Index of epistemology articles

Last updated

Epistemology (from Greek ἐπιστήμη episteme-, "knowledge, science" and λόγος, "logos") or theory of knowledge is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope (limitations) of knowledge. [1] It addresses the questions "What is knowledge?", "How is knowledge acquired?", "What do people know?", "How do we know what we know?", and "Why do we know what we know?". Much of the debate in this field has focused on analyzing the nature of knowledge and how it relates to similar notions such as truth, belief, and justification. It also deals with the means of production of knowledge, as well as skepticism about different knowledge claims.

Contents

Articles related to epistemology include:

A

– "A Defence of Common Sense" – A posterioriA priori and a posterioriA Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human KnowledgeAbductive reasoningAcademic skepticismAcatalepsyAd hoc hypothesisAdaptive representationAdolph StöhrAenesidemusAenesidemus (book)African SpirAgnosticismAgrippa the SkepticAlethiologyAlief (belief)Alison WylieAlvin GoldmanAn Enquiry Concerning Human UnderstandingAn Essay Concerning Human UnderstandingAnalytic–synthetic distinctionAnamnesis (philosophy)AndrocentrismAndroid epistemologyAnthony WildenAnti-foundationalismAnti-realismApperceptionArda DenkelArgument from illusionAristotle's theory of universalsArnór HannibalssonÁsta Kristjana Sveinsdóttir – Atli Harðarson – AtomismAutoepistemic logicAyn Rand

B

Barry StroudBasic beliefBasic limiting principleBeliefBertrand RussellBertrand Russell's views on philosophyBjörn KrausBlack swan theoryBlind men and an elephantBody of knowledgeBrain in a vatBrute fact

C

C. D. BroadCarper's fundamental ways of knowingCartesian doubtCartesian OtherCartesian SelfCatherine ElginCausal chainCausal Theory of KnowingCausalityCenter Leo Apostel for Interdisciplinary StudiesCentre de Recherche en Epistémologie AppliquéeCertaintyClaudio CanaparoCogito ergo sumCognitive closure (philosophy)Cognitive synonymyCoherence theory of truthCoherentismCommon senseCompensationismComposition of CausesComputational epistemologyConcluding Unscientific Postscript to Philosophical FragmentsCondition of possibilityConsensus theory of truthConstructivism (mathematics)Constructivist epistemologyContextualismContrastivismCorrespondence theory of truthCounterintuitiveCrispin WrightCriteria of truthCritical rationalismCritical realismCritical thinkingCynicism

D

Daniel M. HausmanDavid HumeDeductive closureDefeasible reasoningDefeaterDeflationary theory of truthDescriptive knowledgeDharmarāja AdhvarinDialetheismDianoiaDirect and indirect realismDirect experienceDiscourse on the MethodDisjunctivismDispositional and occurrent beliefDivine command theoryDaimonicDogmaDoubtDoxaDoxastic attitudesDream argumentDuck test

E

Eastern epistemologyEcology of contextsEdgar MorinEditologyEdmund Gettier – Educology – Egocentric predicamentElephant testEmergenceEmpirical evidenceEmpirical methodEmpirical relationshipEmpirical researchEmpiricismEndoxaEnneadsEpilogismEpistemeEpistemic closureEpistemic commitmentEpistemic communityEpistemic conservatismEpistemic feedbackEpistemic minimalismEpistemic possibilityEpistemic theories of truthEpistemic theory of miraclesEpistemic virtueEpistemicismEpistemocracyEpistemological anarchismEpistemological idealismEpistemological particularismEpistemological pluralismEpistemological psychologyEpistemological realismEpistemological ruptureEpistemological solipsismEpistemologyEpochéEristicErnst von GlasersfeldEureka effectEverett W. HallEvidenceEvidentialismEvil demonEvolutionary argument against naturalismEvolutionary epistemologyExclusion principle (philosophy)Existential phenomenologyExotericExpectation (epistemic)ExperienceExperiential knowledgeExperientialismExtended mind thesisExternismEyewitness testimony

F

FactFactual relativismFact–value distinctionFaith and rationalityFallibilismFalsifiabilityFeminist epistemologyFideismFinitismFitch's paradox of knowabilityFooled by RandomnessFormal epistemologyFormative epistemologyFoundationalismFoundherentismFragmentalismFrame problemFrank Cameron JacksonFred DretskeFrederick WilhelmsenFunctional contextualism

G

G. E. MooreGaston BachelardGenerativityGenetic epistemologyGeorge BerkeleyGeorge PappasGettier problemGiambattista VicoGila SherGilbert HarmanGilbert RyleGiulio GiorelloGnosiologyGödel's incompleteness theorems

H

Harry BinswangerHeinz von FoersterHelmut WautischerHere is a handHierarchical epistemologyHilary KornblithHumanismHume's fork

I

I know it when I see itI know that I know nothingIdeological criticismIdeologyIgnoramus et ignorabimusIgnoranceIlluminationismImmanuel KantIncorrigibilityIndeterminacy (philosophy)Inductive reasoningInductivismInfallibilismInfallibilityInferenceInfinitismInformation sourceInnatismInsightIntellectual responsibilityInternalism and externalismIntersubjective verifiabilityIntersubjectivityIntroduction to Objectivist EpistemologyIntrospectionIntuition (Bergson)Intuition (philosophy)Intuition (psychology)IntuitionismIrrealism (philosophy)Is logic empirical?Islamization of knowledge

J

Jean PiagetJean-Louis Le MoigneJean-Michel BerthelotJohn Greco (philosopher)John HickJohn LockeJohn SearleJonathan DancyJonathan Kvanvig - Jules VuilleminJustified true belief

K

Karla Jessen WilliamsonKatalepsisKeith LehrerKK thesisKnowing and the KnownKnowledge Knowledge and Its Limits Knowledge by acquaintanceKnowledge by descriptionKnowledge organizationKnowledge relativity

L

Laplace's demonLarry LaudanLarry SangerLatitudinarianism (philosophy)Laurence BonJourLaw (principle)Leap of faithLeonard PeikoffLevels of adequacyList of epistemologistsLogical holismLogical positivismLottery paradox

M

MaieuticsMap–territory relationMargaret Elizabeth EganMathematical proofMeditations on First PhilosophyMemoryMenoMeno's slaveMetaMeta-epistemologyMetaphor in philosophyMetaphysical naturalismMetatheoryMethodism (philosophy)Methodological solipsismMichel de MontaigneMolyneux's problemMoore's paradoxMoral rationalismMultiperspectivalismMundane reason

N

Naïve empiricismNaïve realismNassim Nicholas TalebNaturalism (philosophy)Naturalized epistemologyNayef Al-RodhanNeopragmatismNeutrality (philosophy)New realism (philosophy)Nicholas RescherNiklas LuhmannNomotheticNomothetic and idiographicNoogonyNorman MalcolmNoumenon

O

Object (philosophy)Objectivity (philosophy)ObservationOntologismOmphalos hypothesisOpinionOutline of epistemologyOverbelief

P

P. F. StrawsonPancritical rationalismPanrationalismParadigmParadigm shiftParticipatory theoryPaul ChurchlandPerceptionPerceptual learningPeripatetic axiomPerspectivismPessimismPeter MillicanPeter UngerPhenomenal conservatismPhenomenalismPhillip H. WiebePhilosophic burden of proofPhilosophical FragmentsPhilosophical InvestigationsPhilosophical problems of testimonyPhilosophical skepticismPhilosophical theologyPhilosophical zombiePhilosophy of colorPhilosophy of perceptionPhilosophy of sciencePlato's ProblemPlatonic epistemologyPluralism (philosophy)Pluralist theories of truthPositivismPostfoundationalismPostmodern philosophyPostpositivismPragmatic theory of truthPramāṇaPraxeologyPredictive powerPreface paradoxPreformation theoryPresentationismPresupposition (philosophy)Primary/secondary quality distinctionPrinciple of charityPrivate language argumentPrivileged accessProbabilismProbability interpretationsProblem of inductionProblem of other mindsProblem of the criterionProblem of universalsProcedural knowledgeProof (truth)Propensity probabilityPropositional attitudePseudointellectualPsychological nominalismPyrrhoPyrrhonism

Q

Quantification

R

Ramification problemRational egoismRational fideismRational ignoranceRationalismRationalityReasonRedundancy theory of truthReformed epistemologyRegress argumentRelevant alternatives theoryReliabilismReligious epistemologyRobert AudiRobert NozickRoderick ChisholmRole of chance in scientific discoveries

S

Sally HaslangerSatyaScepticism and Animal FaithScottish Common Sense RealismSelf-evidenceSemantic externalismSemantic theory of truthSensualismSextus EmpiricusSherrilyn RoushSimulated realitySimulation hypothesisSkepticismSleeping Beauty problemSocial constructionismSocial epistemologySocial Epistemology (journal)Sociology of knowledgeSocratesSolipsismSophist (dialogue)Speculative reasonSteve Fuller (sociologist)SubjectivismSwamping problemSwampmanSystemography

T

Tabula rasaTarski's undefinability theoremTechneTelesisTestimonyThe Black Swan (Taleb book)The Course in Positive Philosophy The Extended Mind The Postmodern Condition The Republic (Plato) The Roots of ReferenceThe Will to BelieveThe World as Will and RepresentationTheaetetus (dialogue)Theory of FormsTheory of justificationThere are known knownsThick Black TheoryThought experimentTranscendent truthTranscendental idealismTranscendental philosophyTranscendental realismTransparency (philosophy)Trenton MerricksTruthTruth by consensusTruth predicateTruth-value linkTwin Earth thought experiment Two Dogmas of Empiricism Two truths doctrine

U

UncertaintyUnderdeterminationUnderstandingUniversal pragmaticsUnknown knownUnobservableUpamāṇa

V

VaguenessVasily SesemanVerification theoryVerificationismVerisimilitudeVeritismVienna CircleVirtue epistemologyVisual spaceVoluntarism (metaphysics)

W

Walter Terence StaceWard JonesWilfrid SellarsWilliam AlstonWilliam CrathornWord and ObjectWorld HypothesesWorld view

X

Xenophanes

See also

Related Research Articles

In analytic philosophy, anti-realism is an epistemological position first articulated by British philosopher Michael Dummett. The term was coined as an argument against a form of realism Dummett saw as 'colorless reductionism'.

Epistemology Branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge

Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with knowledge. Epistemologists study the nature of knowledge, epistemic justification, the rationality of belief, and various related issues. Epistemology is considered one of the four main branches of philosophy, along with ethics, logic, and metaphysics.

In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience. It is one of several views of epistemology, along with rationalism and skepticism. Empiricism emphasizes the role of empirical evidence in the formation of ideas, rather than innate ideas or traditions. Recently, there have been increased efforts to advocate added empiricism in non-scientific and social science studies, especially as such studies relate to health law, public health law, etc. However, empiricists may argue that traditions arise due to relations of previous sense experiences.

In metaphilosophy and ethics, meta-ethics is the study of the nature, scope, and meaning of moral judgment. It is one of the three branches of ethics generally studied by philosophers, the others being normative ethics and applied ethics.

In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification". More formally, rationalism is defined as a methodology or a theory "in which the criterion of the truth is not sensory but intellectual and deductive".

Philosophical optimism, also known as epistemological optimism, is a philosophical school of thought that questions the possibility of uncertainty in knowledge. Skeptic philosophers from different historical periods adopted different principles and arguments, but their views can be generalized as either (1) the denial of impossibility of all knowledge or (2) the suspension of judgement due to the inadequacy of evidence.

Critical rationalism is an epistemological philosophy advanced by Karl Popper. Popper wrote about critical rationalism in his works, such as: The Logic of Scientific Discovery (1934/1959), The Open Society and its Enemies (1945), Conjectures and Refutations (1963), Unended Quest (1976), and The Myth of the Framework (1994). Ernest Gellner is another notable proponent of this philosophy.

Modern philosophy philosophy in recent times

Modern philosophy is philosophy developed in the modern era and associated with modernity. It is not a specific doctrine or school, although there are certain assumptions common to much of it, which helps to distinguish it from earlier philosophy.

Ethical intuitionism is a view or family of views in moral epistemology. It is at its core foundationalism about moral knowledge; that is, it is committed to the thesis that some moral truths can be known non-inferentially. Such an epistemological view is by definition committed to the existence of knowledge of moral truths; therefore, ethical intuitionism implies cognitivism.

Contextualism, also known as epistemic contextualism, is a family of views in philosophy which emphasize the context in which an action, utterance, or expression occurs. Proponents of contextualism argue that, in some important respect, the action, utterance, or expression can only be understood relative to that context. Contextualist views hold that philosophically controversial concepts, such as "meaning P", "knowing that P", "having a reason to A", and possibly even "being true" or "being right" only have meaning relative to a specified context. Some philosophers hold that context-dependence may lead to relativism..

Naturalized epistemology is a collection of philosophic views concerned with the theory of knowledge that emphasize the role of natural scientific methods. This shared emphasis on scientific methods of studying knowledge shifts focus to the empirical processes of knowledge acquisition and away from many traditional philosophical questions. There are noteworthy distinctions within naturalized epistemology. Replacement naturalism maintains that traditional epistemology should be abandoned and replaced with the methodologies of the natural sciences. The general thesis of cooperative naturalism is that traditional epistemology can benefit in its inquiry by using the knowledge we have gained from the cognitive sciences. Substantive naturalism focuses on an asserted equality of facts of knowledge and natural facts.

Laurence BonJour is an American philosopher and Emeritus of Philosophy at the University of Washington.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to philosophy:

Broadly speaking, fallibilism is the philosophical claim that no belief can have justification which guarantees the truth of the belief. However, not all fallibilists believe that fallibilism extends to all domains of knowledge.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to epistemology:

Feminist epistemology is an examination of epistemology from a feminist standpoint.

Formative epistemology is a collection of philosophic views concerned with the theory of knowledge that emphasize the role of natural scientific methods. According to formative epistemology, knowledge is gained through the imputation of thoughts from one human being to another in the societal setting. Humans are born without intrinsic knowledge and through their evolutionary and developmental processes gain knowledge from other human beings. Thus, according to formative epistemology, all knowledge is completely subjective and truth does not exist.

Jennifer Nagel is a Canadian philosopher in the Department of Philosophy at the University of Toronto. Her research focuses on epistemology, philosophy of mind, and metacognition. She has also written on 17th century (Western) philosophy, especially John Locke and René Descartes.

References

  1. Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Volume 3, 1967, Macmillan, Inc.