Index of epistemology articles

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Epistemology (from Greek ἐπιστήμη episteme-, "knowledge, science" and λόγος, "logos") or theory of knowledge is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope (limitations) of knowledge. [1] It addresses the questions "What is knowledge?", "How is knowledge acquired?", "What do people know?", "How do we know what we know?", and "Why do we know what we know?". Much of the debate in this field has focused on analyzing the nature of knowledge and how it relates to similar notions such as truth, belief, and justification. It also deals with the means of production of knowledge, as well as skepticism about different knowledge claims.

Epistemology A branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge

Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.

Greek language Language spoken in Greece, Cyprus and Southern Albania

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

<i>Logos</i> Philosophical concept

Logos is a term in Western philosophy, psychology, rhetoric, and religion derived from a Greek word variously meaning "ground", "plea", "opinion", "expectation", "word", "speech", "account", "reason", "proportion", and "discourse". It became a technical term in Western philosophy beginning with Heraclitus, who used the term for a principle of order and knowledge.

Contents

Articles related to epistemology include:

A

– "A Defence of Common Sense" – A posterioriA priori and a posterioriA Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human KnowledgeAbductive reasoningAcademic skepticismAcatalepsyAd hoc hypothesisAdaptive representationAdolph StöhrAenesidemusAenesidemus (book)African SpirAgnosticismAgrippa the SkepticAlethiologyAlief (belief)Alison WylieAlvin GoldmanAn Enquiry Concerning Human UnderstandingAn Essay Concerning Human UnderstandingAnalytic–synthetic distinctionAnamnesis (philosophy)AndrocentrismAndroid epistemologyAnthony WildenAnti-foundationalismAnti-realismApperceptionArda DenkelArgument from illusionAristotle's theory of universalsArnór HannibalssonÁsta Kristjana Sveinsdóttir – Atli Harðarson – AtomismAutoepistemic logicAyn Rand

"A Defence of Common Sense" is a 1925 essay by philosopher G. E. Moore. In it, he attempts to refute absolute skepticism by arguing that at least some of our established beliefs - facts - about the world are absolutely certain. Moore argues that these beliefs are common sense.

Empirical evidence Knowledge acquired by means of the senses

Empirical evidence is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation. The term comes from the Greek word for experience, ἐμπειρία (empeiría).

The Latin phrases a priori and a posteriori are philosophical terms popularized by Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason, one of the most influential works in the history of philosophy. However, in their Latin forms they appear in Latin translations of Euclid's Elements, of about 300 BC, a work widely considered during the early European modern period as the model for precise thinking.

B

Barry StroudBasic beliefBasic limiting principleBeliefBertrand RussellBertrand Russell's views on philosophyBjörn KrausBlack swan theoryBlind men and an elephantBody of knowledgeBrain in a vatBrute fact

Barry Stroud is a Canadian philosopher known for his work on philosophical skepticism, David Hume, and Ludwig Wittgenstein, among other topics.

Basic beliefs are, under the epistemological view called foundationalism, the axioms of a belief system.

A Basic Limiting Principle (B.L.P.) is a general principle that limits our explanations metaphysically or epistemologically, and which normally goes unquestioned or even unnoticed in our everyday or scientific thinking. The term was introduced by the philosopher C. D. Broad in his 1949 paper "The Relevance of Psychical research to Philosophy":

"There are certain limiting principles which we unhesitatingly take for granted as the framework within which all our practical activities and our scientific theories are confined. Some of these seem to be self-evident. Others are so overwhelmingly supported by all the empirical facts which fall within the range of ordinary experience and the scientific elaborations of it that it hardly enters our heads to question them. Let us call these Basic Limiting Principles."

C

C. D. BroadCarper's fundamental ways of knowingCartesian doubtCartesian OtherCartesian SelfCatherine ElginCausal chainCausal Theory of KnowingCausalityCenter Leo Apostel for Interdisciplinary StudiesCentre de Recherche en Epistémologie AppliquéeCertaintyClaudio CanaparoCogito ergo sumCognitive closure (philosophy)Cognitive synonymyCoherence theory of truthCoherentismCommon senseCompensationismComposition of CausesComputational epistemologyConcluding Unscientific Postscript to Philosophical FragmentsCondition of possibilityConsensus theory of truthConstructivism (mathematics)Constructivist epistemologyContextualismContrastivismCorrespondence theory of truthCounterintuitiveCrispin WrightCriteria of truthCritical rationalismCritical realismCritical thinkingCynicism

C. D. Broad English philosopher

Charlie Dunbar Broad, usually cited as C. D. Broad, was an English epistemologist, historian of philosophy, philosopher of science, moral philosopher, and writer on the philosophical aspects of psychical research. He was known for his thorough and dispassionate examinations of arguments in such works as Scientific Thought, published in 1923, The Mind and Its Place in Nature, published in 1925, and An Examination of McTaggart's Philosophy, published in 1933.

In healthcare, Carper's fundamental ways of knowing is a typology that attempts to classify the different sources from which knowledge and beliefs in professional practice can be or have been derived. It was proposed by Barbara A. Carper, a professor at the College of Nursing at Texas Woman's University, in 1978.

Cartesian doubt form of methodological skepticism associated with the writings and methodology of René Descartes

Cartesian Doubt is a form of methodological skepticism associated with the writings and methodology of René Descartes. Cartesian doubt is also known as Cartesian skepticism, methodic doubt, methodological skepticism, universal doubt, systematic doubt or hyperbolic doubt.

D

Daniel M. HausmanDavid HumeDeductive closureDefeasible reasoningDefeaterDeflationary theory of truthDescriptive knowledgeDharmarāja AdhvarinDialetheismDianoiaDirect and indirect realismDirect experienceDiscourse on the MethodDisjunctivismDispositional and occurrent beliefDivine command theoryDaimonicDogmaDoubtDoxaDoxastic attitudesDream argumentDuck test

Daniel M. Hausman is an American philosopher. His research has focussed primarily on methodological, metaphysical, and ethical issues at the boundaries between economics and philosophy. He is currently Herbert A. Simon Professor in the Department of Philosophy at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.

David Hume Scottish philosopher, economist, and historian

David Hume was a Scottish Enlightenment philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, scepticism, and naturalism. Hume's empiricist approach to philosophy places him with John Locke, George Berkeley, Francis Bacon and Thomas Hobbes as a British Empiricist. Beginning with his A Treatise of Human Nature (1738), Hume strove to create a total naturalistic science of man that examined the psychological basis of human nature. Against philosophical rationalists, Hume held that passion rather than reason governs human behaviour. Hume argued against the existence of innate ideas, positing that all human knowledge is founded solely in experience.

Deductive closure is a property of a set of objects. A set of objects, O, is said to exhibit closure or to be closed under a given operation, R, provided that for every object, x, if x is a member of O and x is R-related to any object, y, then y is a member of O. In the context of statements, the deductive closure of a set S of statements is the set of all the statements that can be deduced from S.

E

Eastern epistemologyEcology of contextsEdgar MorinEditologyEdmund Gettier – Educology – Egocentric predicamentElephant testEmergenceEmpirical evidenceEmpirical methodEmpirical relationshipEmpirical researchEmpiricismEndoxaEnneadsEpilogismEpistemeEpistemic closureEpistemic commitmentEpistemic communityEpistemic conservatismEpistemic feedbackEpistemic minimalismEpistemic possibilityEpistemic theories of truthEpistemic theory of miraclesEpistemic virtueEpistemicismEpistemocracyEpistemological anarchismEpistemological idealismEpistemological particularismEpistemological pluralismEpistemological psychologyEpistemological realismEpistemological ruptureEpistemological solipsismEpistemologyEpochéEristicErnst von GlasersfeldEureka effectEverett W. HallEvidenceEvidentialismEvil demonEvolutionary argument against naturalismEvolutionary epistemologyExclusion principle (philosophy)Existential phenomenologyExotericExpectation (epistemic)ExperienceExperiential knowledgeExperientialismExternismEyewitness testimony

F

Fa (concept)FactFactual relativismFact–value distinctionFaith and rationalityFallibilismFalsifiabilityFeminist epistemologyFideismFinitismFitch's paradox of knowabilityFooled by RandomnessFormal epistemologyFormative epistemologyFoundationalismFoundherentismFragmentalismFrame problemFrank Cameron JacksonFred DretskeFrederick WilhelmsenFreethoughtFunctional contextualism

G

G. E. MooreGaston BachelardGenerativityGenetic epistemologyGeorge BerkeleyGeorge PappasGettier problemGiambattista VicoGila SherGilbert HarmanGilbert RyleGiulio GiorelloGnosiologyGödel's incompleteness theorems

H

Harry BinswangerHeinz von FoersterHelmut WautischerHere is a handHierarchical epistemologyHilary KornblithHumanismHume's fork

I

I know it when I see itI know that I know nothingIdeological criticismIdeologyIgnoramus et ignorabimusIgnoranceIlluminationismImmanuel KantIncorrigibilityIndeterminacy (philosophy)Inductive reasoningInductivismInfallibilismInfallibilityInferenceInfinitismInformation sourceInnatismInsightIntellectual responsibilityInternalism and externalismIntersubjective verifiabilityIntersubjectivityIntroduction to Objectivist EpistemologyIntrospectionIntuition (Bergson)Intuition (philosophy)Intuition (psychology)IntuitionismIrrealism (philosophy)Is logic empirical?Islamization of knowledge

J

Jean PiagetJean-Louis Le MoigneJean-Michel BerthelotJohn Greco (philosopher)John HickJohn LockeJohn SearleJonathan DancyJonathan Kvanvig - Jules VuilleminJustified true belief

K

Karla Jessen WilliamsonKatalepsisKeith LehrerKK thesisKnowing and the KnownKnowledge Knowledge and Its Limits Knowledge by acquaintanceKnowledge by descriptionKnowledge organizationKnowledge relativity

L

Laplace's demonLarry LaudanLarry SangerLatitudinarianism (philosophy)Laurence BonJourLaw (principle)Leap of faithLeonard PeikoffLevels of adequacyList of epistemologistsLogical holismLogical positivismLottery paradox

M

MaieuticsMap–territory relationMargaret Elizabeth EganMathematical proofMeditations on First PhilosophyMemoryMenoMeno's slaveMetaMeta-epistemologyMetaphor in philosophyMetaphysical naturalismMetatheoryMethodical culturalismMethodism (philosophy)Methodological solipsismMichel de MontaigneMind extensionMioara Mugur-SchächterMisotheismMolyneux's problemMoore's paradoxMoral rationalismMultiperspectivalismMundane reason

N

Naïve empiricismNaïve realismNassim Nicholas TalebNaturalism (philosophy)Naturalized epistemologyNayef Al-RodhanNeopragmatismNeutrality (philosophy)New realism (philosophy)Nicholas RescherNiklas LuhmannNomotheticNomothetic and idiographicNoogonyNorman MalcolmNoumenon

O

Object (philosophy)Objectivism (Ayn Rand)Objectivity (philosophy)ObservationOntologismOmphalos hypothesisOpinionOutline of epistemologyOverbelief

P

P. F. StrawsonPancritical rationalismPanrationalismParadigmParadigm shiftParticipatory theoryPaul ChurchlandPerceptionPerceptual learningPeripatetic axiomPerspectivismPessimismPeter MillicanPeter UngerPhenomenal conservatismPhenomenalismPhillip H. WiebePhilosophic burden of proofPhilosophical FragmentsPhilosophical InvestigationsPhilosophical problems of testimonyPhilosophical skepticismPhilosophical theologyPhilosophical zombiePhilosophy of colorPhilosophy of perceptionPhilosophy of sciencePlato's ProblemPlatonic epistemologyPluralism (philosophy)Pluralist theories of truthPositivismPostfoundationalismPostmodern philosophyPostpositivismPragmatic theory of truthPramāṇaPraxeologyPredictive powerPreface paradoxPreformation theoryPresentationismPresupposition (philosophy)Primary/secondary quality distinctionPrinciple of charityPrivate language argumentPrivileged accessProbabilismProbability interpretationsProblem of inductionProblem of other mindsProblem of the criterionProblem of universalsProcedural knowledgeProof (truth)Propensity probabilityPropositional attitudePseudointellectualPsychological nominalismPyrrhoPyrrhonism

R

Ramification problemRational egoismRational fideismRational ignoranceRationalismRationalityReasonReasonismRedundancy theory of truthReformed epistemologyRegress argumentRelevant alternatives theoryReliabilismReligious epistemologyRobert AudiRobert NozickRoderick ChisholmRole of chance in scientific discoveries

S

Sally HaslangerSalvino AzzopardiSatyaScepticism and Animal FaithScottish Common Sense RealismSelf-evidenceSemantic externalismSemantic theory of truthSensualismSextus EmpiricusSherrilyn RoushSimulated realitySimulation hypothesisSkepticismSleeping Beauty problemSocial constructionismSocial epistemologySocial Epistemology (journal)Sociology of knowledgeSocratesSolipsismSophist (dialogue)Speculative reasonSteve Fuller (sociologist)SubjectivismSwamping problemSwampmanSystemography

T

Tabula rasaTarski's undefinability theoremTechneTelesisTestimonyThe Black Swan (Taleb book)The Course in Positive Philosophy The Extended Mind The Postmodern Condition The Republic (Plato) The Roots of ReferenceThe Will to BelieveThe World as Will and RepresentationTheaetetus (dialogue)TheomachistTheory of FormsTheory of justificationThere are known knownsThick Black TheoryThought experimentTractatus Logico-Philosophicus (6.5)Transcendent truthTranscendental idealismTranscendental philosophyTranscendental realismTransparency (philosophy)Trenton MerricksTruthTruth by consensusTruth predicateTruth-value linkTwin Earth thought experiment Two Dogmas of Empiricism Two truths doctrine

U

UncertaintyUnderdeterminationUnderstandingUniversal pragmaticsUnknown knownUnobservableUpamāṇa

V

VaguenessVasily SesemanVerification theoryVerificationismVerisimilitudeVeritismVienna CircleVirtue epistemologyVisual spaceVoluntarism (metaphysics)

W

Walter Terence StaceWard JonesWhat Engineers Know and How They Know ItWilfrid SellarsWilliam AlstonWilliam CrathornWord and ObjectWorld HypothesesWorld view

X

Xenophanes

Y

Yujian Zheng

Z

Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance

See also

Related Research Articles

In analytic philosophy, anti-realism is an epistemological position first articulated by British philosopher Michael Dummett. The term was coined as an argument against a form of realism Dummett saw as 'colorless reductionism'.

Empiricism theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience

In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience. It is one of several views of epistemology, the study of human knowledge, along with rationalism and skepticism. Empiricism emphasises the role of empirical evidence in the formation of ideas, rather than innate ideas or traditions. However, empiricists may argue that traditions arise due to relations of previous sense experiences.

Meta-ethics is the branch of ethics that seeks to understand the nature of ethical properties, statements, attitudes, and judgments. Meta-ethics is one of the three branches of ethics generally studied by philosophers, the others being normative ethics and applied ethics.

The theory of justification is a part of epistemology that attempts to understand the justification of propositions and beliefs. Epistemologists are concerned with various epistemic features of belief, which include the ideas of justification, warrant, rationality, and probability. Loosely speaking, justification is the reason that someone (properly) holds a belief.

In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification". More formally, rationalism is defined as a methodology or a theory "in which the criterion of the truth is not sensory but intellectual and deductive".

Coherentism is the name given to a few philosophical theories in modern epistemology.

Critical rationalism is an epistemological philosophy advanced by Karl Popper. Popper wrote about critical rationalism in his works: The Logic of Scientific Discovery, The Open Society and its Enemies, Conjectures and Refutations, The Myth of the Framework, and Unended Quest. Ernest Gellner is another notable proponent of this approach.

Ethical intuitionism is a family of views in moral epistemology. At minimum, ethical intuitionism is the thesis that our intuitive awareness of value, or intuitive knowledge of evaluative facts, forms the foundation of our ethical knowledge.

Contextualism describes a collection of views in philosophy which emphasize the context in which an action, utterance, or expression occurs, and argues that, in some important respect, the action, utterance, or expression can only be understood relative to that context. Contextualist views hold that philosophically controversial concepts, such as "meaning P", "knowing that P", "having a reason to A", and possibly even "being true" or "being right" only have meaning relative to a specified context. Some philosophers hold that context-dependence may lead to relativism;.

Virtue epistemology is a contemporary philosophical approach to epistemology that stresses the importance of intellectual, and specifically epistemic virtues. A distinguishing factor of virtue theories is that they use for the evaluation of knowledge the properties of the persons who hold beliefs in addition to or instead of the properties of propositions and beliefs. Some advocates of virtue epistemology claim to more closely follow theories of virtue ethics, while others see only a looser analogy between virtue in ethics and virtue in epistemology.

Naturalized epistemology, coined by W. V. O. Quine, is a collection of philosophic views concerned with the theory of knowledge that emphasize the role of natural scientific methods. This shared emphasis on scientific methods of studying knowledge shifts focus to the empirical processes of knowledge acquisition and away from many traditional philosophical questions. There are noteworthy distinctions within naturalized epistemology. Replacement naturalism maintains that traditional epistemology should be abandoned and replaced with the methodologies of the natural sciences. The general thesis of cooperative naturalism is that traditional epistemology can benefit in its inquiry by using the knowledge we have gained from the cognitive sciences. Substantive naturalism focuses on an asserted equality of facts of knowledge and natural facts.

Laurence BonJour is an American philosopher and Emeritus of Philosophy at the University of Washington.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to philosophy:

Broadly speaking, fallibilism is the philosophical claim that no belief can have justification which guarantees the truth of the belief. However, not all fallibilists believe that fallibilism extends to all domains of knowledge.

Initially developed by Roy Bhaskar in his book A Realist Theory of Science (1975), transcendental realism is a philosophy of science that was initially developed as an argument against epistemic realism of positivism and hermeneutics. The position is based on Bhaskar's transcendental arguments for certain ontological and epistemological positions based on what reality must be like in order for scientific knowledge to be possible.

Outline of epistemology Overview of and topical guide to epistemology

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to epistemology:

Formative epistemology is a collection of philosophic views concerned with the theory of knowledge that emphasize the role of natural scientific methods. According to formative epistemology, knowledge is gained through the imputation of thoughts from one human being to another in the societal setting. Humans are born without intrinsic knowledge and through their evolutionary and developmental processes gain knowledge from other human beings. Thus, according to formative epistemology, all knowledge is completely subjective and truth does not exist.

Jennifer Nagel is a Canadian philosopher in the Department of Philosophy at the University of Toronto. Her research focuses on epistemology, philosophy of mind, and metacognition. She has also written on 17th century (Western) philosophy, including on John Locke and René Descartes.

References

  1. Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Volume 3, 1967, Macmillan, Inc.