayStation 4 version was released in North America in March 2015 and in April 2015 in Europe and Australia. A Nintendo Switch version was released in October 2017.

Majesco Entertainment American video game publisher and distributor

Majesco Entertainment Company is an American video game publisher and distributor based in Hazlet, New Jersey. The company was founded as Majesco Sales in Edison, New Jersey in 1986, and was a privately held company until acquiring operation-less company ConnectivCorp in a reverse merger takeover, becoming its subsidiary and thus a public company on December 5, 2003. ConnectivCorp later changed its name to Majesco Holdings Inc. on April 13, 2004.

Nintendo Switch hybrid video game console by Nintendo

The Nintendo Switch is a video game console developed by Nintendo and released on March 3, 2017. It is a hybrid console that can be used as both a stationary and portable device. Its wireless Joy-Con controllers, which include standard buttons and directional analog sticks for user input, motion sensing, and high-definition tactile feedback, can attach to both sides of the console to support handheld-style play. They can also connect to a Grip accessory to provide a traditional home console gamepad form, or be used individually in the hand like the Wii Remote and Nunchuk, supporting local multiplayer modes. The Nintendo Switch's software supports online gaming through standard Internet connectivity, as well as local wireless ad hoc connectivity with other Switch consoles. Nintendo Switch games and software are available on both physical flash-based ROM cartridges and digital distribution via Nintendo eShop; the system does not use region locking. As an eighth-generation console, the Nintendo Switch competes with Microsoft's Xbox One and Sony's PlayStation 4.

Game development kits (GDK) are specialized hardware used to create commercial videogames. They may be partnered with game development tools, special game engine licenses, and other middleware to aid video game development. GDKs are typically not available to the public, and require game developers to enter an agreement, partnership, or program with the hardware manufacturer to gain access to the hardware. As game console generations pass, development kits often get sold through websites like eBay without repercussions. This is often because the console manufacturers discontinue certain development programs as time passes.

In video games with online gaming components, cross-platform play, or cross-play, is the ability of players using different video game hardware to play with each other simultaneously. It is commonly applied to the ability for players using a game on a specific video game console to play alongside a player on a different hardware platform such as another console or a computer. A related concept is cross-save, where the player's progress in a game is stored in separate servers, and can be continued in the game but on a different hardware platform.

References

  1. "Indie Game Developers Rise Up". Forbes. 20 November 2008.
  2. Edwards, Benj (2017-10-27). "Rediscovering History's Lost First Female Video Game Designer". Fast Company. Retrieved 2017-10-27.
  3. Darling, Sharon (February 1985). "Birth of a Computer Game". Compute!. p. 48. Retrieved 6 October 2013.
  4. MARCELO PRINCE, PETER ROTH (2004-12-21). "Videogame Publishers Place Big Bets on Big-Budget Games". Wallstreet journal Online. Retrieved 2013-07-01. The jump in development and marketing costs has made the videogame industry "enormously risk averse,[...]Publishers have largely focused on making sequels to successful titles or games based on movie or comic book characters, which are seen as less risky. "We don't green light any more things that will be small or average size games.[...]"[ permanent dead link ]
  5. "Revenge of the Source Code". Puppy Games. 2011-04-20. Retrieved 2011-08-23.
  6. "Aquaria goes open source!". Wolfire Games blog. 2010-06-03.
  7. Lugaru goes open source Wolfire Blog, May 11, 2010
  8. Tread Marks 1.7.0 now free and open source! by Rick on longbowgames.com (January 20, 2017)
  9. Unofficial update packs! (1.1.3+)(Updated 14th Oct 2012) on bit-blog.com (October 2012)
  10. Garr, Brian (17 April 2011). "Download distribution opening new doors for independent game developers". Statesman.com. Archived from the original on 21 April 2011.
  11. Stuart, Keith (27 January 2010). "Back to the bedroom: how indie gaming is reviving the Britsoft spirit". The Guardian . Retrieved 8 November 2012.
  12. Walker, John (2007-11-22). "RPS Exclusive: Gabe Newell Interview". Rock, Paper, Shotgun . Retrieved 2013-06-28. The worst days were the cartridge days for the NES. It was a huge risk – you had all this money tied up in silicon in a warehouse somewhere, and so you’d be conservative in the decisions you felt you could make, very conservative in the IPs you signed, your art direction would not change, and so on. Now it’s the opposite extreme: we can put something up on Steam , deliver it to people all around the world, make changes. We can take more interesting risks.[...] Retail doesn’t know how to deal with those games. On Steam there’s no shelf-space restriction. It’s great because they’re a bunch of old, orphaned games.
  13. "Oddworld: New 'n' Tasty - "it's not a fucking HD remake"". 25 March 2014.
  14. 1 2 Wawro, Alex (March 15, 2016). "Devs share real talk about surviving the latest 'indiepocalypse'". Gamasutra . Retrieved March 15, 2016.
  15. Parker, Laura (February 14, 2011). "The Rise of the Indie Developer". GameSpot . Retrieved December 4, 2012.
  16. Thompson, Michael (January 18, 2010). "Searching for gold: how to fund your indie video game". Ars Technica . Retrieved December 4, 2012.
  17. Hietalahti, Juuso (May 19, 2006). "The Basic Marketing Plan For Indie Games". Gamasutra . Retrieved December 4, 2012.
  18. Graft, Kris (December 10, 2015). "The 5 trends that defined the game industry in 2015". Gamasutra . Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  19. Pearson, Dan (April 13, 2016). ""Every year has been better than the last. Thriving is the best way to put it."". GamesIndustry.biz . Retrieved April 13, 2016.
  20. Graft, Kris (December 13, 2016). "The 5 trends that defined the game industry in 2016". Gamasutra . Retrieved December 13, 2016.
  21. 1 2 3 4 Dutton, Fred (2012-04-18). "What is Indie?". Eurogamer . Retrieved 2016-03-04.
  22. Parker, Laura (2011-02-13). "The Rise of the Indie Developer". GameSpot . Retrieved 2016-03-04.
  23. Gril, Juan (2008-04-30). "The State of Indie Gaming". Gamasutra . Retrieved 2016-03-04.
  24. Cook, Dave (May 13, 2014). "Why Supergiant ditched publishers for the release of Transistor – interview". VG247 . Retrieved April 26, 2016.
  25. Conditt, Jessica (January 21, 2016). "Traveling through time with 'Braid' creator Jonathan Blow". Engadget . AOL Tech . Retrieved January 21, 2016.
  26. Kamen, Matt (2016-03-04). "No Man's Sky director: 'everything is to the wire, we work all night'". Wired UK . Retrieved 2016-03-04.
  27. Clark, Ryan (September 8, 2015). "The 5 Myths of the Indiepocalypse". Gamasutra . Retrieved December 14, 2017.
  28. Newman, Jared (March 31, 2017). "How Itch.io became an indie PC game haven—and Steam's antithesis". PC World . Retrieved December 14, 2017.
  29. "Humble Indie Bundle Page and Stats". Wolfire.com. Retrieved 2011-04-30.
  30. "Official iOS Version of Indie Game Minecraft to Hit iTunes App Store Later This Year | Unlock iPhone 4, unlock iPhone 3GS, jailbreak iPhone – how to with". Ziphone.org. 2011-02-22. Archived from the original on 2011-04-24. Retrieved 2011-04-30.
  31. "Shuhei Yoshida: PlayStation 4, indies, and the Xbox One". GamesIndustry.biz.
  32. Thomas R. Eisenmann, Geoffrey Parker, Marshall Van Alstyne (2008-08-31). "Opening Platforms: How, When and Why?" (PDF). Harvard Business School Entrepreneurial Management Working Paper No. 09-030. Harvard Business School. p. 2. doi:10.2139/ssrn.1264012 . Retrieved 2015-06-30.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  33. Thomas R. Eisenmann, Geoffrey Parker, Marshall Van Alstyne (2008-08-31). "Opening Platforms: How, When and Why?" (PDF). Harvard Business School Entrepreneurial Management Working Paper No. 09-030. Harvard Business School. p. 2. doi:10.2139/ssrn.1264012 . Retrieved 2015-06-30. Supply-Side User (Application developer) Iphone ClosedCS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  34. Kerr, Chris. "Over 500 games now submitted to iOS App Store every day". www.gamasutra.com.
  35. "Apple Launches New Indie Games App Store Section". ign.com.
  36. Orland, Kyle (23 July 2012). "How certification requirements are holding back console gaming". Ars Technica .
  37. Maiberg, Emanuel (9 October 2014). "These Evangelical Twins Want to Make a Bible Video Game That Doesn't Suck". Vice . Retrieved 8 April 2015.
  38. "Sunday Funday: The Ride". Infinite NES Lives. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
  39. Nq, Keane (December 22, 2008). "Bob's Game Developer Stages 100 Day Protest to Nintendo". The Escapist . Retrieved August 10, 2009.
  40. "Frequently Asked Questions". XNA Creators Club Online. Microsoft Corp. Retrieved 5 January 2010.
  41. "Wii Development Kit to Cost $1700". Nintendo Wii Zone. Nintendo Wii Zone. 21 June 2006. Retrieved 5 January 2010.
  42. Carless, Simon (19 September 2006). "Xbox Live Arcade Makes How Much?". GameSetWatch. Think Services, UBM TechWeb. Retrieved 5 January 2010.
  43. Orland, Kyle (21 September 2006). "The economics of Live Arcade development". Joystiq. Weblogs, Inc. Retrieved 5 January 2010.
  44. Elliot, Amy-Mae (19 November 2007). "Sony's half price sale on PS3 SDK for developers". Pocket-lint. Retrieved 16 May 2013.