India–Bangladesh enclaves

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A complete map of the exclaves. Top of the map is east, India is orange and Bangladesh is cyan. Cooch-behar-enclaves-schematisch.png
A complete map of the exclaves. Top of the map is east, India is orange and Bangladesh is cyan.

The India–Bangladesh enclaves, also known as the chitmahals (Bengali : ছিটমহলchhit mohol, [1] [2] [3] chitmohol [4] ) and sometimes called pasha enclaves, [5] were the enclaves along the Bangladesh–India border, in Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura, Assam and Meghalaya. Within the main body of Bangladesh were 102 enclaves of Indian territory, which in turn contained 21 Bangladeshi counter-enclaves, one of which contained an Indian counter-counter-enclave – the world's only third-order enclave. Within the Indian mainland were 71 Bangladeshi enclaves, containing 3 Indian counter-enclaves. A joint census in 2010 found 51,549 people residing in these enclaves: 37,334 in Indian enclaves within Bangladesh and 14,215 in Bangladeshi enclaves within India. [3] [6]

Bengali language Indo-Aryan language mainly spoken in India and Bangladesh

Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla, is an Indo-Aryan language primarily spoken by the Bengalis in South Asia. It is the official and most widely spoken language of Bangladesh and second most widely spoken of the 22 scheduled languages of India, behind Hindi. In 2015, 160 million speakers were reported for Bangladesh, and the 2011 Indian census counted another 100 million. With approximately 260–300 million total speakers worldwide, Bengali is the 6th most spoken language by number of native speakers and 7th most spoken language by total number of speakers in the world.

Bangladesh–India border Separates territories of Bangladesh and India

The Bangladesh–India border, known locally as the International Border (IB), is an international border running between Bangladesh and India that demarcates the eight divisions of Bangladesh and the Indian states.

West Bengal State in Eastern India

West Bengal is an Indian state located in the eastern region of the country along the Bay of Bengal. With over 91 million inhabitants, it is India's fourth-most populous state. West Bengal is the fourteenth-largest Indian state, with an area of 88,752 km2 (34,267 sq mi). A part of the ethno-linguistic Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent, it borders Bangladesh in the east, and Nepal and Bhutan in the north. It also borders the Indian states of Odisha, Jharkhand, Bihar, Sikkim, and Assam. The state capital is Kolkata (Calcutta), the seventh-largest city in India, and center of the third-largest metropolitan area in the country. As for geography, West Bengal includes the Darjeeling Himalayan hill region, the Ganges delta, the Rarh region, and the coastal Sundarbans. The main ethnic group are the Bengalis, with Bengali Hindus forming the demographic majority.

Contents

The prime ministers of India and Bangladesh signed the Land Boundary Agreement in 1974 to exchange enclaves and simplify their international border. A revised version of the agreement was adopted by the two countries on 7 May 2015, when the Parliament of India passed the 100th Amendment to the Indian Constitution. [7] [8] Under this agreement, which was ratified on 6 June 2015, India received 51 Bangladeshi enclaves (covering 7,110 acres (2,880 ha)) in the Indian mainland, while Bangladesh received 111 Indian enclaves (covering 17,160 acres (6,940 ha)) in the Bangladeshi mainland. [9] The enclave residents were allowed to either continue residing at their present location or move to the country of their choice. [10] The exchange of enclaves was to be implemented in phases between 31 July 2015 and 30 June 2016. [11] The enclaves were exchanged at midnight on 31 July 2015 and the transfer of enclave residents was completed on 30 November 2015. [12] After the Land Boundary Agreement, India lost around 40 square kilometres (15 sq mi) to Bangladesh. [13] [14]

Constitution of India Supreme law of India

The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India. The document lays down the framework demarcating fundamental political code, structure, procedures, powers, and duties of government institutions and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles, and the duties of citizens. It is the longest written constitution of any country on earth. B. R. Ambedkar, chairman of the drafting committee, is widely considered to be its chief architect.

Since the exchange of territory took place, the only remaining enclave is Dahagram–Angarpota, an exclave of Bangladesh.

Dahagram–Angarpota is a group of Bangladeshi enclaves in India about 200 m (660 ft) away from the border of Bangladesh. It has a population of 17,000 people as of 2014. Dahagram–Angarpota is the largest Bangladeshi enclave. The enclave falls under Patgram Upazila.

History

According to a popular legend, the enclaves were used as stakes in card or chess games centuries ago between two regional kings, the Raja of Koch Bihar and the Maharaja of Rangpur. [3] As far as historical records are concerned, the little territories were apparently the result of a confused outcome of a 1713 treaty between the Kingdom of Koch Bihar and the Mughal Empire. Possibly, the Kingdom and the Mughals ended a war without determining a boundary for what territories had been gained or lost. [15]

Rangpur District District in Rangpur Division, Bangladesh

Rangpur is a district in Northern Bangladesh. It is a part of the Rangpur Division.

Mughal Empire dynastic empire extending over large parts of the Indian subcontinent

The Mughal Empire or Mogul Empire, was an early-modern empire in South Asia. For some two centuries, the empire stretched from the outer fringes of the Indus basin in the west, northern Afghanistan in the northwest, and Kashmir in the north, to the highlands of present-day Assam and Bangladesh in the east, and the uplands of the Deccan plateau in South India.

After the partition of India in 1947, Rangpur was joined to East Pakistan. Cooch Behar, with its exclaves and holes, was a native state, whose raja had the option of joining either India or Pakistan. Cooch Behar district was merged in 1949 with India. The desire to "de-enclave" most of the enclaves was manifested in a 1958 agreement between Jawaharlal Nehru and Feroz Khan Noon, the respective Prime Ministers, for an exchange between India and Pakistan without considering loss or gain of territory. But the matter then worked into a Supreme Court case in India, and the Supreme Court ruled that a constitutional amendment was required to transfer the land. So the ninth amendment was introduced to facilitate the implementation of the agreement. The amendment could not be passed because of an objection to transfer of southern Berubari enclave. [3] [16] Because of India's deteriorated relations with Pakistan, the issue remained unsolved. With that agreement not ratified, negotiations restarted after East Pakistan became independent as Bangladesh in 1971 following the Bangladesh Liberation War.[ citation needed ]

Partition of India partition of British India into the independent states of India and Pakistan in 1947

The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan. The Dominion of India is today the Republic of India and Dominion of Pakistan, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the People's Republic of Bangladesh. The partition involved the division of two provinces, Bengal and the Punjab, based on district-wise Hindu or Muslim majorities. It also involved the division of the British Indian Army, the Royal Indian Navy, the Indian Civil Service, the railways, and the central treasury, between the two new dominions. The partition was set forth in the Indian Independence Act 1947 and resulted in the dissolution of the British Raj, or Crown rule in India. The two self-governing countries of India and Pakistan legally came into existence at midnight on 14–15 August 1947.

East Pakistan Former province of Pakistan

East Pakistan was the eastern provincial wing of Pakistan between 1955 and 1971, covering the territory of the modern country Bangladesh. Its land borders were with India and Myanmar, with a coastline on the Bay of Bengal.

Princely state Type of vassal state in British India

A princely state, also called native state, feudatory state or Indian state, was a vassal state under a local or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj. Though the history of the princely states of the subcontinent dates from at least the classical period of Indian history, the predominant usage of the term princely state specifically refers to a semi-sovereign principality on the Indian subcontinent during the British Raj that was not directly governed by the British, but rather by a local ruler, subject to a form of indirect rule on some matters. In actual fact, the imprecise doctrine of paramountcy allowed the government of British India to interfere in the internal affairs of princely states individually or collectively and issue edicts that applied to all of India when it deemed it necessary.

Agreement

The diagramatic sketch of Cooch Behar district of West Bengal marking enclaves Diagrametic Sketch Map of Cooch behar district showing enclaves.jpg
The diagramatic sketch of Cooch Behar district of West Bengal marking enclaves

The Land Boundary Agreement was signed on 16 May 1974 between Indira Gandhi and Sheikh Mujibur Rahman which provided for the exchange of enclaves and the surrender of adverse possessions. [17] Under the agreement, India retained the Berubari Union No. 12 enclave while Bangladesh retained the Dahagram — Angorpota exclaves with India providing access to it by giving a 178-by-85-metre (584 ft × 279 ft) corridor, called the Tin Bigha Corridor. Bangladesh quickly ratified the agreement in 1974 but India failed to do so. The issue of the undemarcated land boundary of approximately 6.1 kilometres (3.8 mi) in three sectors — Daikhata-56 in West Bengal, Muhuri River-Belonia in Tripura and Lathitila-Dumabari in Assam — also remained unsolved. The Tin Bigha Corridor was leased to Bangladesh in 1992 amid local opposition. [3]

Indira Gandhi Third Prime Minister of India

Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi was an Indian politician, stateswoman and a central figure of the Indian National Congress. She was the first and, to date, the only female Prime Minister of India. Indira Gandhi was the daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of India. She served as Prime Minister from January 1966 to March 1977 and again from January 1980 until her assassination in October 1984, making her the second longest-serving Indian Prime Minister, after her father.

Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Bengali revolutionary, founding father of Bangladesh

Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, shortened as Sheikh Mujib or just Mujib, was a Bangladeshi politician and statesman. He is the founding father of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. He served as the first President of Bangladesh and later as the Prime Minister of Bangladesh from 17 April 1971 until his assassination on 15 August 1975. He is considered to be the driving force behind the independence of Bangladesh. He is popularly dubbed with the title of "Bangabandhu" by the people of Bangladesh. He became a leading figure in and eventually the leader of the Awami League, founded in 1949 as an East Pakistan-based political party in Pakistan. Mujib is credited as an important figure in efforts to gain political autonomy for East Pakistan and later as the central figure behind the Bangladesh Liberation Movement and the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. Thus, he is regarded "Jatir Janak" or "Jatir Pita" of Bangladesh. His daughter Sheikh Hasina is the current leader of the Awami League and also the Prime Minister of Bangladesh.

Tin Bigha Corridor

The TinBigha Corridor is a strip of land belonging to India on the West Bengal–Bangladesh border which, in September 2011, was leased to Bangladesh so that it can access its Dahagram–Angarpota enclaves. It is based at Patgram upazila town.

The list of enclaves was prepared in 1997 by the two countries. Two Joint Boundary Working Groups were formed to work out the details of enclaves in 2001. A joint census was carried out in May 2007. In September 2011, India signed the Additional Protocol for the 1974 Land Boundary Agreement with Bangladesh. [18] Both nations announced an intention to swap 162 enclaves, giving residents a choice of nationality. [19] [20] [21]

Under the agreement, India received 51 of the 71 Bangladeshi enclaves (from 51 to 54 of the 74 chhits) that were inside India proper (7,110.2 acres, 2,877.4 ha), while Bangladesh received 95 to 101 of the 103 Indian enclaves (111 out of 119 chhits) that were inside Bangladesh proper (17,160.63 acres, 6,944.66 ha). [3] [9] Bangladesh retained the 4,617 acres (1,868 ha) of its Dahagram-Angarpota exclave. India acquired 2,777.038 acres (1,123.827 ha) adverse possession areas and transferred 2,267.682 acres (917.698 ha) adverse possession areas to Bangladesh. After the exchange of enclaves, India lost around 40 km²(10,000 acres) to Bangladesh. According to July 2010 joint census, there were 14,215 people residing in Bangladeshi enclaves in India and 37,269 people residing in Indian enclaves in Bangladesh. [22] The people living in these enclaves without a nationality were allowed to choose their nationality. [23]

The Constitution (119th Amendment) Bill, 2013 was introduced in the Rajya Sabha, the Upper House of Parliament of India, on 18 December 2013. [10] [24] [25] Nationalist groups in Assam strongly opposed the bill, [26] which would cause India to lose 10,000 acres of land, but Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi supported it because it would make the border with Bangladesh easier to manage. [27] The parliament panel, Standing Committee on External Affairs, approved the bill in November 2014. [28] [29] The Rajya Sabha approved the constitutional amendment on 6 May 2015, and the Lok Sabha approved it the following day. [7] President of India Pranab Mukherjee gave his assent to the Act on 28 May 2015. [8]

On 6 June 2015, Modi ratified the agreement during his visit to the Bangladesh capital Dhaka. In the presence of Modi and Bangladeshi Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina, the foreign secretaries of the two countries signed the instruments of the land exchange. [30] The exchange of enclaves and land parcels in adverse possession, and the boundary demarcation, will be implemented in phases between 31 July 2015 and 30 June 2016. The enclaves were to be exchanged at midnight on 31 July 2015 and the boundary demarcation is to be completed by 30 June 2016 by Survey Departments of the respective countries. The transfer of enclave residents is expected to be completed by 30 November 2015. [12]

Indian and Bangladeshi officials conducted a field survey of enclave residents between 6 July 2015 and 16 July 2015. Seventy-five teams, made up of one Indian and one Bangladeshi member each, were tasked with conducting the enumeration. Twenty-five teams surveyed the Bangladeshi enclaves which would be transferred to India, while 50 worked on the Indian enclaves that would be transferred to Bangladesh. As the enclave residents were allowed to choose citizenship of either nation, by 13 July 2015, 100 families residing in the Indian enclaves applied for Indian citizenship, while none of the residents of the Bangladeshi enclaves chose to go to Bangladesh. New citizenship, if chosen, took effect from 1 August 2015. Nearly 14,000 people living in the former Bangladeshi enclaves became Indian citizens, while about 36,000 people living in the former Indian enclaves became Bangladeshi citizens. Some 1,000 people in the former Indian enclaves chose Indian citizenship and were to be relocated to India by December 2015. [19] [31] [32] [33]

Notable enclaves

Enclave #51, Dahala Khagrabari, was the world's only third-order enclave before India ceded it to Bangladesh in 2015. It was a piece of India within Bangladesh, within India, within Bangladesh. Less than 7,000 square metres (0.70 ha; 1.7 acres), in area and was the site of a jute field. 28 smaller enclaves existed within the overall complex. (Maps) Dahala Khagrabari.png
Enclave #51, Dahala Khagrabari, was the world's only third-order enclave before India ceded it to Bangladesh in 2015. It was a piece of India within Bangladesh, within India, within Bangladesh. Less than 7,000 square metres (0.70 ha; 1.7 acres), in area and was the site of a jute field. 28 smaller enclaves existed within the overall complex. (Maps)

Bangladesh

Dahagram–Angarpota: The largest Bangladeshi composite enclave (combining the first- and third-largest Bangladeshi chhits by area), administered as part of Patgram Upazila in Lalmonirhat zila, lies within the Indian province of West Bengal. It is separated from the contiguous area of Bangladesh at its closest point by 178 metres (584 ft). The enclave has an area of 25.95 km2 (10.02 sq mi) with a resident population of 20,000 people. The enclave lacks basic facilities. The lone health complex remains virtually useless because of lack of power supply, as India refused to allow Bangladesh to run power lines to the enclave. [3] After the exchange of enclaves in July 2015, Bangladesh retained it as an exclave.

The Tin Bigha Corridor, a strip of Indian territory 85 metres (279 ft) wide running from the Dahagram–Angarpota composite enclave to the Bangladeshi mainland at their nearest approach, was leased in perpetuity to Bangladesh for access to the enclave. It is available for use by the residents of Dahagram–Angarpota. [3] [34] [35]

India

Dasiar Chhara, the fourth largest Indian chhit by area, was the largest stand-alone Indian enclave (i.e., not a composite of adjoining chhits). It lay 3 km (1.9 mi) from the main part of India and had an area of 6.65 km2 (2.57 sq mi).

Dahala Khagrabari was the world's only third-order enclave, being Indian territory inside a Bangladeshi territory which is itself inside an exclave of India in Bangladesh, before being ceded to Bangladesh in 2015.

List of former enclaves and exclaves

Schematic overview:

Bangladesh

102 enclaves of India (69.5 km²)

21 counter-enclaves of Bangladesh (2.1 km²)

1 counter-counter enclave of India (0.007 km²)
India

71 enclaves of Bangladesh (47.7 km²)

7 counter-enclaves of India (0.17 km²)

Some individual enclaves were composed of several administrative units (chhits and/or mauzas). These administrative units must be differentiated from the enclave as a whole. "This is particularly important for the Cooch Behar enclaves, where the several administrative units which together form some of the larger enclaves are commonly, but wrongly, termed enclaves themselves, or where one component unit commonly lends its name to the whole enclave. ... [T]he official Indo–Bangladesh Boundary Commission figure of 111 Indian and 51 Bangladeshi exchangeable enclaves would appear to count only individual mauzas, even when these consisted of more than one enclave." [3] There is not a one-to-one relationship between enclaves, chhits and mauzas. [3]

All of the information shown in the following two tables has been assembled from Brendan R. Whyte. [3]

Bangladesh

In order to distinguish chhits having the same names, serial numbers established by Banerjee (1966) [36] are shown in parentheses, as (#). The Bangladesh series is separate from the India series.

With 4 exceptions (Chhat Tilai, Baikunthapur Teldhar (#3, #4, #5)), the first-order enclaves, including the 3 composite enclaves, lay entirely within the Cooch Behar District of West Bengal state, India. All 21 counter-enclaves lay within the Rangpur Division of Bangladesh. The Bangladeshi enclaves had an estimated population of 14,215 in 2015. [31]

Bangladeshi Chhits Within Indian Territory [3] [8] Area (km2)Area (mi2)Notes
Dahagram-Angarpota18.6847.214Largest composite exclave of Bangladesh within India, comprises the contiguous Dahagram and Angarpota chhits. This exclave continues to exist in spite of the 2015 land swap.
Dahagram❋15.6906.058Largest chhit of Bangladesh, part of the Dahagram-Angarpota composite exclave within India.
Nalgram7.7052.975Composite exclave of Bangladesh within India, comprises the contiguous Falnapur and Nalgram (#52) chhits.
Nalgram (#52)❋5.6552.183Part of the Nalgram composite exclave within India (area includes 2 other smaller chhits, each itself an exclave and true enclave, each also named Nalgram (#53, #54)). Surrounded the Indian counter-enclave, Nalgram Chhit (#111).
Nalgram (#53)see #52see #52First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Nalgram (#52).
Nalgram (#54)see #52see #52First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Nalgram (#52).
Angarpota❋2.9941.156Part of the Dahagram-Angarpota composite exclave within India.
Dakshin Masaldanga<2.797<1.080Composite exclave of Bangladesh within India, comprises the contiguous Kachua and Dakshin Masaldanga (#74) chhits.
Poaturkuthi2.3870.922First-order enclave within India.
Batrigach (#59)2.3370.902First-order enclave within India (area includes the smaller Batrigach (#60), itself an exclave and true enclave). Surrounded the Indian counter-enclave, Madnakura Chhit in Bhoti Nath Batrigach.
Batrigach (#60)see #59see #59First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Batrigach (#59).
Dakshin Masaldanga (#74)❋2.3120.893Part of the Dakshin Masaldanga composite exclave (along with Kachua chhit) within India; area included 6 other smaller chhits, each also named Dakshin Masaldanga (#73, 75, 76, 77, 78 & 90), each itself an exclave and true enclave.
Dakshin Masaldanga (#73)see #74see #74First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Dakshin Masaldanga (#74).
Dakshin Masaldanga (#75)see #74see #74First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Dakshin Masaldanga (#74).
Dakshin Masaldanga (#76)see #74see #74First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Dakshin Masaldanga (#74).
Dakshin Masaldanga (#77)see #74see #74First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Dakshin Masaldanga (#74).
Dakshin Masaldanga (#78)see #74see #74First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Dakshin Masaldanga (#74).
Dakshin Masaldanga (#90)see #74see #74First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Dakshin Masaldanga (#74).
Falnapur❋2.0500.792Part of the Nalgram composite exclave within India.
Sibprasad Mustafi (#67)1.5100.583First-order enclave within India (area includes the smaller Sibprasad Mustafi (#68), itself an exclave and true enclave).
Sibprasad Mustafi (#68)see #67see #67First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Sibprasad Mustafi (#67).
Chhit Kuchlibari1.5000.579First-order enclave within India.
Bala Pukhari1.3420.518First-order enclave within India.
Karala (#63)1.0920.422First-order enclave within India (area includes 2 other smaller chhits, each itself an exclave and true enclave, each also named Karala (#64, #65)).
Karala (#64)see #63see #63First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Karala (#63).
Karala (#65)see #63see #63First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Karala (#63).
Kismat Batrigach0.8500.328First-order enclave within India.
Dhabalsati Mirgipur0.7040.272First-order enclave within India.
Upan Chowki Bhajni, 1110.6850.264Counter-exclave that was surrounded by and shared borders with two contiguous Indian chhits, Balapara Khagrabari (#42) and Kothajni (#43) (both within the composite exclave named "Balapara Khagrabari" in the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh).
Purba Masaldanga (#87)0.6230.241First-order enclave within India (area includes the smaller Purba Masaldanga (#86), itself an exclave and true enclave). A map from the 1930s and a 1940 source [37] imply that Purba Masaldanga (#86) and (#87) formed a single enclave. However, topographic mapping and other sources suggest two enclaves, as listed here, but if joined, they were connected across the narrowest gap separating them, along a beel (marshy former river course). [3]
Purba Masaldanga (#86)see #87see #87First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Purba Masaldanga (#87).
Paschim Bakalir Chhara0.6150.237First-order enclave within India.
Madhya Masaldanga0.5530.214First-order enclave within India. Surrounded the Indian counter-enclave, Chhit Seoruguri.
Mahishmari0.4970.192First-order enclave within India.
Kachua❋0.4850.187Part of the Dakshin Masaldanga composite exclave (along with Dakshin Masaldanga #74) within India.
Upan Chowki Bhajni, 1100.4490.173Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian exclave, Dahala Khagrabari (#47), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh. It surrounds the only counter-counter-enclave in the world, Dahala Khagrabari (#51).
Chhit Panbari0.4390.169First-order enclave within India.
Jote Nijjama0.3540.137First-order enclave within India; it may possibly have formed an international quadripoint (one point in common with four different areas) of Bangladesh and India: two parts of Patgram thana (main part and the Jote Nijjama enclave itself) in Lalmonirhat District and two parts of Mekhliganj thana in Mekhliganj subdivision, Cooch Behar District, India.
Chhat Tilai0.3300.127First-order enclave within India, straddling the border of Cooch Behar District (West Bengal) and Dhubri District (Assam).
Upan Chowki Bhajni, 220.2920.113Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian exclave, Dahala Khagrabari (#47), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Chhit Land of Jagatber No. 30.2830.109First-order enclave within India.
Chhit Dhabalsati0.2690.104First-order enclave within India.
Dhabalsati (#32)0.2450.095First-order enclave within India.
Baikunthapur Teldhar (#4)0.2100.081First-order enclave within Jalpaiguri District, West Bengal, India (area includes 2 other smaller chhits, each itself an exclave and true enclave, each also named Baikunthapur Teldhar (#3, #5)).
Baikunthapur Teldhar (#3)see #4see #4First-order enclave within Jalpaiguri District, West Bengal, India (area combined with that shown for the larger Baikunthapur Teldhar (#4)).
Baikunthapur Teldhar (#5)see #4see #4First-order enclave within Jalpaiguri District, West Bengal, India (area combined with that shown for the larger Baikunthapur Teldhar (#4)).
Chhit Nalgram (#55)0.2000.077First-order enclave within India (area includes Chhit Nalgram (#56), itself an exclave and true enclave).
Chhit Nalgram (#56)see #55see #55First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for Chhit Nalgram (#55).
Uttar Bansjani0.1910.074First-order enclave within India.
Chhit Bhandardaha0.1620.063First-order enclave within India.
Upan Chowki Bhajni, 1130.1480.057Counter-exclave surrounded by and sharing a border with two contiguous Indian exclaves, Balapara Khagrabari (#42) and Kothajni (#43) (both within the composite exclave named "Balapara Khagrabari" in the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh).
Purba Chhit Masaldanga (#84)0.1420.055First-order enclave within India (area includes the smaller Purba Chhit Masaldanga (#83), itself an exclave and true enclave).
Purba Chhit Masaldanga (#83)see #84see #84First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Purba Chhit Masaldanga (#84).
Bara Saradubi0.1410.054First-order enclave within India; formed an international quadripoint (one point in common with four different areas) of Bangladesh and India: two parts of Hatibandha thana (main part and the Bara Saradubi enclave itself) in Lalmonirhat District and two parts of Sitalkuchi thana in Mathabhanga subdivision, Cooch Behar District, India.
Chandrakhan0.1400.054Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian true enclave/exclave, Dasiar Chhara (#117), located within the Kurigram District of Bangladesh.
Madhya Bakalir Chhara0.1320.051First-order enclave within India.
Chhit Land of Jagatber No. 10.1240.048First-order enclave within India.
Chhit Kokoabari0.11930.0461First-order enclave within India.
Paschim Masaldanga (#79)0.11930.0461First-order enclave within India (area includes Paschim Masaldanga (#80), itself an exclave and true enclave).
Paschim Masaldanga (#80)see #79see #79First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for Paschim Masaldanga (#79).
Uttar Masaldanga0.11040.0426First-order enclave within India.
Chhit Land of Jagatber No. 20.10960.0423First-order enclave within India.
Chhit Land of Dhabalguri No. 20.10860.0419First-order enclave within India.
Bansua Khamar Gitaldaha0.09930.0383First-order enclave within India.
Uttar Dhaldanga (#93)0.09660.0373First-order enclave within India (area includes 2 other smaller chhits, each itself an exclave and true enclave, each also named Uttar Dhaldanga (#92, #94)).
Uttar Dhaldanga (#92)see #93see #93First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Uttar Dhaldanga (#93).
Uttar Dhaldanga (#94)see #93see #93First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Uttar Dhaldanga (#93).
Chhit Dhabalguri0.09030.0349First-order enclave within India.
Durgapur0.08480.0327First-order enclave within India.
Nazirganj (#10)0.0799 0.0308Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian exclave, Bewladanga (#39), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Teldhar (#1)0.05860.0226Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian true enclave/exclave, Garati (#1), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh (area includes the smaller Teldhar (#2), itself an exclave and true enclave).
Teldhar (#2)see #1see #1Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian true enclave/exclave, Garati (#1), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh, area combined with that shown for the larger Teldhar (#1).
Upan Chowki Bhajni, 1120.05710.0220Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian exclave, Kothajni (#43), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Chhit Land of Dhabalguri No. 10.05650.0218First-order enclave within India.
Dhabalguri0.05060.0195First-order enclave within India.
Purba Bakalir Chhara0.04950.0191First-order enclave within India.
Madhya Chhit Masaldanga0.04800.0185First-order enclave within India.
Jongra0.03340.0129Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian true enclave/exclave, Banskata (#93), located within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Paschim Chhit Masaldanga0.03080.0119First-order enclave within India.
Debi Doba0.03020.0117Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian exclave, Dahala Khagrabari (#47), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Nazirganj −290.02650.0102Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian true enclave/exclave, Nazirganj (#27), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Debottar Saldanga0.02470.0095Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian exclave, Bewladanga (#39), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Chhit Land of Dhabalguri No. 40.01840.0071First-order enclave within India.
Chhit Land of Dhabalguri No. 50.01670.0064First-order enclave within India.
Bamandal0.00890.0034First-order enclave within India.
Chhit Land of Kuchlibari0.00740.0029First-order enclave within India.
Upan Chowki Bhajni, 990.00710.0027Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian exclave, Kothajni (#43), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Dhabalsati (#33)0.00650.0025Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian exclave, Bara Khangir (#66), located within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Nazirganj (#8)0.0062 0.0024Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian exclave, Shalbari (#35), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Upan Chowki Bhajni, 130.00540.0021Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian exclave, Kothajni (#43), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Chhit Land of Dhabalguri No. 30.00540.0021First-order enclave within India.
Amjhol0.00510.0020First-order enclave within India.
Chhit Land of Panbari No. 20.00460.0018First-order enclave within India.
Nazirganj −300.00460.0018Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian true enclave/exclave, Nazirganj (#19), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Srirampur0.00420.0016First-order enclave within India.
Upan Chowki Bhajni, 150.00410.0016Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian exclave, Dahala Khagrabari (#47), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Nazirganj (#9)0.00291 0.00112Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian exclave, Shalbari (#35), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Upan Chowki Bhajni, 240.002870.00111Smallest known chhit of Bangladesh, a counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian exclave, Kothajni (#43), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
❋ This chhit was part of a composite enclave and by itself was neither an enclave nor an exclave.
Stated size may not be exact. [3]

India

The 102 first-order enclaves (including the 6 composite enclaves) and the 1 counter-counter enclave lay within the Rangpur Division of Bangladesh. The 3 counter-enclaves lay within the Cooch Behar District of West Bengal state, India. In order to distinguish chhits having the same names, serial numbers established by Banerjee (1966) [36] are shown in parentheses, as (#). The India series is separate from the Bangladesh series. There were 37,334 people living in the Indian enclaves in 2015. [31]

Indian Chhits Within Bangladeshi Territory [3] [8] Area (km2)Area (mi2)Notes
Balapara Khagrabari25.95210.020Composite exclave of India, bordering the Panchagarh and Nilphamari Districts, Bangladesh, comprised the contiguous Dahala Khagrabari (#47), Kothajni (#43) and Balapara Khagrabari (#42) chhits (area includes 6 other smaller chhits, each itself an exclave and true enclave: 3 also named Dahala Khagrabari (#48, #49, #50) and 3 also named Kothajni (#44, #45, #46)).
Shalbari14.0915.441Composite exclave of India within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh, comprised the contiguous Shalbari (#35), Bewladanga (#39), Kajal Dighi, Daikhata Chhat, Nataoka (#37) and Nataoka (#38) chhits.
Dahala Khagrabari (#47)❋10.7174.138Largest chhit of India, part of Balapara Khagrabari composite exclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh (area includes 3 other smaller chhits, each itself an exclave and true enclave, each also named Dahala Khagrabari (#48, #49, #50)).
Dahala Khagrabari (#48)see #47see #47First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh, area combined with that shown for the larger Dahala Khagrabari (#47).
Dahala Khagrabari (#49)see #47see #47First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh, area combined with that shown for the larger Dahala Khagrabari (#47).
Dahala Khagrabari (#50)see #47see #47First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh, area combined with that shown for the larger Dahala Khagrabari (#47).
Kothajni (#43)❋8.1433.144Part of Balapara Khagrabari composite exclave, bordering the Panchagarh and Nilphamari Districts, Bangladesh (area includes 3 other smaller chhits, each itself an exclave and true enclave, each also named Kothajni (#44, #45, #46)).
Kothajni (#44)see #43see #43First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh, area combined with that shown for the larger Kothajni (#43).
Kothajni (#45)see #43see #43First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh, area combined with that shown for the larger Kothajni (#43).
Kothajni (#46)see #43see #43First-order exclave bordering the Panchagarh and Nilphamari Districts, Bangladesh, area combined with that shown for the larger Kothajni (#43).
Balapara Khagrabari (#42)❋7.0922.738Part of Balapara Khagrabari composite exclave, bordering the Panchagarh District and Nilphamari Districts, Bangladesh.
Dasiar Chhara6.6512.568First-order enclave within the Kurigram District of Bangladesh.
Shalbari (#35)❋4.8111.858Part of Shalbari composite exclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Garati (#1)3.9201.514First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Bewladanga (#39)❋3.4791.343Part of Shalbari composite exclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Kajal Dighi❋3.1221.205Part of Shalbari composite exclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Daikhata Chhat❋2.0200.780Part of Shalbari composite exclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Najirgonja (#33)1.7580.679First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Banskata (#93)1.6750.647First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Kamat Changrabandha1.6260.628Composite exclave of India within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh, comprised the contiguous Bhotbari (#74), Panisala (#77) and Kamat Changrabandha (#75, #76) chhits.
Banskata (#97)1.2750.492First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Lotamari (#83)1.1470.443First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Kharkharia0.9040.349Composite exclave of India within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh, comprised the contiguous Lotamari (#73), Kharkharia (#71) and Kharkharia (#72) chhits.
Bans Pachai0.8790.339First-order exclave bordering the Lalmonirhat and Kurigram Districts, Bangladesh.
Bhotbari (#74)❋0.8310.321Part of Kamat Changrabandha composite exclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Natatoka (#37)❋0.6570.254Part of Shalbari composite exclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Panisala (#77)❋0.5570.215Part of Kamat Changrabandha composite exclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Bara Khangir0.5230.202Composite exclave of India within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh, comprised the contiguous Bara Khangir (#66) and Chhat Bagdokra chhits.
Gotamuri Chhit (#112)0.5120.198First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Putimari0.4970.192First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Lotamari (#73)❋0.4490.173Part of Kharkharia composite exclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Lotamari (#84)0.4000.154First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Bara Khangir (#66)❋0.3540.137Part of Bara Khangir composite exclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Bans Pachai Bhitarkuthi0.3310.128First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Najirgonja0.3090.119Composite exclave of India within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh, comprised the contiguous Najirgonja (#28, #29, #30, #31) chhits.
Garati (#3)0.2980.115First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Najirgonja (#27)0.2970.115First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Panisala (#81)0.2620.101First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Kharkharia (#71)❋0.2460.095Part of Kharkharia composite exclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Ratanpur0.2380.092First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Najirgonja (#32)0.2360.091First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Garati (#6)0.2360.091First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Banskata (#96)0.2340.090First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Chhat Bhothat0.2270.088First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Balapukhari0.2260.087First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Najirgonja (#19)0.2190.085First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Najirgonja (#31)❋0.2160.083Part of Najirgonja composite exclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Kharkharia (#72)❋0.2090.081Part of Kharkharia composite exclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Panisala (#82)0.2080.080First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Bara Khangir (#65)0.2040.079First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Najirgonja (#25)0.1980.076First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh. Najirgonja (#25) and (#26) are shown joined as one in pre-1947 maps, but as separate in 1991 Indian census maps. [3] [38]
Dwarikamari (#86)0.1850.071First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Seotikursa0.1850.071First-order enclave within the Kurigram District of Bangladesh.
Uponchowki Kuhlibari (#62)0.1780.069First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Kamat Changrabandha (#75)❋0.1730.067Part of Kamat Changrabandha composite exclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Chhat Bagdokra❋0.1690.065Part of Bara Khangir composite exclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Bara Gaochulka0.1620.063First-order enclave within the Kurigram District of Bangladesh.
Dwarikamari (#85)0.1600.062First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Bhotbari (#63)0.1490.058First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Bara Khanki Kharija Gitaldaha (#54)0.1490.058First-order enclave within the Nilphamari District of Bangladesh.
Dwarikamarikhasbash0.1480.057First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Chhoto Guraljhara I0.1450.056First-order enclave within the Kurigram District of Bangladesh.
Madnakura Chhit in Bhoti Nath Batrigach0.1440.056Counter-enclave surrounded by a Bangladeshi true enclave/exclave, Batrigach (#59), located within Cooch Behar District of West Bengal state, India.
Nagarjikabari0.1350.052First-order enclave within the Nilphamari District of Bangladesh.
Banskata (#100)0.1340.052First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Shahebganj0.1280.049First-order enclave within the Kurigram District of Bangladesh.
Banskata (#104)0.125 0.048First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Banskata (#94)0.12440.0480First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Barakhangir0.12360.0477First-order enclave within the Nilphamari District of Bangladesh.
Banskata (#99)0.11820.0456First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Bagdokra0.10320.0398First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Banskata (#109)0.0986 0.0381First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Banskata (#88)0.09040.0349First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Kalamati0.08580.0331First-order enclave within the Kurigram District of Bangladesh.
Banskata (#90)0.08530.0329First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Gotamuri Chhit (#113)0.08100.0313First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Panisala (#80)0.07290.0281First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Garati (#4)0.07280.0281First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh. Garati (#4) and (#5) are shown joined as one enclave in pre-1947 topographic maps, in which the smaller (#5) adjoins the northern boundary of the larger (#4). Later sources (1991 Indian census maps [38] and Banerjee, 1966 [36] ) depict them as separate. [3]
Najirgonja (#29)❋0.07260.0280Part of Najirgonja composite exclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Chhoto Guraljhara II0.07220.0279First-order enclave within the Kurigram District of Bangladesh.
Banskata (#108)0.0686 0.0265First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Kamat Changrabandha (#76)❋0.06480.0250Part of Kamat Changrabandha composite exclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Dakurhat Dakinir Kuthi0.05770.0223First-order enclave within the Kurigram District of Bangladesh.
Najirgonja (#16)0.05750.0222First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Banskata (#101)0.0515 0.0199First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Dighaltari I0.04980.0192First-order enclave within the Kurigram District of Bangladesh.
Najirgonja (#26)0.04930.0190First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh. Najirgonja (#25) and (#26) are shown joined as one in pre-1947 maps, but as separate in 1991 Indian census maps. [3] [38]
Banskata (#95)0.04920.0190First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Banskata (#89)0.04840.0187First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Gaochulka I0.03610.0139First-order enclave within the Kurigram District of Bangladesh.
Dighaltari II0.03570.0138First-order enclave within the Kurigram District of Bangladesh.
Najirgonja (#17)0.03350.0129First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Chenakata0.0316 0.0122First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Bara Khanki Kharija Gitaldaha (#53)0.03120.0120First-order enclave within the Nilphamari District of Bangladesh.
Shingimari Part I0.0246 ± 0.00130.00950 ± 0.00050First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Kuchlibari (#57)0.02340.0090First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Jamaldaha Balapukhari0.0212 0.082First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Najirgonja (#24)0.0204 0.0079First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Nalgram Chhit0.01910.0074Counter-enclave surrounded by a Bangladeshi exclave, Nalgram (#52), located within Cooch Behar District of West Bengal state, India.
Bara Kuchlibari0.0176 0.0068First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Najirgonja (#28)❋0.015740.00608Part of Najirgonja composite exclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Najirgonja (#20)0.01566 0.00605First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Bewladanga (#40)0.010970.00424First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Banskata (#103)0.01032 0.00398First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Chhit Seoruguri0.010160.00392Smallest Indian counter-enclave, surrounded by a Bangladeshi true enclave/exclave, Madhya Masaldanga, located within Cooch Behar District of West Bengal state, India.
Banskata (#102)0.00943 0.00364First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Kuchlibari (#58)0.008260.00319First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Garati (#2)0.007040.00272First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Dahala Khagrabari (#51)0.006880.00266Dahala Khagrabari (#51) is the only counter-counter enclave in the world. It is surrounded by Upanchowki Bhajni 110, a Bangladeshi counter-enclave within the Indian composite exclave named Balapara Khagrabari, which is surrounded by the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh. Dahala Khagrabari (#51) is not part of the Balapara Khagrabari composite exclave, as it is not contiguous to it and borders only Bangladesh.
Bhogramguri0.00583 0.00225First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Banskata (#106)0.00563 0.00217First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Banskata (#107)0.00554 0.00214First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Najirgonja Chhit (#30)❋0.004330.00167Part of Najirgonja composite exclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Najirgonja (#22)0.00421 0.00163First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Najirgonja (#21)0.00413 0.00159First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Gaochulka II0.003640.00141First-order enclave within the Kurigram District of Bangladesh.
Fulker Dabri0.00356 0.00137First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Bewladanga Chhat (#41)0.00336 0.00130First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Garati (#5)0.003200.00124First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh. Garati (#4) and (#5) are shown joined as one enclave in pre-1947 topographic maps, in which the smaller (#5) adjoins the northern boundary of the larger (#4). Later sources (1991 Indian census maps [38] and Banerjee, 1966 [36] ) depict them as separate. [3]
Najirgonja (#23)0.00312 0.00120First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Banskata (#98)0.003120.00120First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Banskata (#105)0.00259 0.00100First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Najirgonja (#15)0.002100.00081First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Dahala Khagrabari (#52)0.001780.00069First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Uponchowki Kuchlibari (#61)0.00129 0.00050First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Banskata (#110)0.00113 0.00044First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Panisala (#79)0.00109 0.00042The smallest Indian true enclave; located within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Natatoka (#38)❋0.001050.00041Smallest known chhit of India, part of Shalbari composite exclave; located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh; bordered Bangladesh and Shalbari (#35).
❋ This chhit was part of a composite enclave and by itself was neither an enclave nor an exclave.
Stated size may not be exact. [3]

See also

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References

  1. van Schendel, Willem (February 2002). "Stateless in South Asia: The Making of the India-Bangladesh Enclaves" (PDF). The Journal of Asian Studies . 61 (1): 115–147. doi:10.2307/2700191. JSTOR   2700191. Similarly, landlords from the Mughal area were able to hang on to landed estates within Cooch Behar. Like most estates in Bengal, these were fragmented into many scattered plots. Such holdings detached from the parent estate were then known as chhit mohol in Bengali; this term came to mean ‘‘enclave’’ after 1947. These small territories paid taxes to one state but were surrounded by the territory of the other state. Sovereignty was expressed not so much in terms of territorial contiguity as in terms of jurisdiction and tax flows.
  2. Houtum, H. Van; Berg, Eiki (18 October 2018). Routing Borders Between Territories, Discourses and Practices (2 ed.). Routledge. p. 310. ISBN   9781351759113 . Retrieved 14 February 2019. Such holdings detached from the parent estate were then known as chhit mohol in Bengali; the term came to mean 'enclave' after 1947.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Whyte, Brendan R. (2002). Waiting for the Esquimo: An Historical and Documentary Study of the Cooch Behar Enclaves of India and Bangladesh (1 ed.). Melbourne, Australia: School of Anthropology, Geography and Environmental Studies, University of Melbourne. p. 502. ISBN   9780734022080 . Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  4. Debroy, Bibek (5 August 2011). "Strong will from PM needed to resolve India-Bangladesh issues". The Economic Times (2). Times Group. Times News Network. Retrieved 14 February 2019. Third, there is the issue of "enclaves", the nowhere people. In Bengali, these are called chitmohol, signifying a chit of paper. Origins go back to gambling between Raja of Cooch Behar and Maharaja of Rangpur. When they lost, they traded each other's possessions and created enclaves in each other's territory. This goes back to the Mughal period and continued under the British.
  5. "India and Bangladesh discuss 'pasha' enclaves: Recognition of landlocked areas won in card games to be raised during India PM's visit". Al Jazeera. 6 September 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
  6. Roy, Shubhajit (2 December 2014). "Everything you need to know: Land swap in offing with Bangladesh to end disputes". The Indian Express. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
  7. 1 2 "The Constitution (119th Amendment) Bill, 2013" PRS India. Accessed 10 May 2015.
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